• Robinson (1949)
- a context of social work which a person is
equip with the SKILL and
KNOWLEDGE in training the less equip.
• Kadushin (1976)
- two set task EXPRESSIVE and
SUPPORTIVE leadership fuction
• Shulman (1993)
- context of a POSITIVE
RELATIONSHIP between worker and
• Kasier (1992)
- PHENOMENON of ISOMORPHISM.
Models of Supervison
• Dynamic Model
- it is a system of conceptualization in which the worker is
constantly interacting in his aligned work.
• Supervisor-Supervisee Relationship
- [ Munson (1981) ] the structural models did not produce
significantly different outcomes regarding interaction and
satisfaction, but AUTHORITY models did. The
competence of a MODEL IS MOST PRODUCTIVE IN
1. STURCTURE 2. AUTHORITY
Educational Function of
• According to KADUSHIN
Types of Educational Supervision
• Primary & Secondary
– A principal and assistant principals supervise elementary, middle and
high schools. Some larger high schools have directors for each
department or extra-curricular division.
• School Districts
– Public school systems vary in size and typically comprise several facilities
for students in kindergarten through 12th grade. A
superintendent provides leadership to the district, with
input from an elected school board.
– Higher education institutions include community colleges, and public
and private universities offering undergraduate, graduate and doctoral
degrees. These institutions operate within a hierarchical leadership
framework from the department level, to the university-wide
administrative level and—in a public or state university system—up to the
– A department chair or program director supervises and
leads academic and administrative departments at
colleges and universities.
• Campus Administration
– Associate deans, deans, vice presidents or vice
chancellors, associate provosts, the provost and the
chancellor or president provide senior-level supervision
and leadership of a college or university campus.
• University Systems
– Presidents helm large public and state university
systems, providing supervision and leadership to the
entire system of campuses. Chancellors of each campus
typically report directly to the system president.
Problems Encountered in
• Conflict between Staff and
• Mediating Role (3rd force)
Duties and Responsibilities
• Evaluate on an ongoing basis, the Special Ed.
Curriculum, procedures, and individual students
needs and achievements.
• Supervise and coordinate special education
• Responsible for compiling and maintaining all
reports, records, etc. legally required and useful.
• Interpret the objectives and programs of the Spec.
Ed. services to the board of staff and the public.
• Arrange Special Ed. Transportation.
• Implement procedures for purchasing special
education equipment and supplies.
• Supervise preparation of attendance reports
and similar data necessary for reimbursement
of funds, collecting of tuition for out-of-district
students, and similar fiscal matters.
• Maintain and control the various local funds
generated by student activity.
• Keep informed of all legal requirements
governing Special Education.
• Attend special events held to
recognize student achievements,
and school sponsored activities.
• Schedule staff assignments.
• Establish and maintain standards
of students conduct and enforces
discipline as necessary.
• It is apparent that supervision and consultation in the social
work profession have a number of core dynamics and
processes that have persisted over the years. At the same time,
both supervision and consultation are adapting to meet the
new challenges facing helping professionals as client problems
become more complex and organizational and social issues
become more oppressive. One rarely hears a call these days
for the abandonment of supervision as a process that
diminishes the professional nature of practitioners. Rather, the
opposite seems to be true. There is an increasing recognition
of the crucial importance of providing support and
accountability through the supervision process.