Reservations:• Territorial – Tribes were split up into smaller groups• Political – Rations given to head of family, Individual plots of land, Government took control of legal matters• Economic – Ban on leaving reservation so couldn’t hunt buffalo, steal horses.• Religious – Ban on religious festivals and ceremonies, no need for medicine men, forced to convert to Christianity• Education – Children sent away to boarding school, isolated from language and cultureBuffalo Hunting: Changes to Indian Way of Life• Buffalo hunted for sport• Buffalo hunted for hides• Buffalo bones collected and used• Went from 60 million to 85 in 1910• Meant Indians had to rely on Government for foodRailroad:• Brought settlers west, and onto the Great Plains• Transported Army and weapons• Buffalo hunting as a sport
Jesse Chisholm:• Famous for blazing the Chisholm trail• Cattlemen used the trail to drive cattle to Abilene• The trail avoided hostile farmers who complained that the Longhorns carried fleas that they were immune to but caused problems for their own cattleJoseph McCoy:• Set up the first ‘cow town’ called Abilene• There was a hotel, stockyard, office and bank so cattlemen and cowboys could stay they, keep cattle and carry out business transactions• He got commission for every cow who passed through AbileneCharles Goodnight:• After the civil war he found he had 5000 cattle• He sold his cattle to the US soldiers at Fort Sumner• He and Oliver Loving established the ‘Goodnight-loving’ trail which avoided hostile farmers but went through Indian territory and didn’t have enough waterJohn Iliff:• One of the first men to graze and breed cattle on the Great Plains• He developed new breeds by crossing longhorns with English Herefords• He sold beef to railway workers and Indian Reservations
During the Civil War (1861-65) Texan cattle men and cowboys left their herds to fight in the war. The cattle bred freely.At the end of the war, there were lots of cattle and demand for beef in the East was high. So Cowboys went on the Long Drive to drive cattle north to the railroad.Iliff realized that breeding and grazing cattle on the Great Plains would be much betterbecause then you wouldn’t have to have the Long Drive. More railroads being built so itwas easier to transport. More people moved onto the Plains to breed cattle and branded them so they could roam free. This was called the open range Problems were building in the cattle industry:• Too many people breeding cattle, too much supply not enough demand so prices fall • Too many cattle so they were over-grazing – grass never got time to grow back • Men were experimenting with cross-breeding, but they weren’t sturdy enough • In 1883 there was a drought, the grass wouldn’t grow, cattle died • In 1886-7 there was a terrible winter, men died, cattle diedThe only solution was to fence off land, which meant the end of the open range. Barbedwire was invented so fencing was cheap, and cattlemen no longer needed rivers flowingthrough their land because the wind-pump had been invented. The lifestyle of cowboys changed as they weren’t need to ride round the range, but to mend fences
The Battle of Little Bighorn 1876 Gibbon + Terry 2 Custer had strict instructions to wait for Terry and 1 General Crook Gibbon. But force Sioux Camp was engaged marched his men in a war with through the night. the Sioux and He reaches camp Gen. Crook had to retreat a day early 3 Custer split his 4 men. Reno and Custer Benteen were Custer had to attacked go onto high ground because of quicksand and was spotted. Reno All of his men were killed
Was Custer to blame for their defeat at little Bighorn?Custer to blame Other factorsHe turned down General Terry’s offer of No one in the army realized there was aGibbons cavalry + Gatling guns total of 7000 Indian warriorsCuster was used to surprise attacks and The geography of Little Bighorn wasnormally divided his troops against him, e.g. quicksandBenteen said that he didn’t believe Everyone thought that when the arrivedCuster had a battle plan the Indians would try and escape not stand and fightScouts told Custer that there was a vast The Indians had superior weaponsIndian camp but Custer ignored thisCuster and his men rode all night across The Indians were very confidentWolf Mountains. They had no sleep because Sitting Bull had had a vision ofand only one break them winningCuster made the mistake in thinking theIndians were running away andattacked without waiting for the rest ofthe armyHe divided his men so they were beatenmore easily
Mountain Men They blazed the trails west. They were the only ones who knewThey were the first (after the Indians) about the route, so they made maps to travel west through the Rocky and acted as guides to wagon train Mountains migrantsThey were fur trappers who lived in Jim Bridger was an important mountain the mountains in order to hunt man… animals, e.g. Beavers - He had great mapping skills of the Great Plains - He was the first man to see Great Salt Once a year, all of the trappers Lake gathered at an agreed spot to - Built a trading post, ‘Fort Bridger’ to trade. Up to 600 trappers came. provide supplies to migrants on They met with merchants and the Oregon trail traded fur in return for - Led 100’s of wagons safely through thealcohol, rifles, powder, sugar etc… Rockies They also spread the word about - He discovered a pass that shortened fertile lands in the west. the journey West by 61 miles - Created the Bridger TrailThey had to face harsh climates, grizzly - Worked as a guide and an army bears and hostile Indians scout
Reasons for Migration Westwards: PUSH Factors PULL Factors Economic Depression Fertile Land Unemployment Cheap Land Agricultural Spacious Depression Religion – convert Too crowded Indians Land is expensive Stories of Prosperity Nothing to loose Manifest Destiny Persecuted Good Climate Discovery of Gold No persecution Family already living there Railroad Advertising Government Advertising Challenge
Homesteaders and women settling on the PlainsProblems Women Faced SolutionsThere was no wood to burn Had to collect barrow loads ofDung burns too quickly cattle/buffalo dung Keep collecting and constantly stoking firesNo schools Taught children at home. Later, they advertised for house school teacherNo resources Make do with what they haveSod houses were hard to clean Used brushes made from twigs.Bugs, fleas and disease Soap and candles made from fatHard manual labor Better MachineryIllness: Homemade remedies:Snakebite Warm manureEar ache Warm urineMeasles Roasted mouseLack of clothes Wool from sheep - washed, picked, carding, weaving and spinning. Share tasks with others
HomesteadersProblems they faced SolutionsLack of timber for building a home and fuel Cut the earth and built sod houses. Buffalo dung for food Timber culture act 1873, 160 acres free if you plant 40 acres of treesExtremes of weather and hard soil made Turkey Red Wheat was well suited to thegrowing crops difficult PlainsProtecting crops and fencing off land Barbed wire, invented in 1874 by Joseph GliddenPlagues and swarms of grasshoppers No solution till 1900s when pesticides were producedPrairie fires Care and planting crops with gaps between them so the fire couldn’t spread easilyIsolation and Loneliness In 1869 the Railway was completed and you could travel East/West, and supplies could be transportedPloughing the land – Ploughs too weak A stronger plough was invented by John Deere (Sod-buster)Lack of water The wind pump invented by Daniel Halliday in 1874 The method dry farming was developed Desert Land Act 1877 enabled you to buy 640 acres of land - irrigation systems were needed
The Government and Lawlessness in the WestTerritorial Officials RoleUS Marshal Appointed by President. Responsible for entire territory, too much for one man, so he appointed deputiesDeputy Marshal Enforced law in towns and counties. They tracked down Army DesertersTown Marshal Appointed locally in townships. Dealt with local outbreaks of violence (e.g. pub brawls)Sheriffs Elected by local people for 2 years. Responsible for law and order in counties. Local people could be called in to form ‘posses’ and chase criminals. Sometimes they were lawless – carried gunsJudges There were 3 judges appointed by president. Prisoners had to wait a long time to be tried because they had to travel around the territory. So lynching (hanging without trial) happened often
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