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Research work

  1. 1. Research Work InSpecial Topics 2 (Lesson Planning) Submitted By: Alyssa Marie R. Mendoza BSED 32A1 Submitted To: Prof. Erna Doctor Special Topics 2 Professor Submitted On: February 12, 2013
  2. 2. What is a Lesson Plan dear? Is it the worksheets? Handouts? Journals? Or Portfolios? There is some confusion about what a lesson planis and is not. A worksheet is not a lesson plan. A handout is not a lesson plan.A classroom game or activity is not a lesson plan. In fact, there is no need for alesson plan to ever be seen, touched, considered or dreamed of by students,and nor does it even need to exist on paper or disk, though it usually does.A lesson plan is a teachers plan for teaching a lesson. It can exist in theteachers mind, on the back of an envelope, or on one or more beautifullyformatted sheets of A4 paper. Its purpose is to outline the "programmed" for asingle lesson. Thats why its called a lesson plan. It helps the teacher in bothplanning and executing the lesson. And it helps the students, unbeknownst tothem, by ensuring that they receive an actual lesson with a beginning, a middleand an end, that aims to help them learn some specific thing that they didntknow at the beginning of the lesson (or practice and make progress in thatspecific thing).To summarize, and in very basic terms: a lesson plan is the teachers guide forrunning a particular lesson, and it includes the goal (what the students aresupposed to learn), how the goal will be reached (the method, procedure) and away of measuring how well the goal was reached (test, worksheet, homeworketc).A lesson plan is a teachers detailed description of the course of instruction forone class. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide classinstruction. Details will vary depending on the preference of the teacher,subject being covered, and the need and/or curiosity of children. There may berequirements mandated by the school system regarding the plan.
  3. 3. Planning StageObjectives are the first step in writing a strong 8-step lesson plan.After the Objective, you will define the Anticipatory Set.In the Objectives section of your lesson plan, write precise and delineated goalsfor what you want your students to be able to accomplish after the lesson iscompleted.Be Specific. Use numbers when appropriate.To define your lessons objectives, consider the following questions: What will students accomplish during this lesson? To what specific level (i.e. 75% accuracy) will the students perform a given task in order for the lesson to be considered satisfactorily accomplished? Exactly how will the students show that they understood and learned the goals of your lesson? Will this occur through a worksheet, group work, presentation, illustration, etc?Additionally, you will want to make sure that the lessons objective fits in withyour district and/or state educational standards for your grade level.By thinking clearly and thoroughly about the goals of your lesson, you willensure that you are making the most of your teaching time.Also Known As: GoalsExamples:After reading the book "Life in the Rainforest," sharing a class discussion, anddrawing plants and animals, students will be able to place six specificcharacteristics into a Venn diagram of the similarities and differences of plantsand animals, with 100% accuracy.Your objectives should be clear to you before you design the activities for yourlesson. After all, if you dont know your objectives, how do you know what youare trying to teach? How do you know exactly what it is that you are going toassess? Knowing what your specific objectives are determines what activitiesyou plan to use in order to meet those objectives. In backward design, forinstance, you plan your assessment before you create your lesson, but
  4. 4. planning an assessment begins with identifying what specific enduring skills,understandings, and knowledge constitute your goals. Stage 1 - What are the desired results? (objectives) Stage 2 - How will you verify these results? (assessment) Stage 3 - How will you design the learning experience? (instruction)Is there a difference between goals and objectives? Well, yes and no....Goals tend to be more general than objectives. You might talk about the overallgoals of a unit or a course. But pedagogical goals describe what the studentwill be capable of doing after the lesson, not the activities that the student willperform during the lesson. Sometimes people talk about vague or highlygeneral goals; those are not the kinds of goals we are talking about here. Students will be able to use past tenses to talk about the things they used to do when they were children. Students will be able to produce basic household vocabulary to describe their own home. Students will be able to read and understand a class schedule in the Target Language. Students will be able to list the contexts in which formal and informal forms are used.Objectives tend to be more specific. Many objectives might contribute to theoverall goals of a unit. But goals and objectives often overlap in commonparlance, and the goals listed above can also be considered objectives in somecontexts. Student will be able to accurately use common irregular verbs in the past tense. Student will be able to identify a future verb form. Student will be able to describe the characteristics of 10 major impressionist painters. Student will be able to explain the role of bread in a French meal.
  5. 5. Preparation StageYour daily lesson should include an understanding of the overall and specificteaching goals, the content you are going to teach, and the capability of yourstudents. The lesson is a segment in a bigger unit of study that is tied tospecific learning objectives. The type of lesson (lecture, student activity,demonstration of skill) is determined by what needs to be taught. Thesequence of the lesson is determined by the unit and course objectives. Thefollowing steps should help you prepare and teach the lesson.1. Review course objectives and sequence of information to be taught (usetext and other materials)2. Develop the lesson from the unit which is being taught3. Select the content of the lesson4. Identify information, materials, instructional aids, or tools needed for thelesson5. Identify references which are used in creating the lesson6. Outline the lesson (students find the outline helpful and it guides theinstructor)7. Identify if there will be an in class or out of class assignment with thelesson8. Build in an evaluation the lesson9. Begin the lesson by telling the students what they will learn (it helps towrite this and a brief outline on the board or in a handout)10. Teach the lesson or direct the activity which will take place11. Use appropriate time to cover the material for the single lesson (MWF haveshorter units than TTH classes)12. Always conclude the lesson with a brief summary, or review of what hasbeen covered and remind students about any assignments or reading.