Ch. 14 & 19 Notes “Classification and Intro. To Kingdoms”
A. Taxonomy-the science of naming and classifying organisms. B. Our system of classification was developed by Swedish biologist named Carl Linnaeus. C. He gave organism a specific name using binomial nomenclature-system of naming organisms using a 2 word name. 1. The scientific name of an organism is made up of its genus and species name. Ex: humans-Homo sapiens Honeybee-Apismellifera I. Classification
2. Rules for writing the scientific name: A. Capitalize the genus name. B. Underline or italicize both names C. Must be in Latin
D. Linnaeus grouped organisms into 7 categories based on similarities. Over time, these categories have been expanded to 8 categories: Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Dear King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti
E. Classifying organisms can help determine the phylogeny, or evolutionary history of an organism.
A. All living things are placed into one of 3 domains. 1. domain Bacteria-prokaryotes, thought to be the oldest. SpirilliaBacilliaCocci II. Introduction of the Kingdoms
2. domain Archaea-prokaryotes, contain may extreme bacteria
3. domain Eukarya-contains all four of the eukaryotic kingdoms.
B. All living things are placed into one of 6 kingdoms. 1. Archaebacteria (domain Archaea) many live in extreme environments such as hot springs, salty lakes, volcanoes; all are prokaryotes.
2. Eubacteria (domain Bacteria) all are prokaryotes.
3. Protista (domain Eukaryo) all are eukaryotes, Eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi ex: amoeba, euglena, algae.
4. Fungi (domain Eukaryo) all are eukaryotes and heterotrophic. Ex: yeasts, mushrooms, puffballs.
5. Plant (domain Eukarya) all are eukaryotes and autotrophic. Ex: trees, grasses, ferns
6. Animalia (domain Eukaryo) all are eukaryotes and heterotrophic. Ex: birds, fish insects