Chapter 1 & 2The Original Colonies and the Beginning of Independence
The Cause and Effects of the Columbian Exchange (1-2)Cause: Human activities affect theenvironment. The Columbian Exchange,or the movement of plants and animalsbetween Europe, Asia, and Africa (theOld World) and North and SouthAmerica (the New World) that started in1492.
Continued;Effects: The Columbian Exchangedramatically changed the way peoplelived. For example, the food cropsintroduced into Europe and Asia from theNew World, such as beans and potatoes,improved nutrition for the people livingthere and helped support largerpopulations.
Continued;European settlers in turn brought manynew breeds of animals to the Americas.The introduction of horses to the GreatPlains transformed native societies in thatarea, changing hunting methods andincreasing mobility.
Early British Colonies (1-3)John Smith a merchant, foundedJamestown with the funding of joint-stock companies. Lack of farmingand disease caused the colony to fail.Tobacco became the new crop andrequired labor. Virginia began to seean influx of indentured servants.
To work on the tobacco plantations, indenturedservants were hired.
Landowners would pay aworker’s transportation costs to the New World.
In exchange, the workerpromised to work on plantation for 7 years.
Continued;The Puritans, felt that too many Catholicrituals were present and wanted to“purify” or reform religion. Puritansestablished the Massachusetts BayColony, the first organized government inthe U.S. Under the leadership of JohnWinthrop Puritans wanted to become themodel for society to follow.
Early British ColoniesRoger Williams broke from thePuritans and established a newcolony. The colony of Providenceembraced two ideas. One, no Englishsettlers had no right to the land.Second, they felt that people couldworship how they wanted.
Continued;William Penn received a plot of landfrom the King (Charles II) as paymentfor a debt. He belonged to TheSociety of Friends, or Quakers. TheQuakers were extreme pacifist.George Oglethorpe, a philanthropistgave Georgia as a gift. Originally, itwas established for debtors.
Continued;The 16th century brought a new economicsystem called mercantilism. Accordingto the theory of mercantilism, a nationcould increase its wealth and power intwo ways: obtain as much gold and silveras possible and establishing a favorablebalance of trade in which it sold moregoods than bought.
England used the new economic system called mercantilism to get rich.
Mercantilists believed that wealth was power. =
Continued;England’s Parliament tightenedcontrol of colonial trade by passingthe Navigation Acts. All goods, hadgo through England, this was thebeginning of the dissent betweencolonist and the English.
Parliament passed the Navigation Acts toenforce the mercantile system.
Interactive Notebook• Columbian Exchange- Movement of plants and animals between New and Old World• Indentured Servants- Worked for person who paid way to New World• Mercantilism- economic system, obtain the most gold or silver also favorable trade conditions
ResponseWrite a short story (1-2 paragraph) using thesewords.1. Columbian Exchange2. Indentured Servants3. Mercantilism
QuestionExplain the causes and the effects ofthe Columbian Exchange.
The Colonies Come of Age (1-4)The South established a plantationeconomy that farmed cash crops. Theprimary labor force had been slaves, by1750 the number of slaves had been200,000 plus. They arrived as a result tothe triangular trade. In the transportroute in which slaves were brought wasknown as the middle passage.
The route African Slaves tookacross the Atlantic to the Americas was called “Middle Passage”. Passage
They were treatedcruelly, and many died during transport.
Some resistedhowever, these actions often resulted in harsher treatment & slave laws.
The slave trade was also one part of a trading network called the “Triangle Trade”.
Continued;Unlike the South the North celebratedan industrial economy. Americanswere influenced by the ideas of theEnlightenment, a philosophicalmovement that began in Europe duringthe 1700s. The Enlightenment encouragedthe use of reason for the improvement ofboth government and society.
Ship building was important and bustling port cities developed.
Continued;Colonies developed their own version ofParliament In the form of an electedcolonial legislature that shared somepowers with a colonial governorappointed by the king. The VirginiaHouse of Burgesses was one of thosecolonial legislatures that contributed tothe growth of representative governmentin the colonies.
Continued;In response religious zealotsembraced the Great Awakening.They believed that people werefurther from God and they needed torestore intensity and dedication of theearly Puritan church. Thisemphasized emotion not reason.
The Second influential movement in the Colonies was theGreat Awakening.
Continued;In 1754, the French and Indian Warerupted. Between the French andGreat Britain to see would havecontrol over North America. At 22,George Washington lead a militia toremove French from fort. He lost, butreturned later.
Continued;Britain defeated France and the warended with the signing of the Treatyof Paris 1763. In addition the NativeAmericans found that the British wereharder to trade with. This led toresentment by the Native Americans.
George WashingtonGeorge Washington (1732-1799)Washington, a Virginia plantation owner, wasan army. He served in the Virginia House ofBurgesses and the 1st and 2nd ContinentalCongresses. The Continental Congressappointed Washington as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. Washingtonled the colonies to independence when theBritish surrendered at the Battle of Yorktown.
Interactive Notebook• Triangular trade- exchange of rum, slaves, and molasses• Middle passage- travel route of slaves across Atlantic• Enlightenment- use logic not emotion for truth• George Washington- Leader of the Continental Army, 1st president
ResponseWrite a short story (1-2 paragraphs) usingthese words.1. George Washington2. Triangular trade3. Enlightenment
Colonial Resistance and Rebellion (2-1)The Sugar Act and the Stamp Actplaced heavier tax burdens on thecolonists. Individuals protested at theBoston Customs House, soldiers firedand some colonists were killed. Therebels also engaged in the Boston TeaParty.
Continued;The Intolerable Acts created moredistance between the colonists andBritain. One law shut Boston Harbor andthe other allowed for the quartering oftroops. As a result revolution was on thehorizon. The first battle of the Revolutionhad been the Battle of Lexington.
What was the first battle of the American Revolution?
Events leading up to the DeclarationImportant events leading up to thesigning of the Declaration ofIndependence included the BostonTea Party (1773), Enactment of theIntolerable Acts (1774), and theBattles of Lexington and Concord(1775).
Significance of the year 1776On June 7, 1776, The Second ContinentalCongress charged a committee to draft adocument stating our independence. Thecommittee which included ThomasJefferson who was the primary author ofthe Declaration of Independencedelivered the document. In it he asked forprotection of the “unalienable (orinalienable) rights” of humankind.
Continued;John Locke wrote about the unalienable(or inalienable) rights of life, liberty, andproperty because most nations limitedrights to the privileged few. Beforeofficial declaration, Thomas Painepublished Common Sense, aninfluential political pamphlet used toconvince many undecided colonists.
What the three unalienable or inalienable rights
Unalienable Rights Unalienable Rights Pursuit ofLife Liberty Happiness
Declaration of IndependenceThe Declaration of Independence is adocument adopted by the SecondContinental Congress on July 4, 1776. Itestablished the 13 colonies asindependent states, free from rule byGreat Britain. The committee appointedto write the Declaration of Independenceincluded Benjamin Franklin, John Adams,and Thomas Jefferson.
The Three UnalienableUnalienable (or inalienable) rights arethe natural rights of mankind. They areindependent of the government and arerights that no government can deny to itscitizens. They are derived from the natureof man and do not depend on anyconstitution for their existence.
Continued;The Declaration of Independenceguarantees three unalienable (orinalienable) rights: life [personal security]liberty, and the pursuit of happiness[private property]. The rights of life,liberty, and the pursuit of happinessacknowledge the importance of theindividual.
Continued;The Declaration of Independencefurther states that if a person’sunalienable (or inalienable) rights arenot protected by the government, thenthe people have the right to changethe government.
Continued;Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority ofthe declaration. In the Preamble, Jeffersonexplained that it was necessary to list thereasons why the colonies sought theirown government. In three sectionsJefferson outlined the reasons for theRevolutionary War.
Who was the primary author of the declaration of independence
Interactive Notebook• Intolerable Acts- Forcing colonists to trade only with Great Britain• Declaration of Independence- July 4 1776, written by Thomas Jefferson• Unalienable Rights- Life, Liberty, Pursuit of happiness• Lexington and Concord- 1st battles of revolution
ResponseWrite a short story (1-2 paragraph) usingthese words.1. Unalienable2. Declaration of Independence3. Lexington and Concord
The War for Independence (2-2)Grievance: The king made war againstcolonials. Addressed in Constitution: OnlyCongress can declare war. Grievance: Theking suspended trial by jury. Addressed inBill of Rights (6th amendment): the accusedshall enjoy the right to a speedy and publictrial, by an impartial jury of the state anddistrict wherein the crime shall have beencommitted.
Continued;Grievance: The king kept standingarmies in colonies and required thatcitizens quarter British troops in theirhomes. Addressed in Bill of Rights (3rdamendment): Forbids the quartering oftroops in private homes in peacetime.
Continued;Grievance: The king dissolvedlegislatures because they opposed hisinvasions on the rights of people.Addressed in Bill of Rights (1stamendment): Freedom of religion,speech, press, and assembly areguaranteed.
Continued;Grievance: The king refused to make surecolonial representation in Parliament wasbased on the population of each colony.Addressed in Constitution:Representatives . . . shall be apportionedamong the several states . . . according totheir respective numbers.
Continued;Colonies divided between Loyalists(opposed independence) and thePatriots (supported independence).The victory at Saratoga helped thePatriots secure France as an ally. Thedeadly winter at Valley Forge provedthat the army was still having hardtimes.
This Battle secured France as an American Ally during the war
Continued;Life during the American Revolution hadbeen plagued with inflation. Congressprinted more money which dropped thevalue. In addition wives had to step up athome. Winning the war came with thehelp of talented European military leaderssuch as the Marquis de Lafayette.
Continued;Charles Cornwallis captured CharlesTown, South Carolina and then left forNew York. At Yorktown Cornwallissurrendered and the Treaty of Paris, 1783confirmed U.S. independence. The warstimulated a rise of egalitarianism, thebelief that everybody is equal.
Interactive Notebook• Loyalists- opposed independence• Yorktown- town where Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington• Patriots- supported independence• Grievance- complaint about something
ResponseWrite a short story (1-2 paragraph) usingthese words.1. Grievance2. Patriots3. Yorktown
The Confederation and the Constitution (2-3) After the Revolution many people favored Republicanism is a philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. Republicanism says that the only legitimate government is one based on the consent of the governed and is a principle found in the U.S. Constitution.
Continued;As a result The Second ContinentalCongress set up the Articles ofConfederation. Taking effect in 1781the Articles gave the federal governmentsome power, such as making war, treaties,and the coinage of money, but it provedto be weak.
Federalism & Separation of PowersOne power, Federalism is the distributionof power between a federal governmentand the states within a union. The U.S.Constitution establishes that distributionof power. Separating the powers ofgovernment between the executive,legislative, and judicial branches.
Question• This process allows for power to be shared by the states and the federal government
Limited GovernmentIn a limited government everyone,including all authority figures, must obeythe laws. The U.S. Constitution definesthe limits of those in power so theycannot take advantage of their elected orappointed positions. In an unlimitedgovernment, control is placed solely withthe ruler.
Checks and BalancesThe U.S. Constitution authorizes each branchof government to share its powers with theother branches and thereby check theiractivities and power. The President can vetolegislation passed by Congress, but Congresscan override the veto. The Senate confirmsmajor appointments made by the President,and the courts may declare acts passed byCongress as unconstitutional.
Question• This allows each branch of government to share its powers with the others, equally.
Continued;People were divided over issues of theextent of power of the Constitution.Those favoring the new form ofgovernment, which divided powerbetween a strong central government andthe states, were called Federalists. Thoseseeking greater power for states werecalled Anti-Federalists.
Question• Name the individuals who supported the Constitution and those who did not.
ANS—Federalists and Anti- Federalist• Thomas Jefferson Alexander Hamilton Anti-Federalist Federalist
Federalist PapersAfter the delegates to the PhiladelphiaConvention finished writing the U.S.Constitution, each state elected delegatesto a ratification convention. Ratificationwas required by nine of the 13 states inorder for the constitution to take effect.
Continued;In an effort to sway opinion and getthe Constitution approved, threeleading Federalists wrote a series of85 essays which explained the newgovernment and the division ofpower.
Continued;Published as The Federalist, the serieswas written by James Madison,Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. Forinstance, The Federalist, No. 10 (1787)defines the republican form ofgovernment which Federalists envisionedand the process of electing representativesto Congress.
Bill of RightsMany opposed the Constitution in 1787because they believed it did not offeradequate protection of individual rights.The Bill of Rights, ratified in 1791, werecreated to correct this. The Bill of Rightsare the first ten amendments of the U.S.Constitution. The primary purpose of thefirst 10 amendments to the U.S.Constitution is to protect individualfreedoms and rights.
Question• This document was ratified in 1787.
The Constitution a Living DocumentThe U.S. Constitution is considered anevolving document because it has roots inearlier political documents (Magna Carta,English Bill of Rights, Declaration ofIndependence) and contains processesthat allow for change (the amendmentprocess).
Interactive Notebook• Ratification- official approval of law by states• Federalism- distribution of power between federal government and states• Bill of Rights- 1st ten amendments to Constitution• Constitution- The law of the land• Checks and Balances- authorizes each branch of government to share its powers
ResponseWrite a short story (1-2 paragraph) usingthese words. 1. Bill of Rights 2. Constitution 3. Ratification 4. Checks and Balances
Launching the New Nation (2-4)In 1215 the Magna Carta required theking to govern by an established rule oflaw. In the same tradition, the president ofthe United States is limited by thesupreme law of the land, known as theU.S. Constitution. The powers of thelegislative and judicial branches ofgovernment are limited by the samedocument.
Question• This document was ratified in 1787, dictates the governmental powers, and is the law of the land.
Articles of the ConstitutionArticle 1 (Legislative Branch): Theconvention agreed that Congress, whichmade laws, and would consist of an equalnumber of senators from each state and avariable number of representatives fromeach state based on population. Theelastic clause is here (laws necessary andproper).
Continued;Article 2 (Executive Branch): Article IIof the Constitution states “The executivepower shall be vested in a president ofthe United States of America.” ThePresident would lead the executivebranch, which carried out the laws andensured their just application.
Continued;Article 3 (Judicial Branch): Article III ofthe Constitution states “The judicialpower of the United States shall be vestedin one supreme court.” The judicialbranch, consisting of all courts of theUnited States including the highest court,the Supreme Court, would interpret andapply the laws, ensuring that they are just.
Question• This article establishes the legislative branch.
Reasons for ArticlesThis new form of government distributedthe power between a central governmentand the states. The system was calledfederalism. Popular sovereignty is theconcept that political power rests withthe people who can create, alter, andabolish government.
Continued;Each of the colonists’ grievances arelisted at the end of the Declaration ofIndependence. The U.S. Constitution andBill of Rights addresses each of thosegrievances to ensure a citizens rights willbe protected in the future.
Continued;The Judiciary Act of 1789 provided for asupreme court, federal court and districtcourts. In addition the first political partiesformed. The two party system consisted of theFederalists and the Democratic-Republican.The Alien and Sedition acts lashed out at theDemocratic-Republican party. It increasedimmigration requirements and hindered freepress/speech.
Question• These laws suspended free speech and press
Continued;The structure of the U.S. Constitutionallows for adaptation based on changingpublic opinion and the need to protectindividual rights. For instance, debatesover the institution of slavery raisedconcerns about property and propertyprotection afforded by the U.S.Constitution.
Dred Scott CaseIn the decision Dred Scott v. Sandford, theSupreme Court ruled that slaves wereproperty and that the Missouri Compromise,which prohibited slavery in certain parts of theUnited States, was unconstitutional in that itdeprived people of property, their slaves. Aspublic opinion changed, voters amended theConstitution to free slaves, to protect theirrights, and to extend their right to vote.
Question• What court case declared that slaves were property, not people?
Amendments• Amendment 1. Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and the right to petition the government• Amendment 2. The right to bear arms• Amendment 3. The guarantee that civilians will not be forced to house soldiers• Amendment 4. Protection against unreasonable searches by law-enforcement officers
Continued;• Amendment 5. The right of a person under arrest to know why he or she has been arrested and to refuse to testify against himself or herself in a court of law – due process of law• Amendment 6. The right to a speedy trial by a jury of one’s peers in criminal cases – right to a public trial• Amendment 7. The right to a trial by jury in civil cases involving substantial amounts of money
Continued;• Amendment 8. Protection against excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment• Amendment 9. The guarantee that rights not specifically listed in the Constitution are not automatically denied to the people• Amendment 10. The guarantee that the people and the states are to keep powers not specifically granted to the federal government
Interactive Notebook• Articles of Constitution- Articles 1-3 establish and define the powers of government• Popular sovereignty- power is with the people• Dred Scott Case- Confirmed slaves as property with Missouri Compromise• Separation of Powers- branches of government share authority
ResponseWrite a short story (1-2 paragraph) usingthese words. 1. Articles of Constitution 2. Popular sovereignty 3. Separation of Powers