Title The task of international managers is more complexdue to the fact they deal with a community in a foreigncountry, which often has different attitudes and views, beliefs and religions, customs and habits, languages and accents, fashions and dresses. Discuss
INTRODUCTION Management possesses an instrumental function in determining the success of an organisation. Roles of managers are very broad. While selecting managers, companies should be very careful. Managers should possesses :- high academic profile, aptitude to monitor individuals , , ability to take strategic risks , flexible and a good savoir-faire in the field of business major leadership qualities, and refined communication skills amongst others.
BASIC TASKS OF MANAGERS Monitoring. Devise the schedules and calculate the forecasted budgets. Moralise the team. Herald any new projects. Stipulate the priority fields in the company. Hiring and firing of the company members. Guaranteeing product quality.
CONCEPT OF CULTURE IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS Culture impacts on each and every segment of the business environment and most vital when dealing with international. "Culture is a system for differentiating between in-group and out-group people." Culture refers to the set of beliefs, traditions, dressing codes, religions, language, attitudes and other factors in galore, pertaining to one specific group of people in a community or a country. Culture bears significant impacts on international business management and two prominent models have been devised administering the problem in dealing with culture and international business.
Trompenaars and Hampden Turner (1997) Universalism versus Particularism- The concept of trust should be acquired beforehand when doing a business . Communitarianism versus Individualism- improve performance while working together while individualism refers to being subjective. Neutral versus Emotional- neutral for people being less talkative and less attaching while emotional refers to attachment and affection between colleagues Specific versus Diffuse- specific such as criticize subordinates directly and openly without regarding their criticism and diffuse consisting constitute an unacceptable loss of face.
Trompenaars and Hampden Turner (1997) Achievement versus Ascription- achievement being based on ones performance while ascription refers to arbitrary placement in a particular social status Human-Time Relationship- while some can do several jobs at a go others can just do one at a go. Human-Nature Relationship- human relationship acts as being able to control environmental factors while nature relationship is where environmental factors are uncontrollable.
Hofstede model P ower-Distance- society’s level of inequality endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders, being more unequal than others. Individualism-Collectivism -ties between individual are loose, everyone is expected to look after him/herself. On the collectivist side there are group or extended families which continue protecting them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. Masculinity-Femininity- Masculinity for being very assertive and competitive while femininity for having caring values Uncertainty avoidance- having tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity where man research for the truth Long term-Short term- Long Term Orientation are thrift and perseverance; values associated with Short Term Orientation are respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting ones face.
CHALLENGES TO THE INTERNATIONAL MANAGER.“There are truths on this side of the Pyrenees that are falsehoods on the other ." Blaise Pascal…This quote succinctly suggests that the way people think and the way they behave vary significantly from one country to the other.
Attitudes and Views (Hofstede)Under the Hofstede model, uncertainty avoidance refers to the difference in attitudes of people towards risk.While the Trompenaar’s model is the concept of neutral v/s emotional- where managers should not influence local culture
BELIEFS AND RELIGIONS Sensible and sometimes untouched issue in some countries round the world- while some being atheist the importance to religion is not so profound while others religion is at the centre of all decision- making process Business and managers should ensure that the proper decision is taken regarding beliefs and religion. For E.g. selling meat in India is regarded as a real offence to religion since the Hindus worship the cows as being a form of God
Beliefs and Religion applied to Hofstede and Trompenaars From Trompenaars point of view, Human-Nature relationship is strongly correlated with religion and beliefs. Whatever happens is God’s will. In addition, the concept of Masculinity-Femininity holds true a lot due to religion for E.g in the arab states, men are given prior privileges and opportunities leaving no trace for women.
CUSTOMS AND HABITS Taking greeting of a person for example, in the Greek countries kissing n hugging people is a form of greeting while for the Arab kissing and hugging is not allowed especially for two persons of different sex and in Japan bowing from the waist down is a sign of respect to the person in Japan. The international managers should well perceived the customs and habits of local citizens where he would go and work as any failure in doing so can result in bad and disrespectful association among his subordinates
Customs and Habits applied Hofstede and Trompenaars Trompenaars’s view of the universalism v/s particuliarism is very well related to the custom and habits of a country. The manager should take necessary precautions to give time to its partners to earn respect from them. In some countries, a culture based on meritocracy is common irrespective of their age or sex. However, this custom does not hold true for all countries as years of experience is preferred and the seniors are awarded higher responsibilities and pay.
LANGUAGES AND ACCENTS Different countries have distinct languages and their way of speaking and accents vary a lot among different segments of the population. For the international manager, acquiring some good and polite language in the country he operates is very profitable in front of his workers in the organisation.
Languages and accents applied Hofstede and Trompenaars Learning all the languages in the world is really a difficult task, hence the managers could try to lean simple and polite words. In addition, gestures is also different as languages across the globe. Trompenaars (1994) model of the universal truth v/s the particular instance advocates that we cannot adopt the same rules, procedures to any other country. Instead we need to adapt to the country’s culture Trompenaars (1994) model of affective v/s neutral relationships depicts how people in different countries may get along with socialising. Some are devoted to socialise and form emotional culture while some have neutral culture. Hence companies at international level should adapt to such distinction in culture in terms of relationship
Fashions and Dresses applied to Hofstede and Trompenaars models Each country is subjective to its particular fashion and dresses, clothing is mainly demarcated between oriental and occidental dresses. One will rarely see an Indian with a pair of jeans and a backless. While in America, wearing saris is pretty unseen However due to globalisation, people dresses has evolved into a globally accepted manner, but exception still exist and lokks like will go on for some more time.
Language and accents As languages differs so does clothing. The dressing in America differs from that of the Arabic countries. E.g. low necklines, sleeveless shirts, and short skirts are definitely a bad idea for the Muslims.
CONCLUSION International Business Management comprises of a lot of increments to the work of a conventional management. The right person has to be chosen since to perform such a task is indubitably more complex. The important aspect before selecting a manager should comprise of :- Soft skills- such as the ability to work in international teams, adaptability to new situations, sensitivity to different cultures and relational skills. The manager should be self-reliant and have an open, non-judgemental personality. Development- The only way is through direct international experience either by participating in international task forces or, more importantly, by working and living abroad.
CONCLUSION Development- The only way is through direct international experience either by participating in international task forces or, more importantly, by working and living abroad.