French colonies in america
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French colonies in america French colonies in america Presentation Transcript

  • The French in North America Nadya Dooley 12/9/10
  • American Colonies 5- Canada and Iroquoia
    • In the 16th Century, English, French and Dutch mariners crossed the Atlantic to plunder the Spanish colonial towns
    • The French discovered fish and furs: two commodities that made northern colonization possible
    • The Indian became dependant on European metals, cloth and alcohol. This meant that the Europeans had to continue trading with them because stopping would cause war
    • In the late 16th Century, the French took an early lead in the fur trade
    • By 1580, the fisheries and the whale and seal hunts employed at least 400 vessels and around 12,000 men
    • Furs, like gold and silver, could pay easily for its transatlantic transportation
    • As the Indians believed that all objects posses a spiritual power ( Manitou ), especially bright and shiny objects, they cherished copper ornaments
    • Some mariners kidnapped Indians to use them as navigators. However, the Indians rarely survived to do the task, falling ill from European diseases
    • As the Indians depleted their supply of beaver to hunt and trade, they moved into neighboring territory to look for more. This caused life for the Indians to turn into a more violent, warfare kind of living, always quarreling with the others
    The fur trade
  • American Colonies 5- Canada and Iroquoia
    • At the beginning of the 17th Century, French fur traders focused on reclaiming St. Lawrence Valley
    • It was a poor place for farming, but ideal for fur trade
    • The Huron’s population was so large that they overhunted the nearby animals. This meant they couldn’t contribute to the fur trade
    • In making Indian friends, the Europeans made Indian enemies too
    • The introduction of firearms revolutionized Indian warefare. Champlain and his men helped their Indian friends win several bloody battles: completely surprising the opposing force
    Canada The Five Nations
    • To appease grief from lost battles, restore power, and build their status, Iroquois warriors had “mourning wars” in which they captured prisoners from their enemies
    • When someone was taken captive, they would be slowly tortured to death. It was a contest between the skill of the tortures and the endurance of the victim who would try to remain stoic and insult his captures
    • When killed, he would be chopped up and fed to the village. Some would be “adopted” instead of killed, tortured only a little and then cared for and given an Iroquois name
    • The great league was a ceremonial and religious forum for promoting calmness and peace
    • The Iroquois thought of themselves as devoted to peace, but others knew them as very fearsome in war
  • American Colonies 5- Canada and Iroquoia
    • Unfortunately for the French, the Dutch could supply better quality metal goods at a lower cost
    • The Iroquois continuously attacked the French, weakening them considerably
    • Ironically, the French depended on their hostility as a barrier that kept the northern Indians from going south to trade with the Dutch
    The Dutch Trade
    • French leaders hoped that by converting the Indians to Catholicism, they would make the Indians more dependant and dependable as allies
    • 17th century Europeans percieved people in terms of social rank not skin color
    • The French priests were having trouble converting the Indians to Christianity, so they called in 8 Jesuits. The Indians were impressed by their lack of interest in the land, furs, and women that other Europeans coveted
    • The Natives didn’t believe in Heaven and Hell but that they would pass on to a dream world when they died
    • The Hurons were attracted to the apparent magical prowess fo the Jesuits rather then to their abstract Christian message
    • As the Jesuits gathered a following, they demanded more cultural concessions from their Huron converts. They denounced torture and ritual cannibalism, and the traditional games, feasts and dances
    Jesuits
  • American Colonies 5- Canada and Iroquoia
    • In the 1640’s and 1650’s, the Indians attacked and killed each other with ferocity like never before
    • The Iroquois slaughtered hundreds of Hurons and took hundreds more captive
    • During the assaults, Jesuits would baptize as many Hurons as they could before they were burned or hacked to pieces
    • Trade, alliance and war entangled colonizers and natives in ways that they could not have predicted, could rarely control, and might not have chosen had they had that luxury
    Destruction
  • American Colonies 16- French America
    • Near the end of the 17th century, the French founded a new colony called Louisiana
    Emigrants
    • The French realized they needed more colonists to defend Quebec from their English rivals
    • The seigneurs brought the first farm families to Canada
    • In 1660 the English had 58,000 colonists in New England and the Chesapeake
    • In the 17th century, less the 250 families emigrated and only %12 were female
    • Most male emigrants arrived in servitude
    • Louis XIV expanded his army from 20,000 men in 1661 to 300,000 in 1710
    • Canada suffered a reputation of an immoral, cold and unprofitable land. Because of their short growing seasons, Canadians could not produce the warm-climate staples
    Opportunity
    • Most of the French who did emigrate to Canada significantly improved their status and standard of living
    • There was no direct tax on people or land in Canada
    • Fewer then four percent of Canadian women entered a convent. This was because of the entry cost and the demanding life of a nun
  • American Colonies 16- French America
    • To govern New France the crown appointed three rival officials: A military governor-general, a civil administrator and a Catholic bishop
    • Like in New Spain, but in contrast to the British colonies, the French established no elective assembly to represent the colonists
    • Rather then acquired wealth, noble birth and aristocratic honor were the primary criteria of status and authority in New France
    Authority The Upper Country
    • In the early 18th Century, New France consisted of two vastly different sectors: the narrow, cultivated St. Lawrence Valley and the vast upper country
    • Even where outnumbered and converted to Catholicism, the Canadian Indians remained sovereign peoples rather than French subjects
    • The Indians and the French created “The middle ground” which was shared territory that neither the French nor the Indians could dominate
    • The French traders married native Indian women
    • In the native world there was no agreement without gifts
    • In 1712 war became unavoidable
    • The middle ground required many presents from the French to keep it stable
  • American Colonies 16- French America
    • Louisiana was named after King Louis XIV to flatter him
    • The French hoped to dominate the interior of North America by linking Canada to Louisiana
    • In Louisiana, the French peppered the Indians with trade goods. They tried to reconcile the Choctaw and the Chikasaw
    • Lousiana failed to develp a profitable export staple. Louisiana also suffered from abitrary government.
    • The Louisiana officials were notoriously corrupt
    • The settlers and soldiers of Louisiana found that a white skin brought them far less privilege then it did the common people of Carolina
    Louisiana Rebels and Allies
    • Louisiana was divided into two landscapes: a small plantation core remade by settlers and an immense hinterland dominated by Indians
    • The Petites Nations welcomed the French but as soon as the French grew in numbers, they abandoned gratitude
    • Rendered a weak minority in their former homelands, the survivors accepted French domination, surrendering most of their land to the colonists
    • Louisiana suffered from tension between the Europeans, Indians and slaves
    • In the end, the colony cost the French more then it gave in revenue
  • American Colonies 16- French America
    • From the perspective of Paris, French America was an economic failure
    • The Indians relied on European metalware, firearms and gunpowder, and if denied it, they would face hunger and destitution
    • The French need native allies to hold he interior and contain the British colonies on the Atlantic seaboard
    • At much expense and with great frustrations, the French became entangle in complex relationships with the Indian peoples
    Dependence