Spanish empires


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Spanish Empires

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Spanish empires

  1. 1. Spanish Empire in the Americas Nadya Dooley 12/7/10
  2. 2. Diego Vasicuio <ul><li>Name: Diego Vascuio </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Male </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Salamanca </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation: Priest </li></ul><ul><li>Lifespan: 1580 - 1670s </li></ul><ul><li>Diego was a quiet and cautious man and because he avoided the Spanish Imperial System as much as he could, he lived a long life. But this backfired one day: </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish were trying to convert the Indians into catholics but Diego and some others defied them and continued to pray to an idol called Sorimana, trying to keep the tradition alive and passing it down to their children </li></ul><ul><li>So Diego was reported to the Spanish and the Spanish discovered a flourishing and determined group of worshipers. They were outraged! They thought it offensive </li></ul><ul><li>The Sorimana was confiscated and publicly punished. Diego and the others swore that they were now surrendering themselves to the true god. However, Diego survived and escaped, living with the European domination </li></ul><ul><li>But the Soriman they had forfited had been a fake! Once they were safe, Diego and the others continued their rituals </li></ul>
  3. 3. Martín Ocelotl <ul><li>Name: Martín Ocelotl </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Male </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Chinanta </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation: Priest and cult leader </li></ul><ul><li>Lifespan: 1496 - 1537 </li></ul><ul><li>Ocelotl (At that time only a religious prodigy) was captured and imprisoned by Moctezuma, the lord at that time of the Mexica-Aztec world. He was one of the few imprisoned to avoid execution </li></ul><ul><li>Ocelotl had predicted the coming of bearded white men who would take control of the land </li></ul><ul><li>Ocelotl was released in 1521 as the city was attacked and destroyed. He took up residence by a nearby lake. He managed to elude both the plunder of the city and the smallpox outbreak </li></ul><ul><li>He continued to predict things, and had religious meetings in his cellar where he even did things like planting food for a famine that he predicted </li></ul><ul><li>The new Bishop decided he was a threat and took action, banishing him from New Spain to be sent to Seville and jailed for his whole life. He lost many of his possessions after his banishment and they were sold off for a huge amount of money </li></ul><ul><li>Ocelotl’s ship was lost at sea and he was never heard from again… </li></ul><ul><li>But hidden and sneakily, others in his home town kept his memory alive </li></ul>
  4. 4. Juan de Morga and Gertrudis de Escobar <ul><li>Names: Juan de Morga/Gertrudis de Escobar </li></ul><ul><li>Genders: Male/Female </li></ul><ul><li>Locations: Central Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Occupations: Rebelious Slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Lifespans: 17th Century </li></ul><ul><li>Both Juan and Gertrudis were young mulatto slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Their story was half lost, revealed by a series of documents that show two brave people struggling to survive a harsh slave life </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves like them were important to the armed struggle to destroy the restrictive colonial social order </li></ul><ul><li>They were both rebellious slaves fighting for freedom against the many unjust things that had happened to them </li></ul><ul><li>Gertrudis fought for her freedom but nobody knows what happened to her. Juan was unidentified if he was able to be a free slave </li></ul>
  5. 5. Isabel Moctezuma <ul><li>Name: Isabel Moctezuma </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Female </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation: Princess and Pioneer </li></ul><ul><li>Lifespan: 1509 - 1550 </li></ul><ul><li>Moctezuma was one of the most famous women of her time and was 1 of 150 children of the Aztec empire, Moctezuma II. Few of his children were actually legitimate heirs though </li></ul><ul><li>At a very young age (11), Moctezuma was married to her uncle. But he died of smallpox within the next 2 months. </li></ul><ul><li>She remarried to her cousin, the last Aztec empire. He too was killed. In the end, she married 5 times! </li></ul><ul><li>In 1526, when another of her husbands was killed, Moctezuma became a symbol of great legal and sociological importance to the Hispanization and Christianziation of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>When she died in 1550, she divided up her property to her children (7 of them) and freed her slaves </li></ul>
  6. 6. Beatriz de Padilla <ul><li>Name: Beatriz de Padilla </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Female </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Lagos </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation: Mistress and Mother </li></ul><ul><li>Lifespan: 1620 - 1650 </li></ul><ul><li>Beatriz de Padilla was accused of doing secret and horrible things to her two lovers with magic and poison </li></ul><ul><li>She never married but had four children- two sons and two daughters </li></ul><ul><li>She was also accused of hurting and torturing the slaves in the house, but later one of the slaves admitted that she’d invented the rumor though, and was punished </li></ul><ul><li>The trial ended and Beatriz was released to go back home </li></ul><ul><li>The New Spain women performed a big role in the historical development of Mexican society </li></ul>
  7. 7. Miguel Hernández <ul><li>Name: Miguel Hernández </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Male </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation: Master of mule trains </li></ul><ul><li>Lifespan: 1550 - 1604 </li></ul><ul><li>Miguel Hernádez was a free mulatto who lived a long life. He had a wife (He married Ana Hernández) and children. He wasn’t a rebel or adventurer, but a diligent and persistent man </li></ul><ul><li>Although he loved Mexico, he moved to Querétaro because he thought there was a better change of success there. Since he was a skilled and literate man, he quickly became a leading mulatto citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Once moved in, he started his own freighting business. He also sold mules and made money by petty trade </li></ul><ul><li>Although he wasn’t at the top, he earned enough money to get valuable property in town and buy a slave </li></ul><ul><li>He was a respected man </li></ul>
  8. 8. Enrico Martínez <ul><li>Name: Enrico Martínez </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Male </li></ul><ul><li>Location: Veracruz </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation: Printer and engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Lifespan: 1557 - 1632 </li></ul><ul><li>Martínez was a very learned man </li></ul><ul><li>When he was in his 30s, he moved to Mexico City. It was his job, being Chief engineer of the drainage, to prevent flooding </li></ul><ul><li>In 1629 he was sent to jail on the ludicrous charge of sabotaging his own work! That same year, heavy rains caused the whole city to flood (The worst flood in the colony’s history!) and it stayed under water until 1634 </li></ul><ul><li>Enrico continued to struggle along, but he was never very successful. Along with his mistakes, the social structure of the colony caused this. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tula The Mythical Beginning <ul><li>Tula was an ancient civilization in Central Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>The Toltecs of Tula remain the masters of material, mechanical and intellectual refinments of civilization </li></ul><ul><li>When Tula collapsed in the 12th Century, migration was the only option </li></ul><ul><li>Tula left its mark on the whole history of ancient Mexico </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Empire Builders <ul><li>1440- Moctezuma I (“The father of the Aztec Empire”), forty years old, came into power </li></ul><ul><li>His reign was full of catastrophes: 1446- locusts devoured the harvest. 1449- the city was flooded. 1450 - 1454- a whole series of frosts, famine and disastrous harvests produced a wave of panic over the whole valley </li></ul><ul><li>The Aztecs believed that times consists of a chain of cycles, doomed to bring us to our destruction </li></ul><ul><li>To appease the gods, the Aztecs gave sacrificial offerings: Moctezuma decided to start wars to get prisoners for the gods. The wars were called the Wars of the Flowers </li></ul>In 1465, Moctezuma conquered Chalco. He died in 1469
  11. 11. The Aztecs Conquering Heroes <ul><li>In 1473, a serious crisis occurred as Tlatelolco rose up against its neighbor, Tenochitilán. Axayácatl, Moctezuma’s successor, emerged victorious </li></ul><ul><li>In 1487, many thousands were sacrificed to the gods. </li></ul><ul><li>The Aztecs thought that if they didn’t feed the gods, they would destroy the universe </li></ul><ul><li>In 1503, Moctezuma II rose into power. He is the best know of the Aztec rulers. He was extremely religious and had a thirst for power </li></ul><ul><li>Under his rule, the Aztec system changed from a crude democracy to one of absolute power </li></ul>
  12. 12. The clash of two worlds <ul><li>In the 1st decade of the 16th century, Moctezuma II thought he had become the “master of the world”, with only the gods above him </li></ul><ul><li>But the Aztecs began to grow nervous as Moctezuma’s fall was predicted </li></ul><ul><li>When in 1517 when Hernán Cortés and the Spaniards arrived, Moctezuma wasn’t sure whether to attack them or befriend them. He sent them gifts: jewels, feathers and human sacrifices </li></ul><ul><li>He then changed his mind and attacked them. But the Spanish were immovable and Moctezuma was uncertain about what to do </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Cortés, the Spanish left the coast and attacked Tenochtitlan </li></ul><ul><li>He continued his conquest, and in 1521 the Aztecs fell. In 1522, Cortés became the govener of New Spain </li></ul>
  13. 13. From Resistance to Collaboration <ul><li>Some of the Aztec’s resisted Cortés ruling and hoped for the return of the old order. Cortés put a stop to this </li></ul><ul><li>He didn’t just ask for submission to the Spanish, he also demanded that the Indians convert to Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>From 1525 on, the Aztec clergy was forced to practice it’s rites in secret </li></ul><ul><li>But the attempts of resistance failed due to the lack of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100 languages were spoken in New Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Monks went out to baptize the leaders, hoping that the others would follow their lead </li></ul><ul><li>Moctezuma’s daughter was baptized and given the name Isabella. She was married to a conquistador </li></ul><ul><li>The Indians learned to read and write under the monks guidance </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Aftermath of the Conquest <ul><li>The Christianization of the Indians was no longer a brutal force and the church was now seen as the community’s new axis </li></ul><ul><li>In the 18th Century, the Indian population started to grow back and in the middle of the century there were riots and revolts </li></ul><ul><li>Little by little, slowly but subtly, the Aztec’s wove in their own traditions and practices of which there are still traces of today </li></ul><ul><li>In 1910, the Revolution ended slavery </li></ul>
  15. 15. Spanish Empire Imperio EspaÒol <ul><li>The Spanish Empire consisted of the territories and colonies administered directly by Spain in Europe, the Americas, Africa and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>At it’s peak, it was one of the largest empires in history </li></ul><ul><li>It was also one of the first global empires </li></ul><ul><li>It lasted from the 15th - 20th centuries </li></ul><ul><li>By the 17th century Spain controlled an empire on a scale and world distribution that had never been approached by its predecessors </li></ul><ul><li>But Spain declined and by the early 20th century, it only held territories in Africa </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Black Legend La Leyenda Negra <ul><li>The Black Legend is a term coined by Julián Juderías in his 1914 book, The Black Legend Of Historical Truth </li></ul><ul><li>It gives reference to the examples of anti-Spanish propaganda and Hispanophobia in the early modern period </li></ul><ul><li>It is understood as an example of historical manipulation and national demonization </li></ul><ul><li>Inside Spain, the Black Legend has been used by regionalists of non-castilian regions of Spain as a political weapon against the central government or Spanish nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Some modern historians have alleged the existence of a “White Legend” in an attempt to describe Spain's history in a more positive way </li></ul>
  17. 17. Manila Galleon <ul><li>The Manila Galleons were ships that sailed across the pacific ocean a few times a year </li></ul><ul><li>This started in 1565 with the discovery of the ocean passage by Andrés de Urdaneta, and continued until 1815 when the Mexican War of Independence put a permanent stop to the trade route </li></ul><ul><li>The Manila galleons constitute the fulfillment of Columbus' dream of sailing west to go east to bring the riches of the Indies to Spain, and the rest of Europe </li></ul>