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US History 1 - Lecture by Adjunct Instructor Sara Emami

US History 1 - Lecture by Adjunct Instructor Sara Emami

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  • 1. THE COLD WAR
  • 2. GROUP 1
  • 3. GROUP 2
  • 4. GROUP 3
  • 5. GROUP 4
  • 6. GROUP 5
  • 7. WHAT WAS THE COLD WAR?     The Cold War (1945–1991) 46 YEARS!!! a state of political conflict, military tension, and economic competition existing after World War II (1939–1945) Tensions arose between the USSR and its satellite states, and the powers of the Western world, including the United States. Conflicts included military coalitions, strategic conventional force deployments, a nuclear arms race, espionage, proxy wars, propaganda, and technological competition, e.g. the Space Race. “Somewhere In the USSR.” Photo from Soviet Photo magazine 1970. Via Soviet Photo Daily.
  • 8. THE AXIS VS THE ALLIES  During WWII major disagreements formed between allied powers including the USSR, the US, the United Kingdom and France • Disagreements arose regarding the configuration of the postwar world.  At the end of the war, they occupied most of Europe  The US and USSR became most powerful military forces.   The Soviet Union created the Eastern Bloc with the eastern European countries it occupied, annexing some as Soviet Socialist Republics and maintaining others as satellite states, some of which were later consolidated as the Warsaw Pact (1955–1991). The US and some western European countries established containment of communism as a defensive policy, establishing alliances (e.g. NATO, 1949) to that end.
  • 9. INCREASED OPPOSITION: The emergence of Communism    Nations coordinated the rebuilding of western Europe (post WWII), particularly western Germany. USSR shared a strong opposition to Germany. In Latin America and Southeast Asia, the USSR harbored communist revolutions. • Were in opposition to several western countries and their regional allies.  Some countries aligned with NATO and the Warsaw Pact but in turn, non-aligned country blocs also emerged.
  • 10. WARSAW PACT AND NATO Warsaw Pact  the informal name for the mutual defense Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance commonly known as the Warsaw Pact subscribed by eight communist states in Eastern Europe, which was established at the USSR’s initiative and realized on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw, Poland. NATO In the year 1949, an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
  • 11. INTERNATIONAL TENSIONS “The Arms Race”  The Cold War featured international high tension •      the Berlin Blockade (1948–1949) The Korean War (1950–1953) The Berlin Crisis of 1961 The Vietnam War (1959–1975), the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) – We will discuss this in our next lecture The Soviet war in Afghanistan (1979– 1989), and the Able Archer 83 NATO exercises in November 1983. Mutual Assured Destruction
  • 12. HOW THE COLD WAR AFFECTED THE UNITED STATES THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS AND THE BAY OF PIGS  The Bay of Pigs Invasion or “La Batalla de Girón, or Playa Girón in Cuba” • • • •  unsuccessful attempt by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles invade southern Cuba with support from US government armed forces to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro. April 1961 The Cuban armed forces • trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the exile combatants in three days. Bad Cuban-American relations were made worse by the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. OPTIONS: 1.) Naval blockade - shipments of missiles 2.) The “do nothing” option was not feasible because Congress had already passed a joint resolution backing military action if offensive weapons were found in Cuba, and Republicans were using the possibility of the existence of 3.) Diplomacy and Peace Talks between Khrushchev and Kennedy.
  • 13. THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS      The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation between the United States, the Soviet Union and Cuba in October 1962,, In the Soviet Union, former Eastern Bloc countries, and other communist countries such as North Korea and the nation of China. In September 1962, the Cuban and Soviet governments placed nuclear missiles in Cuba. When United States military intelligence discovered the weapons, the U.S. government sought to do all it could to ensure the removal of the missiles. The crisis ranks with the Berlin Blockade as one of the major confrontations of the Cold War. ARMS RACE AND PARANOIA
  • 14. CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS (continued) Testimony from retired Air Force Major (WWII sailor, Cold War), Roberto De La Cruz (Sara’s grandfather), referencing the Cuban Missile Crisis paranoia. “We (the United States Air Force) were given direct orders by Kennedy to prepare the launching of our Missiles from the Niagara Falls Missile Site. Nora (Sara’s grandmother) and your mother (Sara’s mother) were told to go underground and take the children on base with them when I made the call to launch the missiles. We did not know if we would wake up the next morning as it may have been the end of the world.”    At 9 a.m., on October 28th, a new message from Khrushchev was broadcast on Radio Moscow. Khrushchev stated that, "the Soviet government, in addition to previously issued instructions on the cessation of further work at the building sites for the weapons, has issued a new order on the dismantling of the weapons which you describe as 'offensive' and their crating and return to the Soviet Union.“
  • 15. THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS AND PRESIDENT KENNEY  Kennedy immediately responded, issuing a statement calling the letter "an important and constructive contribution to peace…I consider my letter to you of October twenty-seventh and your reply of today as firm undertakings on the part of both our governments which should be promptly carried out... The U.S. will make a statement in the framework of the Security Council in reference to Cuba as follows: it will declare that the United States of America will respect the inviolability of Cuban borders, its sovereignty, that it take the pledge not to interfere in internal affairs, not to intrude themselves and not to permit our territory to be used as a bridgehead for the invasion of Cuba, and will restrain those who would plan to carry an aggression against Cuba, either from U.S. territory or from the territory of other countries neighboring to Cuba."
  • 16. THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION   1980s – US increased diplomatic, military, and economic pressures against the USSR, which had already suffered severe economic stagnation. Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the “liberalizing reforms of perestroika” • "reconstruction“ or "reorganization“ - year 1987 • glasnost or "openness“ - year 1985). • The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 • The collapse of The Soviet Union left the United States as the MOST POWERFUL military power. • On the contrary, the collapse of the Soviet Union left Russia possessing most of the Soviet Union's nuclear arsenal. • Russia’s nuclear arsenal poses a great militaristic threat to the global community.