French colonies in america

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French colonies in america

  1. 1. The French in North America Nadya Dooley 12/9/10
  2. 2. American Colonies 5- Canada and Iroquoia <ul><li>In the 16th Century, English, French and Dutch mariners crossed the Atlantic to plunder the Spanish colonial towns </li></ul><ul><li>The French discovered fish and furs: two commodities that made northern colonization possible </li></ul><ul><li>The Indian became dependant on European metals, cloth and alcohol. This meant that the Europeans had to continue trading with them because stopping would cause war </li></ul><ul><li>In the late 16th Century, the French took an early lead in the fur trade </li></ul><ul><li>By 1580, the fisheries and the whale and seal hunts employed at least 400 vessels and around 12,000 men </li></ul><ul><li>Furs, like gold and silver, could pay easily for its transatlantic transportation </li></ul><ul><li>As the Indians believed that all objects posses a spiritual power ( Manitou ), especially bright and shiny objects, they cherished copper ornaments </li></ul><ul><li>Some mariners kidnapped Indians to use them as navigators. However, the Indians rarely survived to do the task, falling ill from European diseases </li></ul><ul><li>As the Indians depleted their supply of beaver to hunt and trade, they moved into neighboring territory to look for more. This caused life for the Indians to turn into a more violent, warfare kind of living, always quarreling with the others </li></ul>The fur trade
  3. 3. American Colonies 5- Canada and Iroquoia <ul><li>At the beginning of the 17th Century, French fur traders focused on reclaiming St. Lawrence Valley </li></ul><ul><li>It was a poor place for farming, but ideal for fur trade </li></ul><ul><li>The Huron’s population was so large that they overhunted the nearby animals. This meant they couldn’t contribute to the fur trade </li></ul><ul><li>In making Indian friends, the Europeans made Indian enemies too </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of firearms revolutionized Indian warefare. Champlain and his men helped their Indian friends win several bloody battles: completely surprising the opposing force </li></ul>Canada The Five Nations <ul><li>To appease grief from lost battles, restore power, and build their status, Iroquois warriors had “mourning wars” in which they captured prisoners from their enemies </li></ul><ul><li>When someone was taken captive, they would be slowly tortured to death. It was a contest between the skill of the tortures and the endurance of the victim who would try to remain stoic and insult his captures </li></ul><ul><li>When killed, he would be chopped up and fed to the village. Some would be “adopted” instead of killed, tortured only a little and then cared for and given an Iroquois name </li></ul><ul><li>The great league was a ceremonial and religious forum for promoting calmness and peace </li></ul><ul><li>The Iroquois thought of themselves as devoted to peace, but others knew them as very fearsome in war </li></ul>
  4. 4. American Colonies 5- Canada and Iroquoia <ul><li>Unfortunately for the French, the Dutch could supply better quality metal goods at a lower cost </li></ul><ul><li>The Iroquois continuously attacked the French, weakening them considerably </li></ul><ul><li>Ironically, the French depended on their hostility as a barrier that kept the northern Indians from going south to trade with the Dutch </li></ul>The Dutch Trade <ul><li>French leaders hoped that by converting the Indians to Catholicism, they would make the Indians more dependant and dependable as allies </li></ul><ul><li>17th century Europeans percieved people in terms of social rank not skin color </li></ul><ul><li>The French priests were having trouble converting the Indians to Christianity, so they called in 8 Jesuits. The Indians were impressed by their lack of interest in the land, furs, and women that other Europeans coveted </li></ul><ul><li>The Natives didn’t believe in Heaven and Hell but that they would pass on to a dream world when they died </li></ul><ul><li>The Hurons were attracted to the apparent magical prowess fo the Jesuits rather then to their abstract Christian message </li></ul><ul><li>As the Jesuits gathered a following, they demanded more cultural concessions from their Huron converts. They denounced torture and ritual cannibalism, and the traditional games, feasts and dances </li></ul>Jesuits
  5. 5. American Colonies 5- Canada and Iroquoia <ul><li>In the 1640’s and 1650’s, the Indians attacked and killed each other with ferocity like never before </li></ul><ul><li>The Iroquois slaughtered hundreds of Hurons and took hundreds more captive </li></ul><ul><li>During the assaults, Jesuits would baptize as many Hurons as they could before they were burned or hacked to pieces </li></ul><ul><li>Trade, alliance and war entangled colonizers and natives in ways that they could not have predicted, could rarely control, and might not have chosen had they had that luxury </li></ul>Destruction
  6. 6. American Colonies 16- French America <ul><li>Near the end of the 17th century, the French founded a new colony called Louisiana </li></ul>Emigrants <ul><li>The French realized they needed more colonists to defend Quebec from their English rivals </li></ul><ul><li>The seigneurs brought the first farm families to Canada </li></ul><ul><li>In 1660 the English had 58,000 colonists in New England and the Chesapeake </li></ul><ul><li>In the 17th century, less the 250 families emigrated and only %12 were female </li></ul><ul><li>Most male emigrants arrived in servitude </li></ul><ul><li>Louis XIV expanded his army from 20,000 men in 1661 to 300,000 in 1710 </li></ul><ul><li>Canada suffered a reputation of an immoral, cold and unprofitable land. Because of their short growing seasons, Canadians could not produce the warm-climate staples </li></ul>Opportunity <ul><li>Most of the French who did emigrate to Canada significantly improved their status and standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>There was no direct tax on people or land in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer then four percent of Canadian women entered a convent. This was because of the entry cost and the demanding life of a nun </li></ul>
  7. 7. American Colonies 16- French America <ul><li>To govern New France the crown appointed three rival officials: A military governor-general, a civil administrator and a Catholic bishop </li></ul><ul><li>Like in New Spain, but in contrast to the British colonies, the French established no elective assembly to represent the colonists </li></ul><ul><li>Rather then acquired wealth, noble birth and aristocratic honor were the primary criteria of status and authority in New France </li></ul>Authority The Upper Country <ul><li>In the early 18th Century, New France consisted of two vastly different sectors: the narrow, cultivated St. Lawrence Valley and the vast upper country </li></ul><ul><li>Even where outnumbered and converted to Catholicism, the Canadian Indians remained sovereign peoples rather than French subjects </li></ul><ul><li>The Indians and the French created “The middle ground” which was shared territory that neither the French nor the Indians could dominate </li></ul><ul><li>The French traders married native Indian women </li></ul><ul><li>In the native world there was no agreement without gifts </li></ul><ul><li>In 1712 war became unavoidable </li></ul><ul><li>The middle ground required many presents from the French to keep it stable </li></ul>
  8. 8. American Colonies 16- French America <ul><li>Louisiana was named after King Louis XIV to flatter him </li></ul><ul><li>The French hoped to dominate the interior of North America by linking Canada to Louisiana </li></ul><ul><li>In Louisiana, the French peppered the Indians with trade goods. They tried to reconcile the Choctaw and the Chikasaw </li></ul><ul><li>Lousiana failed to develp a profitable export staple. Louisiana also suffered from abitrary government. </li></ul><ul><li>The Louisiana officials were notoriously corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>The settlers and soldiers of Louisiana found that a white skin brought them far less privilege then it did the common people of Carolina </li></ul>Louisiana Rebels and Allies <ul><li>Louisiana was divided into two landscapes: a small plantation core remade by settlers and an immense hinterland dominated by Indians </li></ul><ul><li>The Petites Nations welcomed the French but as soon as the French grew in numbers, they abandoned gratitude </li></ul><ul><li>Rendered a weak minority in their former homelands, the survivors accepted French domination, surrendering most of their land to the colonists </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana suffered from tension between the Europeans, Indians and slaves </li></ul><ul><li>In the end, the colony cost the French more then it gave in revenue </li></ul>
  9. 9. American Colonies 16- French America <ul><li>From the perspective of Paris, French America was an economic failure </li></ul><ul><li>The Indians relied on European metalware, firearms and gunpowder, and if denied it, they would face hunger and destitution </li></ul><ul><li>The French need native allies to hold he interior and contain the British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard </li></ul><ul><li>At much expense and with great frustrations, the French became entangle in complex relationships with the Indian peoples </li></ul>Dependence

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