Challenges of surveys in kenya  presentation by jack abebe
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Challenges of surveys in kenya presentation by jack abebe

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The presentation discusses the challenges of surveys in Kenya.

The presentation discusses the challenges of surveys in Kenya.

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  • 1. Tuesday, November 12, 2013 1
  • 2. INTRODUCTION TO SURVEYS  Definition- What is a survey  Purpose of surveys  Types of surveys  Planning surveys  Characteristics of surveys  Challenges in conducting surveys in Kenya “Research is a craft – It takes practice and more practice” Tuesday, November 12, 2013 2
  • 3.   A survey is a series of questions asked of a group of people in order to gain information Information gathered can be facts, attitudes, feelings, beliefs Tuesday, November 12, 2013 Tuesday, November 12, 2013 3 3
  • 4.  Can complete structured questions with many stakeholders within a relatively short time frame.  Can be completed by telephone, mail, fax, or inperson.  It is quantifiable and generalizable to an entire population if the population is sampled appropriately. Tuesday, November 12, 2013 4
  • 5.  Standardized, structured questionnaire minimizes interviewer bias.  Tremendous volume of information can be collected in short period of time.  Can take less time to analyse than qualitative data. Tuesday, November 12, 2013 5
  • 6. Satisfaction survey  Evaluations  Applications  Voting  Invitations  Tuesday, November 12, 2013 6
  • 7. The goal is NOT to “do a survey”  The goal is to acquire data to make proper decisions  A survey is only one channel of information in support of that decision-making process  Tuesday, November 12, 2013 7
  • 8.  The goal of any survey is to collect data which can be analyzed, and used to aid decisions Tuesday, November 12, 2013 8
  • 9.    Deciding on a research question Choosing the format of your questions Choosing the format of your interview--if you use an interview  Editing your questions  Sequencing your questions  Refining your survey instrument  Choosing a sampling strategy Tuesday, November 12, 2013 9
  • 10. Map out questions to help you gain the information needed to meet the survey objective Question Types: Open :     No pre-set selections – type in text, numbers – whatever is appropriate for the question. Open-ended questions – unstructured fill-in-the-blank types of questions. Good for gathering general information and revealing what is on the respondents’ minds Open-ended questions require a lot of time to analyze and are more readily open to misinterpretation. Closed :      Choose from pre-set selections only Multiple choice, Yes/No, True/False (etc.) Choices are structured; respondents must choose from a scale or a series of options. Good for nailing down specific, numeric options, and they’re easier to analyze They may not offer enough choices and options for people to truly express their opinions Mixed:  Combinations of closed and open (i.e. “Other – Please specify_________”) Tuesday, November 12, 2013 10
  • 11. Plan the survey  Design the survey  Test the survey/ Piloting  Deploy the survey  Reporting  Tuesday, November 12, 2013 11
  • 12. I will attend the civic education programme? Objectives: What information do you need to define? How many will attend civic education and how many of this group will eat lunch. What decisions will this information impact? How much space is needed for the participants and how many lunches are needed. Who is the audience for the survey? Every Woman Aspirant in Kisii County Who is the audience for the report? CREAW In what format is the report needed? Excel spreadsheet with names and numbers or head count How will you deliver the survey to your audience? Email Tuesday, November 12, 2013 12
  • 13.  Decisions regarding the protocol for the surveys are based on the type of information being sought, the budget available for the project, timing considerations, and the target population.  The method of administration will affect costs and response rate, and will also influence which questions may be asked and how they are asked. Tuesday, November 12, 2013 13
  • 14. Informed consent  Clear instructions  Debriefing  Confidentiality  Tuesday, November 12, 2013 14
  • 15.    Survey deployment is one of the last things done in any survey project. Surveys cannot be deployed until the survey design has been tested, databases and tables have been tested, and the data has been checked to ensure that it is being properly collected. Once surveys have been designed and rigorously tested, they will be ready for deployment. Tuesday, November 12, 2013 15
  • 16.  E-mail Invitation ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  The invitation is computer generated E-mail addresses can be imported from GroupWise or a .txt file When a user finishes the survey, this user gets flagged in the database. When necessary, e-mail a second invitation. Users who are flagged will not get a reminder. Passwords, links, and instructions can be in the e-mail E-Mail Survey ◦ The survey will be in the body of the e-mail  Print a paper copy of the survey  Handheld device, PDA face to face interviews, telephone interviews Post a link to your survey on the your county/department website.    Tuesday, November 12, 2013 16
  • 17. Do you know what your population is?  How can you get a representative sample of that population?  Will non response bias prevent you from generalizing your results to that population?  Tuesday, November 12, 2013 17
  • 18.  Export data to other software applications ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦  Access Excel PowerPoint SPSS Loading responses into a personal database ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ From e-mail From a file (TSV, Tab Separated Value) Using entry screen for interviews or paper-based results From handheld device Tuesday, November 12, 2013 18
  • 19. Frequency Analysis  Time Series Analysis  Gap Analysis  Banner Report  Frequency Mean Pair  360 Degree Report  Open Ended Analysis  Tuesday, November 12, 2013 19
  • 20. Tuesday, November 12, 2013 20
  • 21. Answers May Be Inaccurate Because:  People don’t know the causes of their own behavior  People’s memories are inaccurate  People are not good at predicting their future behavior  People are not telling you what they know because of ◦ Social desirability bias ◦ Demand characteristics ◦ Response sets Tuesday, November 12, 2013 21
  • 22. Information collected; ◦ May not have internal validity ◦ May not have construct validity because of self-report problems ◦ May not have external validity because of poor sampling or because of non response bias ◦ May not answer research question because survey questions weren’t focused on hypotheses Tuesday, November 12, 2013 22
  • 23.  Financial Constraints-surveys are usually expensive and requires heavy finances to execute.  This is due to larger coverage in terms of the populations under survey. Tuesday, November 12, 2013 23
  • 24.  Suspicion and resistance- There is usually a height of suspicion which translates into resistance and reluctance in giving information by respondents.  This can be managed by clarity of purpose. Tuesday, November 12, 2013 24
  • 25. Requires High Human Resource Input to execute  In-depth training in the system and ongoing development for all personnel may seem excessive;  A knowledgeable group of people is much more efficient to work with  Tuesday, November 12, 2013 25
  • 26. Capacity issues are often glaringly obvious  But they can also be somewhat discreet and difficult to detect.  It is much more difficult to mitigate capacity issues mid-way through a project,  especially one that is working to a tight budget, than at the beginning  Tuesday, November 12, 2013 26
  • 27. More difficult to collect a comprehensive understanding of respondents’ perspective (indepth information) compared to in-depth interviews  or focus groups.  Tuesday, November 12, 2013 27
  • 28. Survey research is the most used research method  Survey research is the most misused research method  You know how to use rather than abuse survey research  Tuesday, November 12, 2013 28
  • 29. Vollmer, WM., Osborne, ML., et.al. Recruiting hard-to-reach subjects: Is it worth the effort? Controlled Clinical Trials. 15(2):154-9 1994.  Nutbeam, D., Smith, C. et.al. Maintaining evaluation designs in long term community based health promotion programmes: Heartbeat Wales Case Study.  Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 47(2):127-33, 1993.  Tuesday, November 12, 2013 29
  • 30. Anker, M. Guidotti, R.J. et.al. Rapid evaluation methods (REM) of health services performance: Methodological observations. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 71(1):15-21, 1993.  Harlow, B.L., Crea, E.C., et.al. Telephone answering machines: The influence of leaving messages on telephone interviewing response rates. Epidemiology. 4(4):380-3 1993.  Tuesday, November 12, 2013 30
  • 31. THE END THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Questions are Welcome Tuesday, November 12, 2013 31