Chapter 23 notes


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Chapter 23 notes

  1. 1. Ch. 23-26 “Introduction to Plants”<br />
  2. 2. I. Adaptations of Plants<br />A. Today’s plants probably evolved from green algae.<br />B. To survive on land, plants had to be able to do three things:<br />1. Absorb nutrients<br />2. Prevent water loss<br /> a. Cuticle-waxy protective covering of a plant<br /> b. Stomata-pores in the leaves that <br /> allow for the exchange of gases.<br /> c. Guard cells-specialized cells that <br /> regulate the opening and closing <br /> of the stomata.<br />3. Reproduce on land <br /> a. Pollen-contains the sperm and allows it to be carried by wind or animals instead of water.<br />
  3. 3. Cross-section of leaf<br />
  4. 4. II. Characteristics of Plants<br />A. Cell walls made of cellulose<br />B. Multicellularand eukaryotic<br />C. Autotrophic – produce own food through photosynthesis<br />D. contain chloroplasts – structure that contain green pigment chlorophyll<br />
  5. 5. III. Kinds of Plants<br />A. Nonvascular Plants<br />1. Do not have a vascular system.<br />2. Need water for sexual reproduction.<br />3. Examples include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.<br />
  6. 6. B. Seedless Vascular Plants<br />1. Have a vascular system - internal system of interconnected tubes and vessels for transporting food and water.<br /> a. phloem-transports food.<br /> b. xylem-transports water.<br />2. Have spores with thick walls to prevent drying out<br />3. Examples include ferns, club mosses, horsetails<br />
  7. 7. C. Gymnosperms<br /> 1. Seed plants that produce seeds in cones.<br /> 2. Have a vascular system.<br />3. Examples include conifers, cycads, and ginkgos.<br />
  8. 8. D. Angiosperms (flowering plants)<br />1. Produce flowers -reproductive structure that produces fruits and seeds.<br />a. Attract birds, animals, and insects to carry pollen.<br /> b. Reproductive parts called stamen (male part produces pollen) and pistil (female part produces ovules)<br />2. Produce seeds enclosed within a structure called a fruit.<br />a. provide food, protect the seed, and help disperse the seed.<br />b. Seeds contain a supply of stored food called the endosperm.<br />
  9. 9. 3. Classified into two groups:<br />a. Monocots<br /> -Produce seeds with only 1 seed leaf (cotyledon)<br /> -Flower parts in multiples of 3’s<br /> -leaves have parallel veins<br /> -crocus, corn, grass<br />b. Dicots<br /> -produce seeds with 2 seed leaves<br /> -flower parts in multiples of 4’s or 5’s<br /> -leaves with branching veins<br /> -roses, apples, beans<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. IV. Plants in Our Lives<br />A. All plant parts-roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit provide food.<br />B. Wood for paper, lumber and fuel<br />C. Medicines<br />D. Plant fibers make paper, cloth, and rope<br />
  12. 12. The PLANT Cell<br />A – Vacuole – holds water<br />B – Cell wall – protection and support<br />C – Endoplasmic Reticulum – transport proteins<br />D – Nucleus – Control cell activities, Hold DNA<br />E – Mitochondria – Make energy into usable ATP<br />F – Chloroplasts – Convert CO2 into C6H12O6<br />G – Golgi Bodies – packages and distributes protein<br />