Biometric is the science and technology of
measuring and analyzing the biological data.
It measures and analyze human body
characteristics such as fingerprints, DNA, eye
retinas and irises, voice patterns, facial patterns and
hands measurements for authentication purposes.
Biometric devices consist of:
A reader or scanning device.
Software that converts the scanned information into
digital form and compares match points.
A database that stores the biometric data for
Biometrics can be sorted into two
Examples: Face recognition,
Fingerprints, Hand geometry,
Iris recognition and DNA.
Examples: Signature and Voice.
Basic Characteristics of BIOMETRIC
Universality: Every person should have the
Uniqueness: Generally, no two people have
Permanence: The characteristics should not vary
History of Biometrics:
The term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek
words bio (life) and metric (to measure).
The first known example of biometrics in practice
was a form of finger printing being used in China in
the 14th century, as reported by explorer Joao de
Barros. He wrote that the Chinese merchants were
stamping children's palm prints and footprints on
paper with ink to distinguish the young children
from one another.
Working of Biometric System:
Biometrics systems work by recording and
Biometric devices consist of a reader or scanning
device software that converts the gathered
information into digital form and a database that
stores the biometric data.
All biometric systems works in a four-stage process
that consists of the following steps:
1) Capture: A biometric system collects the sample of
biometric features like fingerprint, voice etc of the
person who wants to login to the system.
2) Extraction: The data extraction is done uniquely
from the sample and a template is created.
3.) Comparison: The template is then compared with
a new sample.
4.) Match/non-match: The system then decides
the features extracted from the new sample are a
match or a non-match with the template.
Biometric systems can seem complicated, but they
all use the same three steps:
Fingerprint Recognition is one of the most used
and familiar biometric methods.
Fingerprint Recognition Technology has many
security application in the real world:
Network/PC Login Security
Web Page Security
Employee Recognition Systems
Time and Attendance Systems
Face Recognition is a biometric technique for
automatic identification or verification of a person from
a digital image or a video frame from a video source.
Iris Recognition is another biometric authentication
method that uses pattern recognition techniques
based on high-resolution images of the irises of an
Iris recognition technology has become popular in
security applications because of its ease of use,
accuracy, and safety.
It is the colored area of the eye that surrounds the
It is a protected internal organ whose random
texture is stable throughout life.
The iris patterns are obtained through a video-
based image acquisition system.
Iris recognition technology is currently used at
physical access points demanding high
security, such as airports, government
buildings, and research laboratories.
Smart Cards are digital security pocket-sized cards
with embedded integrated circuits which can
Smart cards can be used for
identification, authentication, and data storage.
It can also be used as a medium to provide a
means of effecting business transactions in a
flexible, secure, standard way with minimal human
It is an encryption technique for transforming
information using an algorithm (called cipher) to
make it unreadable to anyone except those
possessing special knowledge, usually referred to as
Encryption has long been used by militaries and
governments to facilitate secret communication.
Encryption Systems can be used to protect data in
transit, for example data being transferred via
networks (e.g. the Internet, e-commerce), mobile
telephones, wireless microphones, wireless
intercom systems, Bluetooth devices and bank
automatic teller machines.
6)Voice Recognition or Speaker
Voice Recognition or Speaker Recognition is a
biometric process of validating a user's claimed
identity using characteristics extracted from their
Thus voice recognition can be an effective technique
in user authentication and identification.
Popular and low-cost, but less accurate.
7) Signature Verification:
Biometric signatures are based upon recording
various characteristics of one’s signing style to carry
out the process of identification in the future.
Amount of pressure employed, angle of
writing, formation of letters and other traits, which
are categorized as behavioral biometrics, form the
basis of biometric signature recognition technology.
Biometric signatures are used in banking and
finance industry in order to restrict duplicate
Various government offices and defense
organizations make use of this technology to
prevent the unauthorized access to sensitive data
as well as for user identification.
The main advantage of this technique is that no
forgery of biometric signatures is possible, as it
involves distinct writing styles of different
Issues and Concerns:
Privacy and Discrimination
Danger to owners of secured items
Privacy and Discrimination:
It is possible that data obtained during biometric
enrollment may be used in ways for which the
enrolled individual has not consented.
Most of the people consider biometric devices to be
unsafe for human health.
If a token or a password is lost or stolen, it can be
replaced by a newer version.
This is not naturally available in biometrics.
Soft biometrics traits are physical and behavioral
human characteristics, which have been derived
from the way human beings normally distinguish.
Danger to owners:
When thieves cannot get access to secure
properties, there is chance that the thieves will stalk
the property owner to gain access.
The damage to the owner could be irreversible.
Eliminate Problems with Passwords
Reduce Administrator Costs
Link Security to an Individual or Event
One of the main reasons for using biometrics is
the increased security it provides.
This makes security more personal.
This will eliminate fraud caused by lost or stolen
2)Eliminate password problems
4)Link security to an event
5)Reduce administrator costs
The fingerprints of those people working in
Chemical industries are often affected.
It can make mistakes with the dryness or dirty of
the finger’s skin,