Nation of America (Mexico)


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Nation of America (Mexico)

  1. 1. Nation of America <br />[A Country Report]:<br />Mexico<br />By- Angie Martinez<br />
  2. 2. Geography <br /><ul><li>Mexico is located in the southern portion of North America.
  3. 3. Most of Mexico is on North American Plate.
  4. 4. Small parts of Baja California Peninsula is on the Pacific
  5. 5. Mexico is considered part of North America, along with Canada and the United States
  6. 6. Mexico ranks world's 14th largest country by total area, and also includes about 6,000 km2  of islands in the Pacific Ocean </li></li></ul><li>Geography<br /><ul><li>Río Bravo del Norte (aka the Rio Grande in the US) defines the border from Ciudad Juarez east to the Gulf of Mexico.
  7. 7. On its south, Mexico shares border with Guatemala and border with Belize.
  8. 8. Mexico is crossed from north to south by two mountain 1. Sierra Madre Oriental 2.Sierra Madre Occidental
  9. 9. East to west, the country is crossed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt also known as Sierra Nevada. A fourth mountain range, the Sierra Madre del Sur, runs from Michoacán to Oaxaca
  10. 10. Central and northern territories are located at high altitudes, and the highest elevations are found at the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: Pico de Orizaba, Popocatépetl, Iztaccíhuatl, and the Nevado de Toluca </li></ul>Iztaccíhuatl<br />Pico de Orizaba, the highest point in Mexico<br />Popocatépetl<br />Nevado de Toluca<br />
  11. 11. Geography<br /><ul><li>Mexico is divided north experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months. South fairly constant year round because of its elevation.
  12. 12. Mexico has one of the world's most diverse weather systems.
  13. 13. Both Mexican coasts are also vulnerable to serious hurricanes during the summer and fall.
  14. 14. Many large cities in Mexico are located in the Valley of Mexico with altitudes generally above 6,562 ft year-round temperature averages 60.8 to 64.4 °F and cool nighttime temperatures throughout the year
  15. 15. particularly the north, has a dry climate with sporadic rainfall while parts of the tropical lowlands in the south average more than 78.7 in of annual precipitation</li></li></ul><li>People<br /><ul><li>A recent survey showed that the population is 112,336,538
  16. 16. Mexico is the most populated Spanish speaking country in the world
  17. 17. Mexico had a ethnicity is composed of various indigenous peoples and European immigrants
  18. 18. Mexican national identity is made of European culture with Indigenous cultures known as mestizaje
  19. 19. “The term mestizo often used in literature about Mexican social identities carries a variety of meanings containing both socio-cultural, economic, racial and biological components and for this reason it has been deemed to imprecise to be used for ethnic classification, for which reason it has been abandoned in Mexican censuses” (Wikipedia)</li></li></ul><li>People<br /><ul><li>Mexico is the largest source of immigration to the US
  20. 20. 9% of the population born in Mexico is now living in the US
  21. 21. 28.3 million Americans listed their ancestry as Mexican
  22. 22. Mexico is the home of a largest number of U.S. citizens. Argentines being the second largest foreign community
  23. 23. Mexico was also entry point for Cubans in 2008 to come into the US as well as migration from Ecuador, China, South Africa, and Pakistan
  24. 24. People can also be classified as indigenous if they speak one of Mexico's 62 indigenous languages or if they have an indigenous cultural background
  25. 25. Survey proved that 9.8% of the Mexican population claim to be indigenous </li></li></ul><li>History <br />Ancient Culture-<br /><ul><li>Dated as early as 21,ooo BCE
  26. 26. Ancient indigenous people developed corn as an agriculture revolution which lead to pre- Columbian Mesoamerican civilization like: the Olmec, Izapa,Teotihuacan, Maya, Zapotec,</li></ul>Mixtec, Huastec, Purepecha, Totonac, Toltec and Aztec<br /><ul><li>This civilizations created inventions and advances such as architecture (pyramid-temples), mathematics, astronomy, medicine and theology
  27. 27. The Aztecs are known to practice human sacrifices
  28. 28. Teotihuacan was known to build the largest pyramid structures </li></ul>New Spain-<br /><ul><li>16th century, Hernán Cortés in charge, the Aztec were invaded and conquered by the Spaniards
  29. 29. Smallpox was introduced by Spanish conquerors, killing millions of Aztecs including the emperor. Cortez then became the head of Aztec empire
  30. 30. It became part of the Spanish Empire under the name of New Spain
  31. 31. Mexico City was rebuilt during the colonial period </li></li></ul><li>History <br />2.<br />1.<br />Independence-<br /><ul><li>September 16, 1810, independence from Spain was declared by priest 1. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
  32. 32. The first insurgent group was formed by Hidalgo, the Spanish viceregal army 2. captain Ignacio Allende, the militia captain 3. Juan Aldama and "La Corregidora" 4. Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez
  33. 33. Hidalgo was captured and executed by firing squad in Chihuahua(July 31, 1811).
  34. 34. 5. Priest José MaríaMorelostook over
  35. 35. November 6, 1813the "Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America“ is signed
  36. 36. Morelos was captured and executed on December 22, 1815.
  37. 37. 1821 representatives of the Spanish Crown and Iturbide signed the "Treaty of Córdoba" and the "Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire", which recognized the independence of Mexico under the terms of the "Plan of Iguala".</li></ul>3.<br />4.<br />5.<br />
  38. 38. History <br />1.<br /><ul><li>1. Agustin de Iturbide was First Mexican Empire
  39. 39. 2. Guadalupe Victoria became the first president
  40. 40. First 10 yrs was marked by economic instability which lead to Pastry War in 1836 and constant disagreements
  41. 41. 3. General Antonio López de Santa Anna, dictator, approved the Siete Leyes (listed the form of govt.) in 1836,
  42. 42. 1824 Constitution suspension , civil war broke out and three new governments declared independence: the Republic of Texas, the Republic of the Rio Grande and the Republic of Yucatán.
  43. 43. Texas achieved independence but was the US land
  44. 44. Mexican–American War, 1846 and lasted two years; the War was settled via the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, which forced Mexico to give up over half of its land to the U.S (Alta California, New Mexico, parts of Texas)</li></ul>2.<br />3.<br />
  45. 45. History <br />1.<br /><ul><li>La Reforma, a new Constitution was drafted in 1857  were federalism was established and several freedoms were given.
  46. 46. Conservators refused to accept so the War of Reform began in 1858, both groups had their own governments
  47. 47. War ended in 1861 with victory by the Liberals, led by Amerindian President 1.Benito Juárez
  48. 48. 1860 Second Mexican Empire under the rule of 2. Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria. With help of Roman Catholic clergy the conservators, joined the liberals.
  49. 49. Maximilian was executed on June 19, 1867.
  50. 50. 3. PorfirioDíaz, a republican general ruled Mexico from 1876–1880 and 1884–1911, characterized by bettering the economic inequality and political repression, investments in arts and sciences</li></ul>3.<br />2.<br />