The Indian Way Of LifeThere were different tribes within the American Indians.The main ones were; - Arapaho - Cherokee - Cheyenne - SiouxLike most living things, the basicneeds of all Indians werefood, clothing and shelter. The buffaloprovided all of these things.The buffalo was not only important for food,But also had religious connotations.It was so important to theIndians, that their whole life revolvedaround them. The Indians werenomadic in order to hunt buffalo.In order to conserve buffalo tribes To find the buffalo, young braves wouldwould split up and watch how many go out and look for them. Sometimesbuffalo they killed so they didnt’t buffalo dances would bewipe them out. done, where, until the buffalo were found
Indians lived in tipis which were made out of buffalo hide. They kept the coldwinds out and could be packed up within 10 minutes.The Indian society:Each band (sub-group from tribe) would have up to 10-50 families, each living in their owWithin the family there were different roles; -MEN: Hunting, looking after horses, protecting band Judged by skills in hunting and horse riding -WOMEN: Tipi, preparing food, fetching water, making clothes Judged by skills in crafts and as a homemakerFamily life:The Indians followed polygamy, which is the practice of having more than one wifeor husband at the same time. This was because there were less men than women inthe tribe, and it ensured all the women were looked after.Marriage- If a man wanted to marry a woman he had to give her family a number ofhorses Divorces were rare, and all you had to do was say ‘I divorce you’Old People- Old people were just left to die on their own when they were too old andslowing down the rest of the rest of the band They were the source of all history, and told tales of the pastChildren- Babies were encouraged not to cry as it scared off the buffalo
Source AGive two things you can learn about the Indian way of life from Source A (4 marks)
They blazed the trails west. TheyMountain Men were the only ones who knew about the route, so they made maps andThey were the first (after the Indians) acted as guides to wagon train to travel west through the Rocky migrants They had to face harsh climates, grizzly Mountains bears and hostile Indians Jim Bridger was an important mountain man… - He had great mapping skills of theThey were fur trappers who lived in Great Plains the mountains in order to hunt - He was the first man to see Great Salt animals, e.g. Beavers Lake - Built a trading post, ‘Fort Bridger’ to Once a year, all of the trappers provide supplies to migrants on the gathered at an agreed spot to Oregon trail trade. Up to 600 trappers came. - Led 100’s of wagons safely through the They met with merchants and Rockies traded fur in return for - He discovered a pass that shortenedalcohol, rifles, powder, sugar etc… the journey West by 61 miles They also spread the word about - Created the Bridger Trail fertile lands in the west. - Worked as a guide and an army
Give two thingsthat you can learnabout the life of a mountain man, from source A. Source B
Wagon Train Migrants PUSH Factors PULL FactorsWhy go west? Fertile Land Economic Depression Unemployment Cheap LandBefore 1845, most Spacious Agricultural DepressionAmericans lived on the Religion – convert Indians Too crowdedEast coast of America. But Stories of Prosperity Land is expensiveas things started getting Manifest Destiny Nothing to looseworse in the east, the Good Climateprospect of starting afreshin the west became evenmore enticing. MANIFEST DESTINY: The belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent The trek across the Great Plains was VERY hard. Harsh weather, hostile Indians, lack of water and food and treacherous mountains were only the beginning of their problems.
Source C Give two things that you can learn about the wagon train migrants, from source C.
The mining towns were full of Gold Rush disease and crime. As they were setIn 1848, gold was discovered in the up so fast, there was no law andfoothills of the Sierra Nevada. By order. Claim-jumping, which is1849, there were 90,000 gold miners stealing another man’s claim to minedigging for gold. after gold has been discovered there, was very common.Most didn’t find gold and either wentback east or wandered from mine to Groups of ordinary citizens set upmine. The lucky ones found gold and vigilantes, where they took the lawbecame extremely rich. into their own hands. Their ‘trials’ were quick and unfair, and innocentAll of a sudden there were thousands people were often hanged.of men in the West needing a place tostay, so mining towns were built. Theywere made from shacks and were inthe middle of nowhere. Most of themwere unmarried men, who spent a lotof time in saloons; drinking, gambling Gradually the surface gold wasand hiring prostitutes. exhausted, and bigger mining companies with better machineryNot only White American people starting moving west. They hiredcame to find gold; there were men who brought their families withChinese, Asian and Black people as them. This meant the mining towns
The Mormons Why were they persecuted? The Mormons were • Joseph Smith was called Joseph Smith is born blamed for Mountain a fraud in 1806 Meadows massacre • Kept themselves to themselves In 1849 Brigham • They were successful so Joseph Smith receives Young asked for non-Mormons were the golden plates in ‘Deseret’ to become a jealous Palmyra state • Made a scapegoat • Polygamy was against They move to Kirtland people’s views and it becomes the They settle in Great Salt Lake City • There were rumors that ‘City of God’ they freed slaves The Mormons are driven from country to Under Brigham Young country from 1833- they reached Winter 1838 Quarter in Autumn 1846 The Mormons build a city called Nauvoo, with it’s own Joseph Smith shot in laws, judges and prison 1844 troops 1839