Chapter 4 notes new slideshow


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Chapter 4 notes new slideshow

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Notes<br />Cells and Their Environment<br />
  2. 2. Molecules need to move across membranes in cells…<br />IN<br />food<br />carbohydrates<br />sugars, proteins<br />amino acids<br />lipids<br />salts, O2, H2O<br />OUT<br />waste<br />ammonia<br />salts<br />CO2<br />H2O <br />products<br />How does that happen?<br />Image modiified from:<br />
  3. 3. I. Passive Transport<br />Passive Transport-the movement of substances across the cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell.<br />There are many types of passive transport: <br />
  4. 4. A. Diffusion<br />Diffusion- is the movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.<br />Diffusion will eventually cause substances to be balanced (equilibrium) on both sides of the cell membrane.<br />Ex: ink or food coloring moving through water.<br />
  5. 5. Diffusion-high to low concentration.<br />Animatioin from:<br />
  6. 6. B. Osmosis<br />Osmosis- is the diffusion of watermolecules across a selectively permeable membrane. (Egg Experiment)<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. 1. Hypotonic-solute outside cell less than inside; water moves into cell; cell swells<br />2. Hypertonic-solute outside cell greater than inside; water moves out of cell; cell shrinks<br />3. Isotonic-solute outside cell equals inside; no net movement of water.<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. C.Facilitated Diffusion<br />Facilitated Diffusion-when a membrane protein helps to transport a substance across a cell membrane.<br />
  11. 11. Types of Facilitated Diffusion<br />1. Ion Channels-proteins that have a pore through which ions such as sodium, calcium,potassium can cross the cell membrane.<br />Animation from:<br />
  12. 12. Types of FacilitatedDiffusion<br /> 2. Carrier protein-proteins that bind to specific substances, carry it across the cellmembrane, and release it.<br />Animation from:<br />
  13. 13. II. Active Transport<br />Active Transport-the movement of a substance into an area of higherconcentration by using energy from the cell in the form of ATP.<br />There are many types of active transport:<br />
  14. 14. 1. Sodium-Potassium pump<br />sodium ions are pumped out of the cell.<br />Potassium ions are pumped into the cell.<br /><br />
  15. 15. 2. Endocytosis-substances that are too large to move into the cell membrane are moved by a vesicle that forms around it.<br /><br />Animation from:<br />
  16. 16. 3. Exocytosis-substances that are too large to move out of the cell membrane are released by a vesicle that forms around it.<br />
  17. 17. 4. Membrane Receptor Proteins-proteins that help cell communicate with each other.<br /><br />