Keywords:Numinous: The feeling of the presence of something greaterthan youConversion: When you life is changed by giving yourself toGodMiracle: Something which seems to break the laws of scienceand makes you think only God could have done itPrayer: An attempt to contact God usually through wordsDesign: The appearance of order, complexity andpurpose, e.g. the eyeCausation: The idea that everything has been caused (startedoff) by something elseAtheism: The belief that God does not exist
Keywords:Agnosticism: Not being sure whether God existsMoral Evil: Actions done by humans which cause sufferingNatural Evil: Things which cause suffering but not caused byhumans e.g. earthquakeOmnipotent: The belief that God is all-powerfulOmniscient: The belief that God is all-knowingOmni-benevolent: The belief that God is all goodFreewill: The idea that humans are free to make their ownchoices YOU MUST LEARN THESE KEYWORD FOR YOUR EXAM!
Religious UpbringingFeatures of a Religious Upbringing How does it lead to belief in God? Praying at Home The child believes in God because they see their parents praying – He must exist because otherwise they wouldn’t pray Religious School The child is surrounded by peers who believe in God. Their teachers tell them about God. God must exist otherwise they wouldn’t believe in him Baptism / Confirmation The parents baptize the child and the Christian community promise to look after them. Ceremonies such as confirmation make the child feel involved in something greater Worshipping in Holy Place E.g. Going to church – The child grows up listening to priests talking about God, and surrounded by people who believe in him. God must exist otherwise they wouldn’t believe in Him Religious Celebrations E.g. Christmas – The child is told about God through stories and his existence is reinforced
Religious ExperiencesMystical Experience:Seeing a religious vision, Near Death Experience:hearing God’s voice or An experience afterexperiencing him in a clinical death andtrance or dream before resuscitationMiracle: Something Religiousthat seems to break Experiences A feeling ofthe laws of science God’s presenceand make you think near themonly God could (numinous)have done it A life changing experience leading them Prayers Answered to commit themselves to God (conversion)
Religious ExperiencesWhy do Miracles lead people to believe in God?• If you witness the miracle, e.g. praying for a dying person to get better and they do, then you will believe in God• They are a sign from God to help people believe in him• They can help people to get through bad times if they beleve miracles are possible• It can be seen as proof that God exists• It is proof that God is omnipotent• If miracles happen then God must exist because there is no other explanationWhy do Near-death experiences lead people to believe in God?• They claim to have visited the afterlife, seen a religious figure or passed through a tunnel of light• These experiences confirm that there is a God• They reconsider how they have lived their life and commit themselves to God
The Design ArgumentThe design argument is the theory that everything needs a designer,and the only possible designer of the Universe, which is very complex,is God. For Design Against Design Argument ArgumentWilliam Paley’s WatchTheory: The beauty of Natural DisastersIf you were to walk across nature e.g. floods,and uninhabited place, earthquakeand find a watch you wouldask where it came from and Perfect Designs e.g. Animals becomingwho designed it… eye extinct – not well• No complex mechanism designed can happen by chance• If a watch needs a The Big Bang was Who designed designer then the designed – size and God? Universe, a far more timing of explosion complex thing must have a designer The Universe is so Illness and Death• That designer must be complex it could e.g. cancer God not have just happened
The Causation ArgumentThe Causation argument is the principle that everything is caused bysomething else, so must have caused the Universe For the Causation Against the CausationThe Domino effect: Argument Argument Nothing can happen Just becauseA chain of dominoes by itself it has to have everything seems tomust be pushed or a cause have a cause doesn’tstarted by someone. mean the Universe has oneIn this way, theuniverse must have There has to be an The Universe wasbeen caused by ‘unmoved’ mover – In started by the Bigsomething, and the the Big bang theory it Bangonly possible is matter so why can’texplanation is that it be GodGod is the ‘unmoved’ The Goods Train – all If everything has amover. the wagons are cause what ‘caused’ moved by the engine God?
The Big Bang TheoryThe widely held belief that at the beginning of time there was a largeexplosion which resulted in the releasing and scattering of matter,which eventually formed into planets and stars. A matter of chancewhich has led to the evolution of life taking billions of years. Christian Responses to the Big Other Christians say Bang Theory Some Christians believe that the Other Christians believe that the scientific theories are only way to respond to scientific compatible with believing in explanations of the world is to God. They believe that the Bible reject them as false. They say is not to be taken literally in all that the Genesis is the truth. areas. They would say the Big These Christians are called the Bang and evolution were part of Creationists. They believe that God’s plan. They believe that the world was created by God the ‘six day’s’ in which God in six days created the world are symbolic and not actual periods of time
The problems with Belief1. The world has flaws – such as earth quakes, volcanic eruptions,floods, all causing human suffering2. Science makes the Bible hard to believe it’s explanation seemsmore logical3. Psychologists claim that religious experiences are the minddeceiving us4. We’ve been into space, so where is heaven5. Religions say different things – one God would equal one religion6. Not everyone is religious yet they lead good lives, religion makesno difference, so God doesn’t exist
Evil and SufferingHow can the problem of evil and suffering lead someone to notbelieve in God?Omniscien God doesn’t Maybe God know about is not All- t knowing suffering God cannot do Maybe God ThereforeOmnipotent anything about is not All- He must human suffering powerful not exist God doesn’t Maybe God Omni- care or is causing is not All-Benevolent human suffering good
Evil and SufferingMoral Evil – This is evil and suffering caused by humans misusing theirfreewill, e.g. murder.Natural Evil – This is suffering that has not been caused byhumans, e.g. earthquakes.However sometimes evil and suffering is a cross between both moraland natural evil, e.g. war that leads to famine because theagricultural system breaks down.Also some suffering is brought on by the person, e.g. if the personchooses to take drugs.Christian Responses to Evil & Suffering:• Some Christians believe it is a test from God.• Some Christians believe that when God created humans, He gave them freewill. So if people choose to act in an evil way he cannot interfere.• Some Christians believe that evil and suffering is part of God’s plan, and we will never be able to understand, so we should just trust God• Some Christians believe that God wants them to help those who suffer which is why evil is there
Exam HelpIn the Exam you will get…(a)Question: A definition of one of the key words (2 Marks)(b)Question: Your personal view – 2 Developed Reasons (4 Marks)(c)Question: NO OPINION! – 4 Developed Reasons (8 Marks)(d)Question: (i) Agree or Disagree? – 2 Developed Reasons (ii) Why do people disagree with you? – 2 Developed Reasons (6 Marks) Good Luck!