Chapter 3 notes
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Chapter 3 notes



The microscope and the cell

The microscope and the cell



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Chapter 3 notes Chapter 3 notes Presentation Transcript

  • Cell Structure
  • I. Looking at Cells
    • A. Cells Under the Microscope-most cells are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
      • 1. Robert Hooke - first to observe and name cells by looking at slices of cork .
      • 2. Anton van Leeuwenhoek -first to observe living cells.
      • 3. Magnification -quality of making an image appear larger.
      • 4. Resolution -measure of the clarity of an image.
    • B. Types of Microscopes
      • 1. Compound light microscope -uses two lenses to view living cells
    • 2. Electron microscope -very powerful; cannot view living cells.
  • II. Cell Features
    • A. Cell Theory
      • 1. All living things are made of cells.
      • 2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function of living things.
      • 3. Cells come from existing cells.
    • B. Prokaryote - “pro = no” cell without a nucleus or membrane-bound organelles . The simplest cells. Ex: Bacteria (has DNA, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and cell wall)
    • C. Eukaryote - “eu = true” true cells with a nucleus and organelles . Ex: plant and animal cells .
    • D. The Cell Membrane
      • 1. Cell membranes are not rigid , they are fluid .
      • 2. Function is to control what enters and exits the cell .
      • Made of phospholipid bilayer that contains proteins .
  • III. Cell Organelles
    • A. Nucleus -control center of the cell.
    • Contains the DNA .
    • B. Ribosomes -where proteins
    • are made.
    • C. Endoplasmic reticulum
    • rough or smooth depending on
    • whether it has ribosome. Transports proteins.
    • D. Golgi Apparatus -package proteins
    • from the e.r.
    • E. Mitochondria -produces energy in
    • the cell in the form of ATP .
  • Human cheek cell
  • Animal Cell-Draw
    • F. Plant Cell Structures
      • 1. Cell Wall -helps provide support and maintain the shape of the plant cell.
      • 2. Chloroplasts -plant cells only;
      • where photosynthesis takes place.
      • 3. Central vacuole -stores water and other substances.
  • Plant Cell-Draw
  • Onion skin slide