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  • 1. 2/19/2013 Contact me via: hannyz@um.edu.my The Term “Multimedia”• Composed of 2 parts: – Multi (multus) : “numerous, multiple” – Media (medium): “middle, centre” – agent for something. Used for dissemination (distribute) and representation of information.• A good general definition is: Multimedia is the field concerned with the computer-controlled integration of text, graphics, drawings, still and moving images (Video), animation, audio, and any other media where every type of information can be represented, stored, transmitted and processed digitally.• A Multimedia Application is an Application which uses a collection of multiple media sources e.g. text, graphics, images, sound/audio, animation and/or video.• When a viewer of a multimedia presentation is allowed to control what elements are delivered and when, it is interactive multimedia. 1
  • 2. 2/19/2013 The Term “Multimedia”• Based on time-dimension in the representation space, media can be  Time-independent (Discrete)  Text, Graphics  Time dependent (Continuous) • Audio, Video • Video, sequence of frames (images) presented to the user periodically. Global Structure Application domain — provides functions to the user to develop and present multimedia projects. This includes Software tools, and multimedia projects development methodology. • System domain — including all supports for using the functions of the device domain, e.g., operating systems, communication systems (networking) and database systems. • Device domain — basic concepts and skill for processing various multimedia elements and for handling physical device. 2
  • 3. 2/19/2013 The Term “Media”Can be categorized based on a few criteria: 1. Perception media 2. Representation media 3. Presentation media 4. Storage media 5. Transmission media Perception MediaQ: How do humans perceive information”? – We perceive information from what we see and what we hear – Visual media (what we see): • Text, graphics, images, video – Auditory media (what we hear): • Music, sound and speech 3
  • 4. 2/19/2013 Representation Media• Referring to how the information is represented internally by the computer.• Q: “How is information encoded in the computer” Several options: – Text is encoded in ASCII – Image in JPEG format – Audio video sequence can be coded in different TV standard format • PAL, NTSC, SECAM and stored in the computer in MPEG format Presentation Media• refer to the tools and devices for the input and output of the information• Q: “Which medium is used to output information from the computer or input in the computer” a) Input: • Keyboards, cameras, microphone, Head Mounted Device (for VR input) b) Output: • Paper, monitors, speakers 4
  • 5. 2/19/2013 Storage Media• refer to the data carrier which enables storage of information• Q: “Where is information stored” – Primary storage (memory) • RAM (Random Access Memory) • ROM (Read Only Memory) • Solid state memory - a storage media that does not involve magnetic disks or any moving parts. For example, RAM utilizes solid state media. • At least 32MB RAM to produce good quality of graphics, audio, video, etc – Secondary storage (external memory/auxiliary storage/portable) • Discs (BluRay, DVD, CD) • Flash drive (USB – universal serial bus; 1.0v – 3.0v) – to simplify the connection between PC and peripherals – Tertiary storage • Requires robotic mechanism to mount (insert) and dismount (remove) removable storage media such as tape libraries and optical jukebox Transmission Media • different information carrier that enables continuous data transmission • Q: “Which medium is used to transmit data”  physical medium • coaxial cable, twisted pair, fibre optics  wireless medium • satellite, microwave, radio and infrared systems 5
  • 6. 2/19/2013 Characteristics of a Multimedia System4 basic characteristics: 1. Multimedia systems must be computer controlled. 2. Multimedia systems are integrated. 3. The information they handle must be represented digitally. 4. The interface to the final presentation of media is usually interactive. Usage of Multimedia Application • Education • Training • Entertainment • Advertisement • Presentation • Business Communication • Web page Design • Point of Sales Information (Kiosk) • Virtual Reality (Games) 6
  • 7. 2/19/2013 Input Devices 1. Keyboard, mouse (track balls, joysticks, etc) 2. graphics tablets - drawing 3. Scanner – capture image from printed material 4. Digital camera - capture and transform image into digital form 5. Touch screen for kiosk application 6. Analogue audio input from microphone and audio player 7. Modem Output Devices• High resolution screen, 256 colours (at least) – output video• Speakers, amplifier or tape devices - Output audio• Network with capacity at 10 millions bit/second• Analogue modem at 28,800 bit/second speed. ISDN digital modem at speed 128,000 bit/second.• Printer 7
  • 8. 2/19/2013 Authoring tools• Multimedia elements are composed into a project using authoring tools.• Multimedia Authoring tools are those programs that provide the capability for creating a complete multimedia presentations by linking together objects such as a paragraph of text (song), an illustration, an audio, with appropriate interactive user control.• By defining the objects relationships to each other, and by sequencing them in an appropriate order, authors (those who use authoring tools) can produce attractive and useful graphical applications.• To name a few authoring tools  Macromedia Flash  Macromedia Director  Authorware• The hardware and the software that govern the limits of what can happen are multimedia platform or environment Hypermedia & Hypertext – Hypermedia is a way of organizing multimedia information by linking media elements. – Hypermedia has grown out of a fusion between hypertext and multimedia. – Hypertext was developed to provide a different structure for basic text in computer systems : • text is essentially sequential in nature, even though its structure is hierarchical (chapters, sections, subsections, paragraphs) • hypertext was developed to permit more random access between components of text documents, or between documents, to allow a greater degree of flexibility and cross-referencing than a purely linear or sequential model would allow. • Hypertext is a text which contains links to other texts. 8
  • 9. 2/19/2013 HypertextChap.1 Chap.2 Chap.3 Chap.4 Chap.5 Chap.6 A sequential text Chap.3 Chap.1 Chap.5 Chap.2 Chap.6 Chap.4 A linked, self-referencing text Hypertext 9
  • 10. 2/19/2013 Hypermedia• The structure of a hypermedia organizations is called a hypermedia web, which consists of a number of multimedia elements or nodes with links between them.• Hypermedia is not constrained to be text-based. It can include other media, e.g., graphics, images, and especially the continuous media - sound and video.• Links represent semantic relationships, thus when a link exists between two nodes they must be related in some fashion : – a digital image linked to a textual description of it – a slide-show linked to an audio commentary• Most widely used hypermedia tools are hypermedia browsers, which let users view nodes and traverse links between them, and markup languages, such as HTML, which allow users to create hypermedia webs as structured documents.• The World Wide Web (WWW) is the best example of hypermedia applications Hypermedia A Simple Hypermedia Web taken from http://escience.anu.edu.au/lecture/comp1710/introduction/hypermedia.en.html 10
  • 11. 2/19/2013 Multimedia is interactive when the end-user is allowed to control what and when the elements are delivered. Interactive Multimedia is Hypermedia, when the end-user is provided with the structure of linked elements through which he/she can navigate. Multimedia is linear, when it is not interactive and the users just sit and watch as if it is a movie. Multimedia is nonlinear, when the users are given the navigational control and can browse the contents at will. Streaming media• Popular approach to continuous media over the internet• Playback at users computer is done while the media is being transferred (no waiting till complete download!!!)• You can find streaming in  Internet radio stations  Distance learning  Cricket Live!!!  Movie Trailers 11
  • 12. 2/19/2013Streaming media 12