Graphics GSCE AQA


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Graphics GSCE AQA

  1. 1. Materials And Components Corrugate Cardboard: • Made up of liners and fluting Paper: Layout Paper: • Versatile, light, robust, economic and There are 2 ways of changing the • 50gsm practical form of packaging property of changing the properties • Inexpensive • Used for making any thing – complex of paper and card: • Used for tracing or simple models • Laminating – gluing together layers • Strong, heavy-weight and smooth • Inexpensive • Coating – China clay or chalk • Used to develop designs sprayed onto the surface to give a Mounting Board: smooth finish Bleed proof Paper: • 1000 – 1500 microns • Sizing – Sealed by chemical agent • 120gsm – 150gsm • Useful, versatile, stiff but lightweight • Quite Expensive and easy to cut Paper is made by squeezing together • High quality presentations • Picture mounting, framing modeldamp, fibrous material which is dried • Able to absorb and hold inks and making and presentations to form paper. There are 2 types of water-based paints • Expensive paper: • Virgin Paper – never used Tracing Paper: Duplex Board: • Recycled Paper – contains a • 40gsm – 90gsm • 230gsm – 420gsm minimum of 75% waste • Quite Expensive • Food packaging, liquid containers • Tracing designs and drawings (can have a waterproof liner) and Photocopier Paper carton manufacturing • 80gsm Cardboard: • Can be suitable for printing • Inexpensive in bulk Cardboard is available in different • Writing, sketching, photocopying or sizes, thicknesses and finishes. They Solid Whiteboard: home printing are recyclable unless laminated, but • Top-quality • Range of colours, coatings, textures only 4/5 times. Card is measured in • Best card for printing on and sizes microns – 1000 microns = 1mm. They • Point-of-sale, frozen food, cosmetic can be classified as: packaging and hardback books Cartridge Paper: • Corrugated cardboard: which is • Expensive • 120gsm – 150gsm often used in packaging • Slightly more expensive • Flat cardboard: which is used to Greyboard: • Illustrating, brochures, pamphlets make products such a cereal • 100% recycled fibre and booklets packets • Thick but light-weight, strong and • Logos and initials can be pressed or good for screen printing embossed Cardboard can be quite expensive. • Ring-binders, jigsaws and book biding
  2. 2. Carton Board: Carton boards are mainly used in the packaging industry. They can be treated and laminated to give it specific properties; • Solid Bleached Board: High quality used for perfume, chocolates and cigars • Solid Unbleached board: Used in drinks industry • Folding Box Board: Used for printing on toy and games packaging • White Lined Chipboard: Used to package soap and detergents Some of the coating make it harder to recycle: • Plastic coating: used for water resistance • Aluminium Foil: For food to give bacterial barrier • Greaseproof Paper: Used for Muffins and cupcakes • Wax Coating: Used for drinks containers Foam board: • Lightweight and easily cut • Variety of sizes, colours and thicknesses • Used for displaying work and model-making. Plastic: Plastic can be thermoset (cannot be reworked) or thermo (can be reheated and reworked). The most common types used in graphics are high-impact polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, acrylic and selfadhesive vinyl. • Rigid Plastics are ideal for model making, can be shaped and joined • Flexible plastics (e.g. selfadhesive) can be laminated and cut into lettering, symbols and shapes • Plastic sheet can be used to form a composite material Corriflute: • Lightweight and easily cut • Available in different colours, sizes and thicknesses • Signs, constructing plastic containers and packaging • Recyclable Styrofoam • Smooth, fine surface, stable, easily shaped and has no odor • Doesn’t absorb water and can be cut, sawn and sanded • Very versatile, ideal for modeling Making Judgments: The functionality of material can be described using its properties: • Hardness • Toughness • Strength • Flexibility • Rigidity • Ductility • Elasticity • Plasticity • Conductivity • Weight • Colour Non-physical Properties: • Finish • Environmental and sustainability • Cost Properties and Uses of Thermoplastics: Thermoplastic plastic will soften when heated, allowing the shape to be changed through forming, thermoset plastic cannot be reformed. Plastics are not cheap, they are a complex blend of chemicals that give the material different properties. Additives are often used in plastics to increase a specific performance, change the colour or feel.
  3. 3. Name Name (Abbrev.) Low-density Polythene Recyc ling symb ol Properties Uses Process Stock forms Cost 1- 5 (5= high) Ldpe Range of colors, good electrical insulator, good chemical resistance, soft waxy plastic Plastic sacks, toys Extruded, injection molded Powder granules, sheet, film 3 High-Density Polythene Hdpe Can be sterilized, range of colours, soft material Buckets, bowls, milk crates Extruded, injection molded Powder, granules, sheet, film PVC PVC Range of colours, exterior use, tough, hard plastic Pipes and gutters, flooring Extruded, Injection forming and vacuum forming Powder, granules, extrusions and sheet 3 Acrylic (Perspex) Perspex Acrylic Optically clear, hard, variety of colors, durable, easily polished, weather resistant Signs, aircraft canopies, baths Injection, extrusion, vacuum forming Sheet, rod, tube 4 High-Impact Polystyrene HPs Can be clear, lightweight, rigid Models, cups Extruded, injection molding, vacuum foaming Sheet, granules 4 Polymide Nylon Resilient; hardwearing; selflubrication Gears, bearings, combs Extruded, Injection Moulded Sheet, tube, rod, granules 4 3 6
  4. 4. Name Name (Abbrev.) Recyclin g symbol Uses Process Stock forms Cost 1- 5 (5= high) Biodegradable; starch based Bioplastic Properties Food packaging Vacuum formed Sheet, film 4 PET PET 1 Cost Effective Bottles Blow moulding, vacuum forming Granules 1 Polystrene PS 6 Good forming, hard and rigid CD cases, yoghurt pots Vacuum forming, injection moulding Granules, sheet 2 Expanded Polystyrene Foam Styrofoam 3 Lightweight, impact resistant Protective infill packaging, models Foam Injected Polypropylene PP 5 Flexible, scratch resistant, low friction Cutting boards, crisp packets Injection Moulded Film, sheet, granules 3 Impact resistant, easily scratched Riot shields, safety goggles Extrusion, injection moulded, vacuum formed after drying Sheet, granules, film 5 Strong, heat resistant plastic, can take rigid form Kettles, hairdryers, casing of many small products Extruded, injection moulding, vacuum forming Sheet, granules 4 Polycarbonate Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene ABS 1
  5. 5. Thermoplastics are used regularly in graphic products. Vacuum-formed food-grade thermoplastics are used to form clear containers for shop-bought sandwiches. PVC bubbles allow the buyer to see the product while protecting it from damage. Use of Sheet and Block modeling materials: Block modeling is important as it supports sketching and allows ideas to be considered in a quick format. Modeling in 3D allows the form of the product to be viewed from all angles. Several materials are used to manufacture block models. They are usually lightweight, quick, and easily adhered to, e.g.: - Foam core board - Corrugated plastic - Expanded PVC - Styrofoam (Expanded polystyrene) - Clay - Card - Paper The creation of the test model is to help develop the product form, not to be a realistic version of the outcome. Finishes: The type depends on what you want the model to do. • Sanding Sealer: Necessary for models that need to be painted or lacquered. • Primer: Basecoat paint that helps to spread the paint evenly. • Cellulose Paint: Spray paints give an even, run-free finish but must be done in a well-ventilated area. • Emulsion paint: Gives a smooth finish, and often used as a sealant. • Varnish: Apply a gloss, satin or matt finish to wood. Two or three coats are needed to give a smooth, even finish. It protects the wood. • Wood stains: Allows the colour of wood to be changed, but doesn’t protect against scratches. • Polishes: Used to remove scratches from the surface of metals and plastics • Using Adhesives: Good method of fixing parts together, and can be permanent or temporary. • Tensol: A cement for fixing acrylic to acrylic. • Epoxy Resin: Used for joining parts that are made from different materials together. • PVA: Gives a strong fix between timber-based products. • Superglue: Most materials will adhere together with superglue. • Hot glue gun: A quick way of fixing different materials together, but it tends to be applies as a thick layer so can be unaesthetic. • Double-sided tape: Used as a quick fixing of most materials. Smart Materials: A range of materials that change their property when exposed to an outside influence. This influence could be; heat, light, pressure, electricity, moisture or magnets. • Photo-sensitive material reacts to light • Thermo-sensitive material reacts to heat • Hydro-sensitive material reacts to water or moisture • Pies-sensitive material reacts to pressure • Electro-sensitive materials react to electricity • Thermo-chromatic materials change their colour depending upon temperature. E.g. t-shirts, mugs and labels • Hydro-chromatic inks change colour as they dry out. E.g. umbrellas, potted plants
  6. 6. • Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) will return to their original shape when an electric current is passed through them. • Polymorph is a material that softens at 62ºC, can be moulded and then cooled where it acts like plastic. When heated again it can be remolded. Adhesives: • Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) : What?: General purpose glue Uses: Wood, paper, card, foam board/blocks • Epoxy resin: What?: Two part glue, must be mixed Uses: Joining different materials • Spray Adhesives: Modern Materials: What?: Adhesive in an aerosol can • Precious metal clays (PMC): Uses: Large areas of paper and card Minute particles of silver or gold • Solvent Cements: are mixed with a binding material, What?: Stiff liquid in tubes/cans and can be moulded like clay. Used: Joining plastics, esp. polystyrene Mostly used in the jewellery as • Hot-melt glues: when heated the metal melts What?: Adhesive sticks/pellets in glue making it look like it’s pure metal. gun • Cornstarch Polymers: Can be Uses: Joining different materials vacuum formed, and act like a • Glue Sticks: thermoplastic. However will What?: Solid stick in a tube biodegrade in water. Used as Uses: General purpose trays for chocolates. • Adhesive tape (tape): • Paperfoam: Made of natural What?: Single or double-sided tape on fibres, it’s shaped in an injection roll moulding process and can be Uses: Paper, card, lightweight materials used to make products such as • Masking tape: CD or DVD packaging. What?: paper-based low-tack tape on Lightweight, strong and fully a roll biodegradable. Uses: Temporary fixing • Potatopak: Ecofriendly, taken from • Low-tack film: food industry when making What?: Adhesive film potato products. The starch is put Uses: Masks for spraying and airbrush into moulds, pressurised and work heated until it takes the shape. Graphic Tools: • Scalpels and craft knives: Allow for intricate and accurate cutting, but must be used with care. Must be used with a cutting mat and safety rule (for straight lines) • Scissors: Often used for paper and card, sometimes for fabric • Rotary Cutter: (Like pizza cutter) a circular blade mounted onto a frame so as you cut, the blade rotates • Compass Cutter: Like a pair compasses, but a blade instead of a pencil – to cut a circle out • Fret saw: Small, electric, tablemounted, reciprocating saws used on a variety of materials e.g. model boards, balsa wood and Styrofoam • Creasing bar: Bar attached to a board. You place your piece of card on the board, position the creasing bar correctly, and then score a line to create an accurate fold • Die cutter: Blades in a fixed position so that when static pressure is applied it cuts out shapes from materials, e.g. card
  7. 7. Fastenings: Temporary fastenings: • Drawing pins fix paper and card to wooden backing or hold model part together • Mapping pins are used to locate information on a chart • Dressmakers’ pins are used fix work on display board • Paper fasteners fix moving parts in pop-up model and books • Paper clips can be bent into small hooks for models • Rubber bands and elastic are in pop-up models and crashlock models Permanent fastenings: • Nails and panel pins join large pieces of wood and fixing decorative features on models • Wood screws join wood, metal, or plastic, and for moving parts in 3D models • Nuts, bolts and washers join wood, metal or plastic, and for moving parts in 3D models • Set screws and washers join wood, metal, plastic, and for pivots for moving parts in 3D models Design And Market Influences: Designers • Harry Beck: Designed the London Underground map of 1933 • Alberto Alessi: Produces everyday objects that are very aesthetically pleasing • Jock Kinnear and Margaret Calvert: Designing UK road signs • Wally Olins: A brand consultant who does logos • Robert Sabuda: Author, Illustrator and pup-up book designer A company's name, logo, typeface, colors, slogan, etc., are elements that help comprise its corporate identity. Prototyping and testing is important because it will show you if your product is suitable for the audience and if you product is serving it’s purpose. Ideograms: Symbols conveying a message without text Sequential Illustration: Drawings done in a sequence to depict a story/message A schematic map represents the element of a system using abstract graphic symbols
  8. 8. Social, Moral and cultural issues: Product Life Cycle: - In the launch and growth stages sales rise - In the maturity stage, revenues flatten out - At some point sales begin to decline and the business has to decide whether to withdraw the item or use an extension strategy to bolster sales. - Extension strategies include updating packaging, adding extra features or lowering price The designer must think about the social, moral and cultural issues when making a product. Things to consider could be; • Most people want low cost, but good quality products • Though using computer controlled machines reduces costs, it reduces jobs • But computer controlled machines could create jobs for highly skilled workers to develop, program and maintain these systems • Another way of reducing costs, is manufacturing in countries where labor is cheap – but sometimes it means poor working conditions • Environmental cost in transporting goods all over the world Ergonomics is the relationship between people and the products they use. Anthropometrics is the study of the sizes of people in relation to products. The 6 R’s They are used by designers to reduce the environmental impact of products. They can also be used to evaluate the environmental impact of other products. • Reduce: Is it possible to reduce the amount of materials used? This helps to protect valuable resources. • Rethink: Is there a better way to solve this problem that is less damaging to the environment? • Refuse: This means not accepting thins that aren’t the best option for the environment. E.g. is this packaging really needed? • Recycle: Could recycled materials be used, or is the product made from materials easily recyclable? • Reuse: Could the product have another use? Could it’s parts be used in other products? Is this information clearly communicated on the product? This will extend it’s life. • Repair: Is the product easy to repair? This will extend its life.
  9. 9. Computer Aided Design (CAD): Used by engineers, architects and designers to produce detailed design plans and technical drawings. Advantages: • Greater accuracy • Can be created in 2D, 3D, 2D CAD and 3D CAD • Images can be viewed from any angle • Powerful scaling, rotation and reflection options • Libraries of engineering components can be imported • Links to packages to calculate costs Disadvantages: • Software is expensive • Staff must be trained • Requires a PC Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM): Advantages: • In a large-scale production, the results are consistent • Enables very high accuracy levels in large-scale production • Usually speeds up production Disadvantages: • The software is expensive • Can be slower that traditional methods for one-off or low-volume production • Staff need to be trained how to use the software and machinery so adds to costs Advantages of Recycling: • Preserves the environment • Saves energy • Reduces pollution Disadvantages of Recycling: • Factories must be set up • Energy needed to recycle • Expensive • Transport needed to take waste to factories Advantages of Reusing: • Less waste • Preserves raw materials • Preserves landfill sites Disadvantages of Reusing: • Can be unhygienic • Transport needed to take items to factories • Energy need to reuse the items and make something new This symbol is used to represent quality assurance • Registration marks are used in colour printing to make sure that colours line up, they are usually shown in a cross shape. • Colour bars are standard bars of colour with different tones f each colour printed. This shows the strength and evenness of the ink and the registration of the colour is correct. • Trim marks show the printer where to cut the paper
  10. 10. Cutting tools and safety precautions: • Craft Knife: o Hazard: Cuts caused by incorrect and careless use o Risk Control: hold the cork correctly, use safety ruler, use a cutting mat • Paper Drill: o Hazard: Cuts caused by incorrect and careless use, puncture wounds caused by broken drill wounds o Risk Control: Use a cutting mat, check drill bits aren’t damaged, clean drill bits with caution • Scissors: o Hazard: Cuts caused by incorrect and careless use o Risk Control: Hold the cork correctly, carry with the clade enclosed • Sanding disc: o Hazard: flying debris, hands in contact with abrasive surface, inhalation of dust o Risk control: safety goggles, apron and no loose clothing, dust extraction • Fretsaw: o Hazard: Flying debris, hands in contact with blade, inhalation of dust o Risk control: Goggles, apron and no loose clothing, dust extraction, hold work flat Production Methods: • One off production: only one of the product is made. Labourintensive as each product is different. E.g. souvenir for a special event • Batch production: a set quantity is made. Requires a lot of labour, but jigs, templates are used to aid production. E.g. programmes for a play or concert • Mass production: a very large number of the product is made, usually on a productions line. E.g. newspapers and magazines • Continuous-flow production: When many thousands of products are made. It is kept running to eliminate the expense of stopping and restarting the production process. E.g. cereal packaging • Just in time production: When a company only buys enough stock to cover its immediate needs, ensuring that the right amount of material arrives when needed. The product is more economical because, it reduces storage cost, allows production runs to change more quickly and reduces overstocking of materials.
  11. 11. Printing Methods: • Screen Printing: A stencil is placed under the screen and ink forced through the stencil onto the material below. Screen printing with stencils is best for blocks of colour • Block printing: Shapes are cut into blocks made of wood, metal or linoleum. Ink is applied to the block, and the block is pressed onto paper. They can be quite detailed, but normally is only 1 colour. Can be used for wallpaper, paper table cloths. • Photocopying: Can enlarge and reduce images, process paper, card and clear acetate. They are expensive. • Letterpress printing: Relief printing where the parts to be printed are raised up from the base plate. Used for both type and illustrations. But time consuming, and the range of fonts/styles is limited. E.g. business cards. • Flexography: Uses relief image on thin, flexible, rubber printing plates. Used on cellophane, polythene and metallic films e.g. plastic bags, newspapers and paperback books. • Lithography: A printing plate with a relief image is dampened with water, then coated with ink. The ink only sticks to the parts of the plate that aren’t wet. The printing plate is fixed to a roller and the image is transferred onto the paper fed under the roller. In offset-lithography the paper doesn’t come into contact with the printing plate, but it transferred through a rubber roller. E.g. magazines, packaging and books. • Gravure: The image is made up of small holes sunk in the surface of the printing plate. The holes are filled with ink and any excess is removed. Paper comes into contact with the ink in the holes when pressed against it. Used for long, high-quality print runs – e.g. magazines, mail-order catalogues and packaging.
  12. 12. Processing colours: • Cyan • Yellow • Magenta • Black Finishing Techniques: • Cutting and creasing: Some printed materials need to be cut or creased after printing. Cutting and creasing are used when making packaging, pop-up books and cards, and press-out shapes for model making • Die cutting: Can be used to make multiple, identical shapes. A sharped blade called a die is used to cut through multiple layers of material • Varnishing: Protects and enhances, used on book covers and packaging. Low cost and easy, but ink must be dry • Laminating: Protects and enhances, used on book covers, packaging and special print jobs. Expensive, but good for products that are handled a lot • Embossing: Gives visual and tactile effect, used for business stationary, invitations and packaging. Expensive, as it requires special tools • Foil applications: Enhances on special work, used for book covers and photograph albums. Expensive, the design is stamped on the material through a metal foil forcing the foil onto the material A former is used to make sure that the parts are shaped of bent to exactly the same shape. Levers: A lever is a rigid piece of material that turns about a fixed pivot point called a fulcrum. An input force applied to one end of a lever is transmitted to the other end of the lever to move the output forces (the load). Levers can be used to apply a force, change the amount of force, movement or direction. A pattern is used to make a mould when casting in metal or plastic. It is a replica of the finished object and may be made in wood or another soft material. Patterns are also used when shaping plastics in a vacuum-forming machine. Linkages: Linkages are mechanisms which allow force or motion to be directed where it’s needed. A reverse-motion linkage changes the direction of motion. A parallel-motion linkage creates an identical parallel motion. A jig is used to make sure the part, during production, are made exactly the same, without the need for marking out. E.g. if a hole is drilled in a piece of wood, it will make sure that it’s drilled in the same place in each component. A template is something that you can draw around to mark the shape onto material, so that it can be cut or shaped. A mould is a hollow shape used when casting metal or plastic resin. Moulds for casting resin can be made of plastic or rubber. Increasing Efficiency of Production: • Resource optimization • Reuse of scrap material • Improved quality control and process monitoring • Waste exchanges – where one production’s waste is used as another’s raw material • Ship to point use – Deliveries of raw materials go directly to point of assembling
  13. 13. Protect: Stop the product from being damaged or contaminated by microorganisms, are, moisture and toxins Stacking and Storage: Should be designed with space wastage in mind Contain: To keep all the parts together, so it doesn’t spill Function of Packaging Information: Useful to the customers, e.g. ingredients, sell by date, barcode etc. Identify: To advertise and identify the product Ease of Transport: Should be designed to make it easy to transport, move and lift Quality Assurance: The maintenance of a desired level of quality in a service or product, especially by means of attention to every stage of the process of delivery and production Quality Control: A system of maintaining standards in manufactured products by testing a sample of the output against the specification Self Assembly Drawing Copyright: The exclusive legal right, given to an originator to print, publish, perform, film, or record literary, artistic or musical material, and to authorize others to do the same Patent: A government authority to an individual or organization conferring a right or title especially the sole right to make, use, or sell some invention Trademark: A symbol, word or words legally registered or established by use as representing a company or product Registered Design: A form of legal protection against the copying by a competitor of the external appearance of a product Sectional Drawing
  14. 14. • Modelling is the process of making a 3D model or a 2D plan from the earlier CAD or drawn ideas. A computer model can be as useful as a 3D model made from actual materials. A CAD drawing can be revolved, sectioned and viewed in a variety of ways. Computer models allow the designer to apply colour and texture very easily change the very nature of the product in seconds. If a potential client is viewing the computer model it can be changed and updated at the time of the meeting / interview. Advantages of Just in time production – Reduced storage costs, production run can be more easily changed, reduced over-stocking of production Prototype manufacture: In this part of the manufacturing process where you make a preliminary model of your product. Taking photos is a good way of recording lots of information and showing how your work has progressed. Reasons for making prototypes: – Unlike a computer model, a prototype can be physically handled by the designer, a design team and potential customers. – Making a scaled prototype allows the designer / manufacturer to work out the method of construction/manufacture. This cannot be done accurately when using CAD. – Making a prototype allows the manufacturer to determine the ‘flow’ of production on a production line, in a factory. – Design errors are often detected when making a scaled model / prototype. Often design or manufacturing problems can be solved at this stage. – The designer can display the prototype at meetings and there is no need to rely on an expensive computer system. – A prototype can be tested by potential customers and focus groups. – A prototype can be used as an integral part of a questionnaire. A computer model is not as effective as a real life object, as it cannot be handled.