Small parts of Baja California Peninsula is on the Pacific
Mexico is considered part of North America, along with Canada and the United States
Mexico ranks world's 14th largest country by total area, and also includes about 6,000 km2 of islands in the Pacific Ocean </li></li></ul><li>Geography<br /><ul><li>Río Bravo del Norte (aka the Rio Grande in the US) defines the border from Ciudad Juarez east to the Gulf of Mexico.
On its south, Mexico shares border with Guatemala and border with Belize.
Mexico is crossed from north to south by two mountain 1. Sierra Madre Oriental 2.Sierra Madre Occidental
East to west, the country is crossed by the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt also known as Sierra Nevada. A fourth mountain range, the Sierra Madre del Sur, runs from Michoacán to Oaxaca
Central and northern territories are located at high altitudes, and the highest elevations are found at the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt: Pico de Orizaba, Popocatépetl, Iztaccíhuatl, and the Nevado de Toluca </li></ul>Iztaccíhuatl<br />Pico de Orizaba, the highest point in Mexico<br />Popocatépetl<br />Nevado de Toluca<br />
Geography<br /><ul><li>Mexico is divided north experiences cooler temperatures during the winter months. South fairly constant year round because of its elevation.
Mexico has one of the world's most diverse weather systems.
Both Mexican coasts are also vulnerable to serious hurricanes during the summer and fall.
Many large cities in Mexico are located in the Valley of Mexico with altitudes generally above 6,562 ft year-round temperature averages 60.8 to 64.4 °F and cool nighttime temperatures throughout the year
particularly the north, has a dry climate with sporadic rainfall while parts of the tropical lowlands in the south average more than 78.7 in of annual precipitation</li></li></ul><li>People<br /><ul><li>A recent survey showed that the population is 112,336,538
Mexico is the most populated Spanish speaking country in the world
Mexico had a ethnicity is composed of various indigenous peoples and European immigrants
Mexican national identity is made of European culture with Indigenous cultures known as mestizaje
“The term mestizo often used in literature about Mexican social identities carries a variety of meanings containing both socio-cultural, economic, racial and biological components and for this reason it has been deemed to imprecise to be used for ethnic classification, for which reason it has been abandoned in Mexican censuses” (Wikipedia)</li></li></ul><li>People<br /><ul><li>Mexico is the largest source of immigration to the US
9% of the population born in Mexico is now living in the US
28.3 million Americans listed their ancestry as Mexican
Mexico is the home of a largest number of U.S. citizens. Argentines being the second largest foreign community
Mexico was also entry point for Cubans in 2008 to come into the US as well as migration from Ecuador, China, South Africa, and Pakistan
People can also be classified as indigenous if they speak one of Mexico's 62 indigenous languages or if they have an indigenous cultural background
Survey proved that 9.8% of the Mexican population claim to be indigenous </li></li></ul><li>History <br />Ancient Culture-<br /><ul><li>Dated as early as 21,ooo BCE
Ancient indigenous people developed corn as an agriculture revolution which lead to pre- Columbian Mesoamerican civilization like: the Olmec, Izapa,Teotihuacan, Maya, Zapotec,</li></ul>Mixtec, Huastec, Purepecha, Totonac, Toltec and Aztec<br /><ul><li>This civilizations created inventions and advances such as architecture (pyramid-temples), mathematics, astronomy, medicine and theology
The Aztecs are known to practice human sacrifices
Teotihuacan was known to build the largest pyramid structures </li></ul>New Spain-<br /><ul><li>16th century, Hernán Cortés in charge, the Aztec were invaded and conquered by the Spaniards
Smallpox was introduced by Spanish conquerors, killing millions of Aztecs including the emperor. Cortez then became the head of Aztec empire
It became part of the Spanish Empire under the name of New Spain
Mexico City was rebuilt during the colonial period </li></li></ul><li>History <br />2.<br />1.<br />Independence-<br /><ul><li>September 16, 1810, independence from Spain was declared by priest 1. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
The first insurgent group was formed by Hidalgo, the Spanish viceregal army 2. captain Ignacio Allende, the militia captain 3. Juan Aldama and "La Corregidora" 4. Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez
Hidalgo was captured and executed by firing squad in Chihuahua(July 31, 1811).
November 6, 1813the "Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America“ is signed
Morelos was captured and executed on December 22, 1815.
1821 representatives of the Spanish Crown and Iturbide signed the "Treaty of Córdoba" and the "Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire", which recognized the independence of Mexico under the terms of the "Plan of Iguala".</li></ul>3.<br />4.<br />5.<br />
History <br />1.<br /><ul><li>1. Agustin de Iturbide was First Mexican Empire
2. Guadalupe Victoria became the first president
First 10 yrs was marked by economic instability which lead to Pastry War in 1836 and constant disagreements
3. General Antonio López de Santa Anna, dictator, approved the Siete Leyes (listed the form of govt.) in 1836,
1824 Constitution suspension , civil war broke out and three new governments declared independence: the Republic of Texas, the Republic of the Rio Grande and the Republic of Yucatán.
Texas achieved independence but was the US land
Mexican–American War, 1846 and lasted two years; the War was settled via the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, which forced Mexico to give up over half of its land to the U.S (Alta California, New Mexico, parts of Texas)</li></ul>2.<br />3.<br />
History <br />1.<br /><ul><li>La Reforma, a new Constitution was drafted in 1857 were federalism was established and several freedoms were given.
Conservators refused to accept so the War of Reform began in 1858, both groups had their own governments
War ended in 1861 with victory by the Liberals, led by Amerindian President 1.Benito Juárez
1860 Second Mexican Empire under the rule of 2. Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria. With help of Roman Catholic clergy the conservators, joined the liberals.
3. PorfirioDíaz, a republican general ruled Mexico from 1876–1880 and 1884–1911, characterized by bettering the economic inequality and political repression, investments in arts and sciences</li></ul>3.<br />2.<br />