Unit 1 Individual Project Introducing Learning TheoriesEDU622 – Applying Learning Theoriesby Lorothy Wilson AIU OnlineMarch 27, 2011
INTRODUCTION Learning is a method that gathers emotive, perception, and conditional components in order to obtain, improve, and transpose an individual’s abilities, judgments, principles, and viewpoints.
There are three learning theories that will be discussed to includeBehavioral Learning TheoryCognitive Learning TheoryConstructivist Learning Theory
Behavioral Learning Theory Behavioral theory examines behaviors that are observable and measurable. A main premise is nearly all human behavior is well informed via continuous techniques when the attention of study is responding to stimuli (Cherrington, 2000). Based on prior learning experiences, reinforcement of stimuli and responses will lead to continual habits which are foreseen.
B. F. Skinner a behaviorist was the lead developer of the behaviorism theory. Radical behaviorism is a theory of operant conditioning which happens when associated learning response to stimulus that is reinforced (Behaviorism, B.F. Skinner, n.d.). Skinner depicted the operant conditions as the results of a specific behavior on the expected contingency of the behavior. The concepts of behavior management that strengthen and weaken operant behavior are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment reinforcement, and extinction reinforcement. Skinner performed an analysis (positive reinforcement) where he prepared rodents and birds to acquire rewards for food. In the analysis the subject pressed a lever to create responses (e.g. movement, being calm, washing). The analysis was paired with unconditioned stimulus (e.g. reward for food). Frequently a discriminative stimulus is presented when the operant response is true (Behaviorism, B.F. Skinner, n.d.). In Skinner’s analysis the negative reinforcement is a specific behavior that is strengthen by the reaction of ending or preventing the negative condition. An example is when he place the rodents in a restrain area they received an electrical shock to their feet. The electrical shock was considered a negative condition for the rodents. When the rodents press the lever the electrical shock would cease.
The key assumptions for behavior theory Learning procedures could be examined when the primary focused is studied on stimulus and responses.Learning will involve behavior changesLearning is conclusion of environmental results.
There are three fundamentals of teaching unskilled and complicated behavior to include shaping, chaining and fading. Shaping applies to the support of sequential estimations to a desired behavior. The procedures will require the learner to aim for the desired behavior. Chaining confirms complicated behaviors composed of distinct, ordinary behaviors that the learner has knowledge of. Fading are behavior that are obtained and presented on the account of reinforcement; non reinforcement behavior will not exist. The conception of fading can be referred as fading out discriminative stimuli applied to initiate the desirable behavior (Driscoll, 2005).
Behavioral elements are used to manage learning and behaviors inside an instructional environment to include traditional classroom, self pace instruction, and training on the job. In a classroom the teacher might exercise modified changes to concerned behaviors of one or more students. Self pace is when a student works at his or her own pace to complete assignments. On the job training is when a student takes instructor led or web based courses. Both punishment and extinction reinforcements are weaken behavior (Driscoll, 2005, p.45). Punishment reinforcement is the demonstration of an unemotional event beginning with responses that will reduce the amount of the response. Even though punishment reinforcement results can be brief or forgotten and the behavior can be stopped. Extinction reinforcement happens when prior contingencies are removed which reduces the repeated responses. When extinction reinforcement is demonstrated the unaccepted behavior is weakened.
In the behavioral learning theory an instructor is able to recognize the learning objectives. The instructor will determine the possibilities of reinforcements, provide implementation a course of action for behavioral changes, and discuss the learner’s viewpoint.
Cognitive Learning Theory Cognitive theory deals with internal methods concerning the mind and to what degree can these methods be used to support training effectively. Behavior learning functions are broken into smaller stages or portions that are used to mold the individual’s behavior. In cognitive theory an analysis is done on each task and at this point it is broken into stages. These stages of data are used to enhance learning in curriculum instructional design (Online Learning theories, n.d.). The data is coordinated and facilitated to the learners in a simplified or perplexed manner dependent on the learner’s previous knowledge.
Cognitive Theorists Jean Piaget examined the development of children development, by observing, taking, and listening to them while they completing exercises he established for them. He viewed how the minds of children cultivated and performed. His observed how they grew and matured. He saw the development stages as the children transition in ranges of age (Piaget’s Development Theory, n.d.). There are two parallel procedures of adaptation defined by Piaget to include assimilation and accommodation. Jerome Bruner and Lev S. Vygtosky views on cognitive development were somewhat different that Jean Piaget. Bruner’s views of cognitive development are thinking, the mind being intelligent and well developed which generate experience (Driscoll, 2005, p. 230)). Bruner work displayed the representational system to include a) enactive representation – presenting an individual’s knowledge by means of motor reactions, b) iconic representation – utilizing pictures to representing knowledge, and c) symbolic representation – utilizing types of systems to include communication, music memos, and math memos to represent knowledge. Lev S. Vygtosky criticized Piaget and Bruner views, he felt that child development is complicated and the characteristics cannot be described by the stages. Vygtosky believed that the development process should work in three methods such as presenting barriers that would disorganize problem solving, supplying extrinsic support to problem solving that could be utilized in many methods, individual will be asked solved issues that surpasses their knowledge and abilities (Driscoll, 2005, p. 248)
The basic assumptions of cognitive theory 1) learning will happen when associated via contiguity and duplication and recognizes the significance of reinforcement, 2) an individual obtains and reorganize data within cognitive forms that are understood, 3) learning will involve reorganizing the cognitive forms which learner will process and store data, 4) learners are involved in the learning stages, 5) knowledge is restructured, 6) learning will involve the development of mental affiliation that will reflect the behavior change, and 7) learning relate new data to prior learning data (Introduction to Learning Theories, n.d.).
Cognitive Process Cognitive theorists feel that education should be interested with the unobservable. Cognitive process will encourage learners to organize and control what they learned. New data is obtained when individuals will associate things they have previously learned.
An Instructor must generate the correct requirements for learning to include asking question, giving feedback, supply adequate materials, and the proper environment so the learner could arrange and build knowledge of their own. The learner will be involved in the exploration and resolving concerns. Also, by doing this the learner will be more engaged, able to absorb and apply the information.
Constructivist Learning Theory Constructivist theory is a reflection of the learner’s experiences and creates an awareness of the world they reside in (An Overview of Learning Theories and Principles, n.d.). These learners will establish their own regulations and mental images which they will use to understand their experiences. Learning is a method of adapting the mental images to support new experiences. Constructivist theory is a knowledge and learning procedure that will happen daily in a classroom.
Ernst von Glasersfeld views involves principles of constructivism to include 1) perception of knowledge is established by the learners and not the environment, and 2) the learner experience is the modification of knowing the adaptation process. These principles warrant a tremendous amount of thinking and learners have difficulties thinking outside of the box (Jaworski, n.d.).
The learning conditions recommended to connect constructivist theories are 1) impact knowledge in a sensible and proper environment, 2) learners should dominate their learning, 3) develop personal interest of the construction method, 4) support different views and the usage of different methods of representation, and 5) Support sociable transaction acting as an important element of learning (A Constructivist Approach, n.d.). The learning outcomes for constructivist learning theory are “reasoning, critical thinking, understanding and use of knowledge, self – regulation, mindful reflection” (Driscoll, 2005, p. 409).
The basic assumptions of constructivist learning theory 1) knowledge is created by the learner’s while understanding their experience, 2) learner’s will examine, plan, and intricate their mental form, 3) learner’s will transferred their knowledge, and 4) test knowledge against others (Driscoll, 2005, p. 387-388).
The instructor must supply intricate and practical learning conditions that will challenge the learner to recognize and resolve issues. Also, the instruction should encourage the learner’s accomplishments and applaud them to emulate the processes.
ConclusionIn conclusion learning theories will enable instructional designers to properly coordinate strategies to development the learner’s ability to organize and obtain knowledge. The learner will utilize their skills and apply their knowledge.
ReferencesAn Overview of Learning Theories and Principles. (n.d.). Retrieved March 22, 2011, from https://mycampus.aiu-online.com/Library/CourseGuides/5/Tutorials/edulabdocs/learningtheories.pdfCherrington, R. (2000). Behaviourism. In , Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching & Learning (pp. 74-76). Taylor & Francis Ltd / Books. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (Third ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Allyn and Bacon.Jaworski, B. (n.d.). Constructivism and Teaching - The socio-cultural context. MathMedia -- educational media consultancy -- main page. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from http://www.grout.demon.co.uk/Barbara/chreods.htm#bk3
References Cont’Learning and Teaching Languages Online: A Constructivist Approach. (n.d.). Ingilish.com - ELT, ESL and EFL Website. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from http://www.ingilish.com/online-learning-constructivism.htmOnline Learning theories | Cognitivism | Constructivism | Behaviorism. (n.d.). About e-Learning | Online Degrees | Online Colleges | Online Distance Education. Retrieved March 22, 2011, from http://www.about-elearning.com/learning-theories.htmlPiaget's developmental theory. (n.d.). Learning and Teaching Home. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htmPresentation: Introduction to Learning Theories. (n.d.). Unit 1 Multimedia Course Material. Retrieved March 22, 2011, from https://mycampus.aiu-online.com/Classroom/Pages/multimediacoursetext.aspx?classid=334974&tid=195&uid=190575&HeaderText=Course Materials: EDU622-1101B-02 : Applying Learning Theories
Example ppt lorothy wilson edu622_unit_1_ip_applying_learning_theories
INTRODUCTIONLearning is a method that gathersemotive, perception, and conditionalcomponents in order to obtain,improve, and transpose an individual’sabilities, judgments, principles, andviewpoints.
Behavioral Learning Theory Cognitive Learning TheoryConstructivist Learning Theory
Behavioral Learning TheoryBehavioral theory examines behaviors that areobservable and measurable.A main premise is nearly all human behavior is wellinformed via continuous techniques when theattention of study is responding to stimuli(Cherrington, 2000).
Assumptions of Behavior TheoryLearning procedures could be examined when theprimary focused is studied on stimulus andresponses.Learning will involve behavior changesLearning is conclusion of environmental results.
Conclusion In conclusion learning theories will enableinstructional designers to properly coordinatestrategies to development the learner’s ability toorganize and obtain knowledge. The learner will utilize their skills and apply theirknowledge.
An Overview of Learning Theories and Principles. (n.d.). Retrieved March22, 2011, from https://mycampus.aiu-online.com/Library/CourseGuides/5/Tutorials/edulabdocs/learningtheories.pdfCherrington, R. (2000). Behaviourism. In , Routledge Encyclopedia ofLanguage Teaching & Learning (pp. 74-76). Taylor & Francis Ltd / Books.Retrieved from EBSCOhost.Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (Third ed.).Boston, MA: Pearson Allyn and Bacon.Jaworski, B. (n.d.). Constructivism and Teaching - The socio-culturalcontext. MathMedia -- educational media consultancy -- main page. RetrievedMarch 24, 2011, fromhttp://www.grout.demon.co.uk/Barbara/chreods.htm#bk3
References Learning and Teaching Languages Online: A Constructivist Approach.(n.d.). Ingilish.com - ELT, ESL and EFL Website. Retrieved March 24,2011, from http://www.ingilish.com/online-learning-constructivism.htm Online Learning theories | Cognitivism | Constructivism | Behaviorism.(n.d.). About e-Learning | Online Degrees | Online Colleges | OnlineDistance Education. Retrieved March 22, 2011, fromhttp://www.about-elearning.com/learning-theories.html Piagets developmental theory. (n.d.). Learning and Teaching Home.Retrieved March 24, 2011, fromhttp://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm Presentation: Introduction to Learning Theories. (n.d.). Unit 1Multimedia Course Material. Retrieved March 22, 2011, fromhttps://mycampus.aiu-online.com/Classroom/Pages/multimediacoursetext.aspx?classid=334974&tid=195&uid=190575&HeaderText=Course Materials: EDU622-1101B-02 : Applying Learning Theories