In the past, soap was made by mixing animal fats with alkaline and wood ashes
Large-scale commercial soapmaking occurred in 1791 when a French Chemist, Nicholas Leblanc patented a process for making soda ash or sodium carbonate from common salt. The process yielded large quantities of quality soda ash.
Soap can be prepared through saponification. Use a flow chart to show soap preparation process in the laboratory, starting with the raw materials. Include any relevant chemical equation.
Oils and fats are esters formed from glycerol and fatty acids.
It made up through heating oils or fats with an alkali such as sodium hydroxide, NaOH.
The oil or fat molecules are “broken up” or hydrolyzed to glyce ro l and fatty acids.
This reaction is the reverse of esterification (saponication)
The fatty acids formed then react with sodium hydroxide, NaOH to form a salt (soap)</li></ul>Saponification of oils or fats<br /><ul><li>Fats and oils are hydrolyzed (split) with a high-pressure steam to yield crude fatty acids and glycerol.
The fatty acids are then purified by distillation and neutralized with an alkali to produce soap and water (neat soap-soap in liquid form).
Use a flow chart to summarize the steps in the preparation of detergent. Include any relevant chemical equation.
A synthetic detergent, a sodium alkyl sulfate called sodium dodecylsulfate, will be prepared by reacting dodecyl alcohol (dodecanol) with sulfuric acid.</li></ul> Dodecanol Sulfuric acid Dodecylsulfate<br /><ul><li>The resulting dodecylsulfate is converted to the sodium salt by a reaction with sodium hydroxide.</li></ul>Dodecylsulfate sodium dodecylsulfate<br /><ul><li>Both soap and detergent clean so much better than water alone. Use a flow chart and colourful diagram to summarize the cleansing action of soap and detergent.
One part of the soap and detergent anion is negatively charged (polar end). - It dissolves in water. It is hydrophilic or “likes water”.
The negatively charged ‘heads’ (hydrophilic) of soap ions or detergents ions dissolves
in water</li></ul> (b)The hydrocarbon ‘tails’ (hydrophobic) of soap or detergent ions dissolves in the layer <br /> of grease<br /><ul><li>If the water is agitated slightly, the grease begins to lifted off the surface.
When the cloth is rinsed with water, the droplets will be carried away
Heating and stirring may help to loosen the dirt particles from the material being washed
Compare and contrast the effectiveness of cleansing action of soap and detergent in hard water by using mind maps or table.</li></ul>Hard water contains a great amount of calcium and magnesium ions. These ions react with the soap to form an insoluble precipitate known as soap scum. <br />Properties Soap Detergent Cleaning powerLess powerfull More powerfullEase of rinsingIt is difficult to wash away all soap on clothes. The soap that remains leave and odour and spoils the fabrics Rinse out well from clothespHSlightly alkalineCan be controlled to suit the cleaning taskMolecular structureDetermined by the fatty acids found in the oil or fat used to produce soap Can be modified to suit the cleaning task. For example, a detergent can be made specially for cleaning toilet bowlsFormation of scum Form scum with hard waterDoes not form scum with hard water<br /><ul><li>Detergent consists of various additives. What is the purpose of adding detergent additives? Construct a mind map to show the additives in detergent and their respective functions.
Addictives Example Function Biological enzymeAmylases, proteases, cellulasesTo remove protein stains such as bloodWhitening agentSodium perborateTo convert stains into colourless substancesOptical whitenerFluorescent dyesTo add brightness and whiteness to white fabricsBuilder Sodium tripolyphosphateTo enhance the cleaning efficiency of detergent by softening the waterSuspension agentcarboxymethylcelluloseTo prevent the dirt particles removed from redepositing onto cleaned fabrics.Filler Sodium sulphate, sodium silicate To add to tha bulk of the detergents and enable it to be poured easilyFoam control agentsSilicones To control foaming in detergentFragrance -To add fragrance to both detergent and fabrics