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Makroekonomi topik-8-1
 

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    • </form> <form class="updateComment update-form" method="post" action="#" accept- charset="utf-8"> <fieldset> <legend>Edit your comment</legend> <textarea rows="4" cols="40"></textarea> <input class="bold floatRight action-update" type="submit" value="Update" /> <a href="#" class="ilink floatRight action-cancel" rel="nofollow">Cancel</a> </fieldset> </form> </div> </div> <div class="notesTab tab notes-tab"> <h2><a href="#notesList" rel="nofollow">Notes on slide <span class="which-slide- value">1</span></a></h2> <div class="tabContent h-notes" id="notesList"></div> </div> </div> <div class="slideview_bottom2_fill noAdForLead" style="height:250px;width:300px"><script type="text/javascript"> GA_googleFillSlot("slideview_bottom2"); </script></div> <div class="slideshow-transcript"> <a rel="nofollow" id="text-version"></a> <h2 class="h-slideshow-title">Makroekonomi Topik 8 (2) - Presentation Transcript</h2> <!-- disable_ad_section_start(weight=0.5) --> <ol class="transcripts h-transcripts"><li>TOPIK 8: BHG. II Pengukuran Makroekonomi: KDNK dan KDNK Benar </li><li>Konsep-konsep Pendapatan Negara <ul><li>KDNK âk “ Jumlah nilai pasaran bagi semua barangan dan perkhidmatan akhir yang dikeluarkan oleh sesebuah negara dalam tempoh setahun tanpa mengambilkira siapa yang mengeluarkannya. </li></ul><ul><li>KDNK Benar - Nilai keluaran tahunan yang dikeluarkan dalam sesebuah negara dengan mengambilkira perubahan dalam tingkat harga. </li></ul><ul><li>KNK âr“ Jumlah nilai pasaran bagi semua barangan dan perkhidmatan akhir yang dikeluarkan oleh warganegara sesebuah negara tersebut sahaja dalam tempoh setahun. </li></ul></li><li>KDNK Per kapita dan Kegunaan KDNK <ul><li>KDNK per kapita = KDNK </li></ul><ul><li>Populasi </li></ul><ul><li>Kegunaan KDNK - untuk memperolehi anggaran keupayaan pengeluaran sesebuah ekonomi, tetapi tidak semestinya ia dapat mengukur kebahagian atau kebajikan hidup rakyat. </li></ul></li><li>Sambungan <ul><li>Harga pasar âg “ Nilai wang sesuatu barang mengikut harga yang dibayar di pasaran. </li></ul><ul><li>Harga faktor âa“ Bayaran kepada faktor pengeluaran yang digunakan untuk mengeluarkan barangan. </li></ul><ul><li>Pendapatan negara = keluaran negara/KDNK/KNK. </li></ul></li><li>Sambungan <ul><li>Pendapatan persendirian âa “ jumlah pendapatan yang diterima oleh semua individu.Cth: gaji, dividen, biasiswa, pencen, bantuan kerajaan dan bantuan kewangan. </li></ul><ul><li>Pendapatan bolehguna âb “ pendapatan yang boleh dibelanjakan oleh individu untuk mendapatkan barang keperluan atau tabungan. ( Pendapatan bolehguna = Pendapatan persendirian â pendapatan dan insurans). </li></ul><ul><li>Nilai ditambah âi “ tambahan nilai dalam bentuk wang ke atas sesuatu barang akibat pemprosesan yang berlaku dalam kegiatan ekonomi tersebut. </li></ul><ul><li>Keluaran negara bersih âa “ keluaran negara kasar âm“ susut nilai. </li></ul></li><li>Keluaran Dalam Negara Kasar (KDNK/ Pendapatan Negara) <ul><li>Dikira menggunakan beberapa kaedah: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Kaedah perbelanjaan âe“mencampurkan wang yang dibelanjakan oleh pembeli ke atas barang dan perkhidmatan akhir. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Kaedah pendapatan âi “ mencampurkan semua upah dan keuntungan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Kaedah keluaran @ nilai ditambah -
    • mencampurkan nilai ditambah barangan pada keseluruhan tahap pengeluaran. </li></ul></ul></li><li>1) Kaedah Perbelanjaan <ul><li>Fokus kepada perbelanjaan 4 kumpulan utama dalam ekonomi, iaitu: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Isirumah (C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Firma (Sektor swasta) (I) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Kerajaan (Sektor Awam) (G) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) Negara lain dalam dunia ( Sektor antarabangsa) (X â4 “ M) </li></ul></ul></li><li>Konsep Penting Dalam Kaedah Perbelanjaan <ul><li>Perbelanjaan (C) âK“ terhadap barang: tahan lama, tidak tahan lama dan terhadap perkhidmatan. </li></ul><ul><li>Pelaburan (I) âd “ jumlah pembelian barang modal baru, perubahan dalam inventori. </li></ul><ul><li>Perbelanjaan kerajaan (G) - pembelian oleh kerajaan pusat, negeri dan tempatan ke atas barang dan perkhidmatan serta pelaburan kasar ke atas infrastruktur awam. </li></ul><ul><li>Eksport bersih (X â ul></li><li>1) Kaedah Perbelanjaan </li><li>2) Kaedah Keluaran <ul><li>Mencampurkan nilai ditambah yang diwujudkan oleh berbagai sektor dalam ekonomi atau nilai keluaran barang akhir. </li></ul><ul><li>Sektor ekonomi biasanya dibahagikan kepada tiga sektor utama, iaitu pertanian dan perlombongan, perkhidmatan, pembuatan. </li></ul><ul><li>Dalam pengiraan pendapatan negara, sektor-sektor ini diperincikan kepada 10 sektor utama untuk memudahkan pengiraan. </li></ul></li><li>3) Kaedah Pendapatan </li><li>KDNK Benar <ul><li>Definisi â. “ nilai barang dan perkhidmatan akhir yang dihasilkan dalam sesebuah negara setelah dipengaruhi oleh perubahan harga. </li></ul><ul><li>KDNK benar diperolehi apabila harga pada tahun asas didarabkan kuantiti pada tahun semasa. </li></ul><ul><li>Ekonomi tahunan berkembang sekiranya KDNK benar dalam tempoh setahun lebih tinggi daripada KDNK benar pada tahun sebelumnya. </li></ul></li><li>Sambungan <ul><ul><li>Kes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andaikan KDNK 2005 ialah RM100 (RM10 x 10 unit) dan KDNK pada tahun 2006 ialah RM250 (10 x RM25). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KDNK boleh meningkat dari tahun ke setahun sekiranya: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Harga meningkat, tetapi output kekal; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Output meningkat, tetapi harga kekal; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Atau kedua-duanya meningkat. </li></ul></ul></li><li>1) Harga meningkat, Output Kekal (Contoh) <ul><li>Output 2005 ialah 10 unit dan harga RM10. Jumlah keluaran (KDNK) ialah 10 unit x RM10 = RM100. </li></ul><ul><li>Katakan jika pada tahun 2006 harga meningkat kepada RM25 sedangkan output kekal, maka KDNK = RM250 (RM25 x 10 unit). </li></ul></li><li>2) Output meningkat, harga kekal <ul><li>Katakan jika pada tahun 2006 harga kekal sedangkan output meningkat daripada 10 kepada 25 unit, maka KDNK = RM250 (25 x RM10). </li></ul></li><li>3) Harga dan Output meningkat <ul><li>Harga pada tahun 2006 telah meningkat kepada RM12.50 dan kuantiti telah meningkat kepada 20 unit, maka KDNK = RM250 (RM12.50 x 20 unit). </li></ul></li><li>Sambungan <ul><li>Sekiranya pertumbuhan KDNK atau KNK disebabkan oleh peningkatan dalam tingkat harga sahaja, maka tidak berlaku pertumbuhan ekonomi kerana pertumbuhan ekonomi adalah akibat peningkatan output yang dihasilkan. </li></ul><ul><li>Oleh itu, KDNK benar digunakan kerana ia mengambilkira harga tahun asas dan mengabaikan peningkatan dalam tingkat harga </li></ul></li><li>Pertumbuhan Ekonomi <ul><li>- Pertumbuhan ekonomi berlaku sekiranya KDNK benar dalam sesuatu tahun lebih tinggi daripada KDNK benar dalam tahun sebelumnya. </li></ul><ul><li>Kadar pertumbuhan ekonomi = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KDNK/KNK benar baru âe“ KDNK/KNK benar asal x 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KDNK/KNK benar asal </li></ul></ul></li></ol> </div> <!-- disable_ad_section_end() --> </div> <div class="column2"> <div class="details"> <p class="author no-zNominate-only no-lead"> <span class="addContact h-section-add-contact potential-contact user-22864032"><a href="#" class="h-action-add-contact" title="Add as my contact" rel="nofollow">+</a></span> <a href="/wanbk" title="wanbk | Come Visit My Website! http://wanbk.page.tl"
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