18059386 Indian Industrial Law 4 Major Laws Industrial Dispute Act Payment Of Wages Act Minimum Wages Act Gratuity Act[1]
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18059386 Indian Industrial Law 4 Major Laws Industrial Dispute Act Payment Of Wages Act Minimum Wages Act Gratuity Act[1]

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18059386 Indian Industrial Law 4 Major Laws Industrial Dispute Act Payment Of Wages Act Minimum Wages Act Gratuity Act[1] 18059386 Indian Industrial Law 4 Major Laws Industrial Dispute Act Payment Of Wages Act Minimum Wages Act Gratuity Act[1] Presentation Transcript

  • Presented By: SundarGanesh Kumar,
    S.Y.B.M.S. Sem-III, Roll No.: 44
    Vivek College Of Commerce
    Industrial Law
  • The Industrial Dispute Act, 1947
    The Payment Of Wages Act, 1936
    The Minimum Wages Act, 1948
    The Payment Of Gratuity Act, 1972
    Major Industrial Laws
  • Important Definitions
    Authorities under the Industrial Disputes Act
    Award & Settlement
    Strikes
    Lock-outs
    Lay Offs
    Retrenchments
    Closure
    Case Law Studies
    The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947
    • Industry [S.2(j)]: means any business, trade, undertaking, manufacture or calling of employers and includes any calling, service, employment, handicraft, or industrial occupation or avocation of workmen.
    • Employer [S.2(g)]: means-
    In relation to an industry carried on by or under the authority of any department of the Central Government or a State Government – the authority prescribed in this behalf;
    In relation to an industry carried on by or on behalf of a local authority – the Chief Executive Officer of that authority.
    Important Definitions
  • Industrial Dispute [S.2(k)]: means any dispute or difference between-
    Employers and Employers, or
    Employers and Workmen, or
    Workmen and Workmen,
    which is connected with-
    The employment or non-employment, or
    The terms of employment, or
    The conditions of labour.
    of any person related directly or indirectly to the industry.
    Important Definitions
    • Workman [S.2(s)]: means any person (including an apprentice) employed in any industry to do any-
    Manual
    Skilled
    Unskilled
    Technical
    Operational
    Clerical
    Supervisory
    work for hire or reward, whether the terms of employment be expressed or implied, and in relation to an Industrial Dispute, includes any such person who has been dismissed, discharged or retrenched in connection with, or as a consequence of, that dispute or whose dismissal, discharge or retrenchment has led
    Important Definitions
    • Workman (contd.): to that dispute. Workman does not include any such person, who is:-
    Subject to the Air Force Act, 1950, the Army Act, 1950, or the Navy Act, 1957, or
    Employed in the police service or as an officer or other employee of a prison, or
    Employed mainly in a managerial or administrative capacity, or
    Employed in a supervisory capacity, and draws wages exceeding Rs.1600 per mensem, or
    Exercises functions mainly of managerial nature, by the duties attached to the office or by the reason of power vested in him.
    Important Definitions
    • Public Utility Service [S.2(n)]: means-
    Any railway service or any transport service for the carriage of passengers or goods by air;
    Any service in, or in connection with the working of, any major port or dock;
    Any section of an industrial establishment, on the working of which the safety of the establishment or the workmen employed therein depends;
    Any postal, telegraph or telephone service;
    Any industry which supplies power, light or water to the public;
    Any system of public conservancy or sanitation;
    Any industry specified in the first schedule.
    Important Definitions
  • The Act has set up machinery to deal with the Industrial Disputes. These authorities are meant for dealing with the Industrial Disputes. Even though the name authority is used, it does not mean each and every authority has power to make a binding decision.
    The Authorities are:
    Works Committee (Section 3)
    Conciliation Officer (Section 4,11 & 12)
    Board Of Conciliation (Section 11 & 13)
    Court Of Inquiry (Section 6,10,11 &14)
    Labour Court (Section 7,11 &15)
    Industrial Tribunal (Section 7A,11 & 15)
    National Tribunal (Section 7b,11 & 15)
    Authorities under the Act
    • Award: means an interim or final determination of any Industrial Dispute to any question relating thereto, by any Labour Court, Industrial or National Tribunal and includes arbitration award made under section 10A.
    • Settlement (Section 18-21): means a settlement arrived at in the course of conciliation proceedings and includes a written agreement between the employer and workman arrived at, otherwise than in the course of conciliation proceedings where such agreement has been signed by the parties thereto in such manner as may be prescribed and a copy thereof has been sent to an officer authorized in this behalf by the Appropriate Government and the Conciliation Officer.
    Award & Settlement
    • Strike: means cessation of work by a body of persons in any Industry:-
    Acting in combination, or
    A concerted refusal, or
    A refusal under a common understanding,
    of any number of persons who are or have been so employed to continue to work or accept employment.
    Strike is a weapon in the hands of the workmen, in the process of collective bargaining. Strike tests the economic bargaining power of each side and forces each of them to face the need it has for others contribution. The economic pressure of the strike is the catalyst which makes the agreement possible. Collectively bargaining is a process of reaching agreement and strikes are an integral and frequently necessary part of that process.
    Strikes
  • Section 22 says “In case an industry is a public utility service, no person employed in it shall g o on strike in breach of contract-
    Without giving to the employer notice of a strike, provided within 6 weeks before striking,
    Within 14 days of giving such notice, or
    Before the expiry of the date of strike specified in any such notice; or
    During the pendency of any conciliation proceedings before a conciliation offices and 7 days after the completion of these proceedings”
    Strikes: in Public Utility Services
    • Notice of strike should be in prescribed form.
    • The copy of this notice is to be submitted to the conciliation officer, or such authority as may be prescribed by the Appropriate Government.
    • The employer, on receipt of notice of strike from employees, shall report within 5 days to-
    Appropriate Government
    Authority prescribed by the Appropriate Government- which states the number of notices received on that day.
    • The date on which the workman proposed to go on strike should be specified in the notice.
    • A fresh notice is necessary when the date of strike specified in the original notice expires.
    Strikes: in Public Utility Services
  • A new notice is necessary, when the conciliation proceedings fail, which have started after the notice.
    The object of giving the notice is to allow the other party to come to terms, or to approach the authorities to intervene and stop the strike, if possible.
    During the period of notice, the parties can respond to each other.
    Illegality attaches only to that period which remains to expire before the commencement of action.
    Strikes: in Public Utility Services
    • Section 23 states the general prohibition of strike.
    • No workman who is employed in any Industrial Establishment shall go on strike in the following circumstances:
    During the pendency of conciliation proceedings before a Board and 7 days after the completion of these proceedings;
    During the pendency of proceedings before a Labour Court, Industrial Tribunal or National Tribunal, and 2 months after the completion of these proceedings;
    During the pendency of arbitration proceedings before an arbitrator and 2 months after the completion of these proceedings; where notification has been issued under S 10A(3A)
    During any period in which a settlement or award is in operation in respect of any of the matters covered by the settlement or award.
    Strikes: General Prohibition
    • Lock-out [Section 2(I)] means-
    The temporary closing down of a place of employment,
    The suspension of work, or
    The refusal by an employer to continue to employ any number of persons employed by him.
    • As strike is a weapon in the hands of workmen for enforcing their demand, lock-out is a weapon in the hands of the employer to persuade the workers to agree to his point of view and accept his demands in the struggle between capital and labour.
    • The notice of lock-0ut shall be given in prescribed manner.
    • On event of employer giving notice of lock-out on any day to any person employed by him, he shall report the number of notices given to the Appropriate Government, within 5 days of giving such a notice.
    Lock-outs
    • The conditions of lock-outs in public utility services are dictated under Section 22 and are same as the conditions of Strikes.
    • The provisions for general prohibition of lock-outs are dictated under Section 23, same as the provisions of Strikes.
    • The notice of lock-out is not necessary when a lock-out is already existent in case of a public utility service.
    • However, the employer shall send intimation of lock-out to the authority specified by the Appropriate Government, on the day of declaration of lockout itself.
    Prohibition of Lock-outs
    • Wages are generally not provided during the period of strikes when it is proven illegal under the Act.
    • However, the factor of justification of reasons leading to the Act of going on strike, also decide the payment or non-payment of wages to the workmen.
    • If a strike is not justified, but legal; or if a strike is illegal, but duly justified, the workmen are entitled to receive wages for the period of the strike.
    • A lock-out in violation of the statutory requirements is illegal and unjustified and workers are entitled to wages for the lock-out period.
    • For a legal lock-out, no wages are payable to the workmen.
    Strikes & Lockouts: Wages & Justification
    • Prohibition of financial aid to illegal strikes or lock-outs (S.25)
    • Penalty for illegal strike (S.26): Any workman who commences, continues or acts in furtherance of an illegal strike shall be punishable with imprisonment up to 1 month, or fine up to Rs.50 or both.
    • Penalty for instigation (S.27): Any person who instigates or incites other to take part in a strike or lock-out which is illegal shall be punishable with imprisonment up to 6 months or with fine up to Rs.1000 or both.
    • Penalty for giving financial aid to illegal strikes and lock-outs (S.28): Punishable with imprisonment up to 6 months or fine up to Rs.1000 or both.
    Strikes & Lock-outs: Penalties
    • Lay-Off means:
    The failure
    Refusal, or
    Inability of an employer on account of shortage of:
    Coal,
    Power or raw materials, or
    The accumulation of stocks, or
    The break-down of machinery, or
    Natural calamity, or
    For any other connected reason to give employment;
    to a workman whose name is borne on the muster rolls
    of his industrial establishment and who has not been retrenched.
    Lay-Offs
    • Lay-Off means putting aside workmen temporarily.
    • The duration of a Lay-Off should not be longer than that of the current emergency.
    • The employer – workman relationship does not come to an end, but is suspended during the period of emergency.
    • The workman’s name should be essentially present on the muster rolls of the industry for claiming relief.
    • The workman should not have been retrenched.
    • If work is given by the employer on a different shift, it would be considered as a half-day lay-off.
    • If employment is not given within two hours, it would be considered as having laid-off that whole day.
    Lay-Offs
    • The payment of compensation for a lay-off is dependent upon-
    Status of a workman, i.e., badli, casual, or permanent
    Type of service, i.e., continuous or seasonal
    Number of workmen in the Industrial Establishment
    • Industrial Establishments are classified into three groups depending on the number of workers employed in that establishment:
    Where the number of workmen is less than 50
    Where the number of workmen is 50 – 100
    Where the number of workmen is more than 100.
    Lay-Offs: Rules and Provisions
    • Compensation is provided to the workmen in an Industrial Establishment on the basis of the category they fall in from the above mentioned three groups:
    Nil compensation for IEs with less than 50 workmen.
    Compensation at the rate of 50% of the total basic pay and dearness allowance to a time limit of 45 days for IEs with 50 – 100 workmen.
    Compensation at the rate of 50% of the total basic pay and dearness allowance to a time limit of 45 days for IEs with more than 100 workmen.
    • Workmen are not entitled to any compensation if alternate employment is provided by the employer in a radius of 5 miles, or if the lay-off is a result of a strike.
    Lay-Offs: Compensation
    • The employer of the Industrial Establishment is required to prepare a muster register that shows the name and other requisite details of all workmen in the prescribed format.
    • Section 25M states that an employer of an Industrial Establishment employing 100 or more workmen on average per day in the preceding 12 months is required to obtain previous permission of specified authority appointed for the purpose by the Appropriate Government, by a notification by the official Gazette.
    • Section 25Q says any employer who contravenes the provision of Section 25M shall be punishable with imprisonment up to one month, or fine up to Rs.1000 or both.
    Lay Offs: Penalties
    • Retrenchment [S.2(oo)]: means the termination by the employer of the service of a workman for any reason whatsoever, otherwise than as a punishment inflicted by way of disciplinary action, but does not include-
    Voluntary retirement of workman, or
    Retirement of the workman on reaching the age of superannuation, if his contract contains a stipulation in this behalf, or
    Termination of the service of a workman as a result of non-renewal of the contract of employment, or
    Termination of employment of a workman on the ground of continued ill health.
    • The word ‘ill health’ means cataract, physical unfitness, infirmity due to old age, incapacity to work, leprosy, etc.
    Retrenchment
    • Retrenchment means the discharge of surplus labour.
    • It is not necessary that removal must be only when the establishment is in loss.
    • The Supreme Court has interpreted the term retrenchment in stricter sense of it, that is to say, it means termination of service for any reason whatsoever.
    • Retrenchment connotes in its ordinary acceptation that the business itself is being continued but that a portion of the staff of labour force is discharged a surplusage.
    • Where a worker suffers an accident during the course of employment making him unfit for the job, termination on this ground is illegal.
    • Where seasonal worker ceases to do work due to closure of season, it is not retrenchment.
    Retrenchment
    • Provisions are divided into two main categories which are as follows:
    Where number of workmen employed is less than 100,
    Where number of workmen employed is more than 100.
    • Section 25F: No workman employed in any industry who is in continuous service for not less than one year under an employer shall be retrenched until-
    The workman is given one month’s notice in writing indicating the reasons for retrenchment and the period of notice has expired, or
    In case one month’s notice is not given, the workman is paid wages for the period of the notice, in lieu of the notice period.
    Retrenchment: Provisions & Rules
  • The workman is paid at the time of retrenchment, compensation which shall be equal to 15 days average pay for every completed year of continuous service or any part thereof in excess of six months, and
    Notice in the prescribed manner is served on the Appropriate Government.
    • Section 25G: The normal rule is to retrench first of all the junior most workman. If an employer has sufficient reasons to depart from this rule, only then he can do so, but the reasons have to be recorded.
    • The LIFO (Last In First Out) Principle is mentioned in the Section 25G, which states that the workman who is employed last will be retrenched first.
    Retrenchment: Provisions & Rules
  • Section 25H gives a statutory right of reemployment to the retrenched workmen.
    If the employer wants to take the workmen in future, the retrenched workman has a right of preference over the others.
    This provides for preferential reemployment of the retrenched workmen.
    The employer should take precaution that he pays the retrenchment compensation at the time of retrenchment.
    In case the workman denies to accept compensation for the same, the employer should have sufficient proof that retrenchment compensation was offered to the workman, and clearly denied by him.
    Retrenchment: Provisions & Rules
    • Section 25K points out that the provisions of this chapter are applicable to Industrial Establishments employing 100 or more workmen on average per working day for the preceding 12 months.
    • This establishment should not be of a seasonal character or in which work is performed only intermittently.
    • Section 25N specifies that no workman who is in continuous service for not less that one year under an employer shall be retrenched until-
    The workman has been given three months notice in writing indicating the reasons for retrenchment and the notice period has expired or the workman has been paid in lieu of such notice, wages for the period of notice.
    Notice in the prescribed manner has been given to the Appropriate Government and permission is granted.
    Retrenchment: Provisions & Rules
  • Workman has been paid compensation at the time of retrenchment which shall be equal to 15 days average pay for every completed year of continuous service or any part thereof in excess of six months.
    Inquiry is made by the Appropriate Government or specified authority and granting or refusing permission for the reasons to be recorded in writing.
    In case retrenchment is effected without making an application or where the permission for retrenchment is refused retrenchment shall be deemed to be illegal from the date on which it is effected and the workman shall be entitled to all the benefits that are available to him under the law.
    • Section 25Q specifies that any employer who contravenes the provisions of Section 25N shall be punishable with imprisonment up to one month or fine up to Rs.1000 or both.
    Retrenchment: Provisions, Penalties
    • Closure [Section 2(cc)]: means permanent closing down of a place of employment or part thereof.
    • The provisions about closure are to be understood with reference to-
    Type of service:- i.e., continuous service or not (same as layoff)
    Number of workmen employed;-
    No. of workmen less than 50
    No. of workmen 50 – 100
    No. of workmen 100 or more.
    • The closure of an undertaking is subject to the restrictions imposed by the statutory provisions.
    Closure: Definition & Provisions
    • Where number of workmen employed is less than 50 [Section 25 FFA & Section 25 FFF], if an undertaking is closed down for any reason whatsoever, every workman who has been in continuous service for not less that one year in that undertaking immediately before such closure shall be entitled to notice and compensation as if the workman has been retrenched.
    • If the undertaking is closed down on account of unavoidable circumstances beyond the control of the employer, the compensation payable to the workman shall not exceed his average pay for three months.
    • If an undertaking is set up for the construction off buildings, bridges, roads, canals, dams, or other construction work and it is closed down on account of completion of the work within 2 years from the date on which the undertaking is set up, then no workman employed by the undertaking shall be entitled to any compensation.
    • In case the construction work takes more that 2 years for completion after it is set up, then the workman will be entitled to both notice and compensation as per the rules of retrenchment.
    Closure: Rules & Provisions
    • Where number of workmen employed is more than 50, but less than 100 [Section 25 FFA]:-
    The employer who intends to close down his undertaking shall have to serve at least sixty days notice in the prescribed manner on the Appropriate Government before the date on which the intended closure is to become effective. The reasons for the same have to be clearly stated.
    No notice is required when:-
    The number of workmen employed is less than 50, or
    An undertaking is set up for the construction of buildings, bridges, canals, roads, dams or for other such projects.
    The Appropriate Government is satisfied than; owing to exceptional circumstances like accident in the undertaking, death of employer or similar reason, no notice is required.
    Closure: Rules & Provisions
  • The compensation payable is the same as if applicable to an undertaking employing less than 50 workmen.
    The notice to be given is only information to the Appropriate Government. The notice does not mean that any previous sanction of the Appropriate Government is required for the closure of an undertaking.
    • Where the number of workmen is 100 or more [Section 25-O], an employer who intends to close down his undertaking shall apply to the Appropriate Government for prior permission, 90 days before the intended date of closure.
    • Copy of this application should also be served on the representatives of the workmen in the prescribed manner.
    • No such application to the Appropriate Government is required when the construction is the case of canals, bridges, buildings, etc.
    • Workmen shall be entitled to compensation in case of a legal closure, at the rate of 15 days wages for every completed year of continuous service.
    Closure: Rules & Provisions
  • Penalty for closure [Section 25R]:- Any employer who closes down an undertaking without complying with the provisions of Section 25-) shall be punishable with imprisonment up to six months or fine up to Rs.5000 or both.
    Penalty for closure without notice [Section 30A]:- An employer who closes down any undertaking without complying with the provisions of Section 25FFA shall be punishable with imprisonment up to six months or fine up to Rs.5000 or both.
    Any employer who contravenes an order refusing to grant permission to close down an undertaking under Section 25-O(2) shall be punishable with imprisonment up to one year, or fine up to Rs. 5000 or both.
    Where the contravention is continuing even then, with a further fine up to Rs.2000 for every day during which the contravention after conviction continues can be imposed.
    Closure: Penalties
  • Syndicate Bank V/s Umesh Nayak
    HELD:- The Supreme Court has observed that strike or lock-out is to be resorted to, only in unavoidable circumstances and to compel the other party to see the justness of the demands and is not intended to cause nuisance or physical danger to their employers or others.
    Hindustan Cables V/s Labour Court
    HELD:- Resorting to strikes or lock-outs without negotiations or conciliations is unjustified.
    Case Law Studies
  • Central India Spinning, Weaving & Manufacturing Co. Ltd., V/s State Industrial Court
    HELD:- The Bombay High Court said the key words “the failure, refusal, or inability of an employer” in the definition of lay-off make it clear that the unemployment has to be on account of a cause which is independent of any action or inaction on part of the workmen themselves.
    Morinda Co-op. Sugar Mills V/s Ramakrishnan
    HELD:- Where seasonal worker ceases to do work due to closure of the season it is not retrenchment.
    Case Law Studies
  • Introduction
    Applicability
    Important Definitions
    Rules relating to Payment of Wages
    Compensation & Penalties
    Case Law Studies
    The Payment Of Wages Act, 1936
  • Preamble – To regulate the proper and timely payment of wages to different classes of workers.
    Important features of the Act-
    Remedies & compensations relating to:
    • Wrongful deductions made from wages
    • Delay in payment of wages
    • Non-payment of wages
    Provisions in the Act:
    • Permissible deductions from wages
    • Timely payment of wages
    • Mode of payment of wages
    • Reasonable rates of recovery
    Introduction
    • The Payment Of Wages Act is applicable to the whole of India.
    • The Act is applicable to any employee in a factory, employees of the railway industry, including those who are employed through a sub-contractor.
    • It is also applicable to employees working in any Industrial or Other Establishment, or any other Establishment stated under Sections [2(i)(a) to 2(i)(g)] of the Payment Of Wages Act.
    • The Act covers all those employees who draw a monthly salary of less than Rs.6500
    Applicability
    • Appropriate Government [S.2(i)] is the Central Government in relation to:
    Railways
    Air transport services
    Mines and oil fields
    The State Government is the Appropriate Government in all other cases.
    • Industrial Establishment [S.2(ii)] means any-
    Tramway service, or motor transport service for passengers or goods or both by hire or for reward;
    Dock, wharf, or jetty,;
    Inland vessel, mechanically propelled;
    Mine, quarry or oil field;
    Plantation;
    Important Definitions
  • Workshop, or other establishment, where articles are
    Produced,
    Adapted, or
    Manufactured,
    with a view to their use, transport, or sale.
    • Wages [S.2(vi)] means all remuneration (whether by way of salary, allowances or otherwise) expressed in terms of money, or capable of being so expressed which would, if the terms and conditions of employment, whether expressed or implied, be payable to a person in respect of his employment or any work done in such employment, and includes-
    Important Definitions
  • Any remuneration payable under any award or settlement between the parties or order of court;
    Any remuneration to which the person is employed is entitled in respect of overtime work, or holidays or leave period;
    Any additional remuneration payable (bonus);
    Any sum paid on the event of termination of employment;
    Any sum to which the a person is entitled under any scheme which is framed under a law currently in force.
    But, it does not include-
    Value of house accommodation, medical and other facilities, amenities and travelling, medical and other allowances;
    Contribution paid by the employer to any pension or provident fund;
    Any special expenses and gratuity paid at termination of employment.
    Important Definitions
    • Responsibility for Payment of Wages [S.3]: Payment means transfer of money from one person to another to satisfy a debt or an obligation.
    • Every employer is responsible for the payment of wages but this responsibility is also cast on other persons; they are:
    In case of factories, the manager of the factory
    In case of an Industrial Establishment, the person in the post having control and supervision in the establishment
    In case of railways, the person nominated for the payment of wages
    In case of a contractor, the person designated by the contractor
    In any other case, the person designated by the employer as a person responsible for complying with the provisions of the Act.
    Rules relating to Payment of Wages
    • Fixation of Wage Periods and time of Payment of Wages [S.4&5]
    • Every person responsible for payment of wages shall fix wage periods.
    • A wage period shall not exceed one month.
    • Wage period can be daily, weekly, fortnightly, or monthly.
    • In case of a Factory or Industrial Establishment or Railways, wherein less than 1000 employees are employed, the wages shall be paid within 7 days after the expiry of the wage period.
    • In any other case, wages shall be paid before the expiry of the 10th day after the last day of the wage period.
    • In case of docks, wharfs, jetties and mines, wages are to be paid before the expiry of the 7th day on completion of final tonnage account of the material loaded or unloaded.
    • All payment of wages shall be made on a working day.
    Rules relating to Payment of Wages
    • Mode of Payment of Wages [S.6]
    • Under the Payment of Wages Act, wages cannot be paid in kind. They must be paid in current coins or currency notes or both.
    • The employer may, if he desires, after obtaining the written authorization of the employed person pay his wages either by cheque or by crediting the wages in the bank account.
    • Deductions which may be made from Wages [S.7]
    • The usual rule of the payment of wages is that the employed person shall be paid his wages without any kind of deductions except those authorized under this Act.
    • Thus, the Section 7 of this Act is critical.
    Rules relating to Payment of Wages
    • Fines [S.8]: An employer may impose a penalty or fine on an employed person.
    • While imposing such fine, the employer has to obtain prior approval from the Appropriate Government to the acts and omissions for which the fine many be imposed.
    • The employed person will be given a chance to show cause against imposing of the fine.
    • Fine cannot be recovered at a rate more than 3% of the total wages in the respective wage periods.
    • Fine cannot be imposed on a person below the age of 15 years.
    • Fine cannot be recovered in installments.
    • Fine should be recovered within 3 months from the date of imposition of fine.
    Authorized Deductions
    • Deductions for absence from duty [S.9]: An employer has the power to deduct wages for absence from duty.
    • The deduction may be for absence for a whole, or part of a day.
    • The deduction shall be in proportion to the time for which an employed person is absent from duty.
    • A person shall be considered as absent from duty, in case although present in the establishment,
    When he is absent from the place of work where he is required to be present and work, or
    When he refuses for any unreasonable cause, or
    In case of a stay-in-strike to carry out his work.
    Authorized Deductions
    • Deduction for Damage or Loss [S.10]: If the goods are expressly entrusted to the employed person for custody or in case he loses money which he is required to account, where loss/damage is directly attributable to damage or neglect or the default on his part, deductions from wages can be made.
    • The deducted amount shall not exceed the amount of the damage or loss caused to the employer.
    • The employer shall give an opportunity to the employee to show cause against the fine before making deductions.
    • Such deductions have to be recorded in the prescribed register and kept by the person responsible for payment of wages.
    Authorized Deductions
    • Deductions for Services Rendered [S.11 & 7(2)]:
    • House accommodation: Supplied by the employer or the Government or any housing board; such deductions cannot be made unless the employed person has accepted the amenity as term of employment and such deduction shall not exceed an amount equal to the value of actual house accommodation amenity.
    • Deductions for such amenities and service supplied by the employer ad the Appropriate Government may, by a general or special order authorize; these deductions can be made only when such supply is accepted as term of employment by the employed person.
    • The term ‘services’ does not include the supply of tools and raw materials, or protective measures required by nature of the employment.
    Authorized Deductions
    • Deductions for Recovery of Advances [S.12]: This is subject to the following conditions-
    Recovery of an advance of money given before employment began can be made from the first payment of wages in respect of complete wage period.
    Recovery of advance of money given after employment began and of wages not already earned is subject to the conditions imposed by the Appropriate Government.
    Recovery of advances of wages not already earned shall be according to the rules made by the Appropriate Government including the installments by which they may be recovered.
    • Deductions for Recovery of Loans [S.12-A]: can be made as per the rules approved by the Appropriate Government regulating the extent to which such loans may be granted and rate of interest payable on it.
    Authorized Deductions
    • Deductions for Payments to Cooperative Societies and Insurance Schemes [S.13 & 7(2)]: These deductions shall include-
    Deductions for payments to cooperative societies approved by the Appropriate Government or to a scheme of insurance maintained by the Indian Post office.
    Deductions made with the written authorization of the employed person for-
    Payment of any premium on his life insurance policy to LIC of India, or
    Purchase of Government securities, or
    Payment of contribution to any fund or a trade union.
    Payment of membership fees to trade union.
    Contribution to Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund
    Authorized Deductions
    • Other Deductions:
    • Deduction of Income Tax payable by an employed person.
    • Deductions according to the order of a court or other authorities competent to make such order.
    • Deductions for subscriptions to and repayment of advances from any provident fund approved by the Appropriate Government.
    • Deductions for payment of insurance premium on Fidelity Guarantee Bonds.
    • Limit on Deductions [S.7(3)]: The deductions from wages for the permissible deductions shall not exceed-
    • 75% including payments to cooperative societies.
    • 50% in any other cases
    • In case of exceeds in limits of deductions, balance may be recovered in the manner prescribed by the Appropriate Government.
    Authorized Deductions
    • The Payment of Wages Act provides for the constitution of a separate authority for any specified area to hear and decide claims arising out of deductions from the wages or delay in the payment of wages.
    • The authorities include:
    Commissioner of Workmen’s Compensation, or
    Regional Labour Commissioner, or
    Assistant Labour Commissioner,
    Presiding officer of Labour Court or Industrial Tribunal, or
    Judicial Magistrate.
    Experienced Judge of a civil Court
    Remedy & Compensations
    • Application: A person himself or any legal practitioner or any official of a Registered Trade Union authorized in writing to act on behalf of such person or any inspector under this Act
    • Period: Such a claim is to be made within 12 months from the date on which the deductions were made, or from the date on which payment of wages was to be made.
    • Compensation: If the authority is satisfied that there were wrongful deductions, it may in addition to the refund of the amount wrongfully deducted require the employer to pay compensation not exceeding 10 times the actual amount of deductions.
    • In case of delayed wages, the employer may be directed to pay the wages immediately and also impose a penalty not exceeding Rs.3000, but not less than Rs.1500.
    Remedy & Compensations
    • Arumugham V/s Jawahar Mills
    HELD:- The expression in Sections [15-17] not only includes ‘delayed wages’ but also covers ‘refused wages’.
    • Upper India V/s J.C.Mathur
    HELD:- The word ‘deduction’ in Section 15 appears to have been used in a very wide sense so as to include the ‘entire deficiency’ which the employee alleges to have been caused in the Payment of Wages as a result of withholding of the same by the employer partially or wholly.
    • Parmeshwar V/s Atti
    HELD:- Payment signifies satisfaction of a claim.
    Case Law Studies
  • Introduction
    Important Definitions
    Fixation & Revision Of Wages
    Other Provisions
    Case Law Studies
    The Minimum Wages Act, 1948
    • The object of this Act is to secure the welfare of the workers in a competitive market by fixing the Minimum rates of wages in certain employments.
    • The justification for statutory fixation of minimum wages is clear form the following facts:
    • Poorly developed workers organization.
    • Poor bargaining power of workers.
    • Continuous labour struggle demand for increase in wages, resistance to decrease in wages, and grant of benefits, allowances, etc.
    • The Act has been modified in the recent past to apply to all industrial establishments and their employees that are involved in any work or job that fits in the schedule to this Act, fitting the description of ‘Scheduled Employments’
    • The Act intends to prevent exploitation of labour and also has many provisions that ensure the minimum wages, wages for overtime, maximum duration of daily work & weekly day of rest.
    Intoduction
    • Employer [S.2(e)]: means- any person who:
    Employs
    Whether directly or through another person
    Whether on behalf of himself or any other person
    One or more employees in any scheduled employment
    In respect of which rates of minimum wages have been fixed.
    • Cost of Living Index Number [S.2(d)]: in relation to employees in any scheduled employment in respect of which minimum rates of wages have to be fixed, means:
    The index number
    Ascertained and declared
    By the competent authority by notification in the Official Gazette
    To be the cost of Living Index Number
    Applicable to employees in such scheduled employments.
    Important Definitions
    • Scheduled Employment [S.2(g)] means-
    An employment specified in the schedule, or
    Any process or branch of work forming part of such employment.
    The schedule is divided into two parts:
    Part-I:
    Woolen carpet making or shawl weaving, etc.
    Rice mill, Flour mill, Dal mill, etc.
    Bidi, Tea, Oil, Coffee, Rubber, Stone, etc.
    Glass industry
    Employment under any local authority
    Part-II:
    Agriculture, Horticulture, Poultry, Dairy Farming, etc.
    Cleaning and sorting of onions and other incidental work.
    Important Definitions
    • Wages [S.2(vi)] means all remuneration (whether by way of salary, allowances or otherwise) expressed in terms of money, or capable of being so expressed which would, if the terms and conditions of employment, whether expressed or implied, be payable to a person in respect of his employment or any work done in such employment, and includes-
    Any remuneration payable under any award or settlement between the parties or order of court;
    Any remuneration to which the person is employed is entitled in respect of overtime work, or holidays or leave period;
    Any additional remuneration payable (bonus);
    Any sum paid on the event of termination of employment;
    Any sum to which the a person is entitled under any scheme which is framed under a law currently in force.
    Important Definitions
    • Employee [S.2(i)]: means any person:
    Who is employed for hire or reward,
    To do any work,
    Skilled or unskilled,
    Manual or clerical,
    In Scheduled Employment,
    In respect of which minimum wages have been fixed.
    But, it does not include-
    Value of house accomodation, medical and other facilities, amenities and travelling, medical and other allowances;
    Contribution paid by the employer to any pension or provident fund;
    Any special expenses and gratuity paid at termination of employment.
    Important Definitions
    • Appropriate Government [S.2(i)] is the Central Government in relation to:
    Railways
    Air transport services
    Mines and oil fields
    The State Government is the Appropriate Government in all other cases.
    • Employer [S.2(g)]: means-
    In relation to an industry carried on by or under the authority of any department of the Central Government or a State Government – the authority prescribed in this behalf;
    In relation to an industry carried on by or on behalf of a local authority – the Chief Executive Officer of that authority.
    Important Definitions
  • Minimum Wages: Fixation & Revision
    • Appointment of Committee:
    The Government may appoint as many committees an sub committees as it consider necessary to hold inquiries and advise it in respect of such fixation or revision.
    After considering the advise of such committees or sub committees the Appropriate Government notifies the fixation or revision of Minimum Rates of Wages.
    Such wages come into force on the date determined in the notification.
    If no date is mentioned, then on the expiry of 3 months from the date of issue of notification, the rates of wages and other conditions attached to it will expire.
    The object of the procedure is to enable the Government to reach a balanced conclusion relating to fixing minimum wages
    • By a Notification:
    The Appropriate Government may, by a notification, publish its proposals about the fixation of Minimum Rates of Wages.
    For the information of all the persons likely to be affected thereby.
    It shall specify in the notification the date on which the proposals shall be taken into consideration.
    Such date shall not be less than 2 months from the date on which the proposals have been notified.
    After considering all the representations received by it within the specified time.
    It shall notify the minimum wages was fixed or revised by it.
    Minimum Wages: Fixation & Revision
  • Minimum Wages: Fixation & Revision
    • By a Notification (contd.):
    Such Minimum Rates of Wages come into force from the date mentioned in the notification.
    If no date is mentioned, then on the expiry of 3 months from the date of issue of notification, the rates of wages and other conditions attached to it will expire.
    While adopting this method the Appropriate Government is also required to consult the Advisory Board.
    The Advisory board is appointed by Appropriate Government for the purpose of coordinating the work of different committees and sub committees and also for advising the Government in matters of fixation and revision of minimum wages, and also for general consultation.
  • Minimum Wages: Fixation & Revision
    • The provision relating to fixation of minimum rates of wages are given in Section 3 as follows:
    Fix the Minimum Rates of Wages payable to employees employed in an employment specified in the schedule, and
    In the employment added to the schedule by a notification.
    The Appropriate Government may, in respect of employees employed in an employment specified in Part-II of the schedule, fix rates for
    Part of the State, or
    For any specified class or classes of such employment in the whole state or part of state.
    Instead of fixing Minimum Rates of Wages for the whole State.
    The Appropriate Government shall review at such intervals not exceeding 5 years, the Minimum Rates of Wages and revise them if necessary.
  • Minimum Wages: Fixation & Revision
    When the Appropriate Government fails to revise the rates of Minimum Wages within 5 years, it can do so even after the expiry of 5 years as it feels necessary.
    Until the rates of Minimum Wages are revised, the rates of Wages before the expiry of 5 years shall continue to be in force.
    The Appropriate Government my not fix the rates of Minimum Wages in respect of any schedules employment in which there are less than 1000 employees engaged in the whole State.
    The Appropriate Government may fix rates of Minimum Wages which may be in the form of Minimum Rates for:-
    Time Work (Minimum Time Rate)
    Piece Work (Minimum Piece Rate)
    Remuneration; time work basis (Guaranteed Time Rate)
    Minimum rate in respect of overtime (Overtime Rate)
  • Sections [3-5] deal with the fixation and revision of Minimum Wages
    Section 3 says the Appropriate Government has powers to fix the Minimum Wages payable to the employees employed in any scheduled employment.
    Section 4 gives the content of Minimum Wages.
    Section 5 gives the procedure for fixing and revising the Minimum Wages.
    Section 12 says that it is absolutely necessary for an employer to pay every employee engaged in Scheduled employment in the Minimum Rates of Wages fixed by the Government without any deductions except those as may be authorized.
    Section 16 says that in case an employee does 2 or more classes of work to each of which a different Minimum Rates of Wages is applicable, the employer shall pay to such employee in respect of time occupied by
    Other Provisions
  • him in each class of work, wages not less than the Minimum Rates of Wages applicable to each such class.
    • Maintenance of Registers and Records (Section 18)
    Every employer shall maintain Registers and Records giving:
    Particulars of Employees
    Work performed by Employees
    Wages paid to Employees
    Receipt given by the Employers
    Other particulars in such form as may be prescribed
    • Rates of Overtime (Section 14)
    Where an employee works overtime, the employer shall pay him over time wages for every hour worked in excess at the rates fixed by the Appropriate Government.
    The provisions of Minimum Wages Act shall not affect the provisions of Factories Act relating to payment of over time at twice the minimum rate of normal wages.
    Other Provisions
    • Claims (Section 20)
    The Appropriate Government may appoint an authority to hear out and decide the claims relating to –
    Payment of less than Minimum Rates of Wages.
    Payment for days of rest.
    Payment for work done on days of rest.
    Wages for the overtime work.
    Who may apply to:
    Employee himself, or
    Any legal practitioner,
    Registered Trade Union,
    Any Inspector, or
    Any person with the permission of authority.
    Other Provisions
    • Fixing Hours for Normal Working Day (Section 13)
    (A) In regard to any Scheduled Employment the Appropriate Government may –
    Fix the number of hours of work which will constitute a normal working day including intervals.
    Provide a day of rest in every 7 days and payment of remuneration for such days.
    Provide for working on the day of rest at over time rate or more.
    (B) For the following classes of Employees the above provisions will apply subject to the prescribed conditions–
    Employees engaged in urgent or emergency work.
    Employees engaged in intermittent work.
    Employees engaged in work dependent on irregular action of natural forces.
    Other Provisions
    • Wages in Kind (Section 11)
    Wages under the Minimum Wages Act have to be paid in cash.
    However, if there is a custom to pay wages fully or partly in Kind, the Appropriate Government may authorize the payment of Minimum Wages either-
    Fully, or
    Partly, in Kind.
    If the Appropriate Government is satisfied, then it may authorize the supply of essential commodities at concessional rates.
    The value of wages in kind and of concessions in respect of supplies of essential commodities shall be estimated in the prescribed manner.
    Other Provisions
    • Arvind Mills Ltd. V/s K.R. Gadgil
    HELD:- The Bombay High Court has observed that “the general purpose of the Act is to provide that employed persons shall be paid their wages in a particular form and at regular intervals without any unauthorized deductions”
    • D.P. Kelkar V/s Ambadas
    HELD:- The definition of wages is not limited to remuneration payable under an agreement or contract. It applies to all kinds of remuneration, whether arising from-
    • A contract,
    • An award,
    • A settlement, or
    • Under a statute.
    Case Law Studies
    • Upper India V/s J.C. Mathur
    HELD:- The word deduction in Section 15 appears to have been used in a very wide sense so as to include the ‘entire deficiency’ which the employee alleges to have been caused in the payment of wages as a result of the withholding of the same by the employer partially or wholly.
    • Gopalan V/s Augmati Chit Fund
    HELD:- Statutory bonus of 8 1/3% is payable whether there are profits to the accounting year or not. After coming into force of the Payment of Bonus Act, bonus has become an implied term of employment not dependent upon the profits and therefore comes under the category of remuneration. Viewed in this light the wages as a general term would include bonus.
    Case Law Studies
  • Introduction
    Important Definitions
    Authorities under the Act
    Payment & Provisions
    Nomination
    Case law Studies
    The Payment of Gratuity Act, 1972
    • Originally gratuity was considered as an amount given freely and could not be demanded as a matter of right by the employees.
    • In many cases gratuity was given as a matter of favor.
    • Employees used to pay gratuity as a reward for long, continuous and meritorious service.
    • Various courts recognized the claim for gratuity and awarded gratuity schemes.
    • This custom of payment of gratuity became, in the later days, a matter of right for the employees.
    • With a view to ensure a uniform pattern of payment of gratuity to the employees throughout the country, the Central Government enacted the Payment of Gratuity Act.
    Introduction & Preliminary
    • Appropriate Government [S.2(i)] is the Central Government in relation to:
    Railways
    Air transport services
    Mines and oil fields
    The State Government is the Appropriate Government in all other cases.
    • Employer [S.2(g)]: means-
    In relation to an industry carried on by or under the authority of any department of the Central Government or a State Government – the authority prescribed in this behalf;
    In relation to an industry carried on by or on behalf of a local authority – the Chief Executive Officer of that authority.
    Important Definitions
    • Employee [S.2(i)]: means any person:
    Who is employed for hire or reward,
    To do any work,
    Skilled or unskilled,
    Manual or clerical,
    In Scheduled Employment,
    In respect of which minimum wages have been fixed.
    But, it does not include-
    Value of house accommodation, medical and other facilities, amenities and travelling, medical and other allowances;
    Contribution paid by the employer to any pension or provident fund;
    Any special expenses and gratuity paid at termination of employment.
    Important Definitions
    • Wages [S.2(s)] means all remuneration (whether by way of salary, allowances or otherwise) expressed in terms of money, or capable of being so expressed which would, if the terms and conditions of employment, whether expressed or implied, be payable to a person in respect of his employment or any work done in such employment, and includes-
    Any remuneration payable under any award or settlement between the parties or order of court;
    Any remuneration to which the person is employed is entitled in respect of overtime work, or holidays or leave period;
    Any additional remuneration payable (bonus);
    Any sum paid on the event of termination of employment;
    Any sum to which the a person is entitled under any scheme which is framed under a law currently in force.
    Important Definitions
  • Retirement [Section 2(q)]:
    It means the termination of service of an employee otherwise than on superannuation. This definition is framed in the widest sense. Retrenchment is also termination of service. It implies discharge of surplus labour.
    Superannuation [Section (2)]:
    In relation to an employee, it means-
    • The attainment by the employee of such age as is fixed in the sontract, or conditions of service, as the age on the attainment of which the employee shall vacate the employment.
    Important Definitions
    • Inspectors [Section 7(A)]
    The Appropriate Government may appoint as many inspectors as it deems fit.
    The Appropriate Government may define the area to which the authority of an inspector shall extend.
    Every inspector shall be deemed to be a public servant.
    • Powers of Inspectors [Section 7(B)]: An inspector may
    Require an employer to furnish any information.
    Enter and inspect any premises or place in any factory, shop or establishment for the purpose of examining any register, record or notice or other documents, in relation to the employment of any person or the payment of gratuity to the employees
    Examine the employer or any person who is present in such premises.
    Authorities Under The Act
    • Controlling Authority [Section 3]
    The Appropriate Government by a notification may appoint any officer to be the controlling authority who shall be responsible for Administration of this Act. Different controlling authorities may be appointed for different areas.
    • Powers of Controlling Authorities [Section 7(5)]
    Enforcing the attendance of any person or examining him on oath.
    Requiring the discovery and production of documents.
    Receiving evidence on affidavits.
    Issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses.
    Authorities Under The Act
    • Circumstances under which Gratuity becomes payable to an employee [Section 4]
    On termination of employment after he has rendered continuous service of not less than 5 years, on his superannuation, retirement, resignation, death or disablement due to accident or disease.
    In case of death of employee, the gratuity payable to him shall be paid to his nominee. If there is no nomination then to his legal heirs.
    If any nominee or heir is a minor, the share of such minor shall be deposited with the controlling authority, who shall invest the same for the benefit of such minor in such Bank or Financial Institution as may be prescribed, until the minor reaches the age of majority.
    Payment & Provisions
    • Rate of Gratuity [Section 4(2)]
    An employee who is eligible for gratuity shall be paid for every completed year of service or part of it in excess of 6 months, gratuity at the rate of 15 days wages for each completed year of service.
    Such gratuity is to be calculated on the basis of the rate of wages last drawn by the employee.
    In case of a piece rated employee, the rate of daily wages shall be calculated o the basis of average of the total wages earned by him for a period of 3 preceding months before the termination of his employment.
    In case of an employee employed in as seasonal establishment, the rate of gratuity payable to him shall be 7 days wages for each completed season.
    In the case of a daily rated employee, he is to be paid gratuity at the rate of daily wages multiplied by 15 for every year of service.
    In case of a monthly rates employee, the daily rate of wages is arrived at by dividing the rate of wages last drawn by 26. This rate is to be multiplied by 15 for deciding the quantum of gratuity payable for a year.
    Payment & Provisions
    • Maximum Amount of Gratuity [Section 4(3)]
    Payable to an employee shall not exceed Rs.3,50,000 (w.e.f. 24.9.97)
    • Employment after disablement [Section 4(4)]
    In case of an employee employed after disablement, the gratuity shall be calculated in 2 parts:
    For the period of employment before disablement and
    For the period after disablement at the reduced rate.
    • Better Gratuity Scheme [Section 4(5)]
    If the employer has his own gratuity scheme which is better than the scheme provided under this Act, then the employees shall be entitled to gratuity as per that scheme.
    The Appropriate Government has powers to exempt by a notification any establishment, factory, mine, oil field, plantation, port, railway company or shop if the employees are gratuity and pensionary benefits under this Act.
    Payment & Provisions
    • Forfeiture of Gratuity [Section 4(6)]
    It gives the circumstances in which the gratuity payable to an employee may be forfeited either partly or wholly.
    Partial Forfeiture: The gratuity of an employee whose services are terminated for any act, willful omission, negligence causing any damage, loss to, or destruction of property belonging to the employer; only to the extent of damage or loss so caused.
    Full Forfeiture: The gratuity payable to an employee can be wholly forfeited:
    If the services of an employee are terminated for his riotous or disorderly behaviors or any other act of violence on his part, or
    If the services are terminated for any act which constitutes an offence involving moral turpitude; provided, that such an offence is committed by him in the course of his employment.
    Payment & Provisions
    • Determination of Gratuity [Section 7]
    As soon as the gratuity becomes payable, the employer shall determine the amount of gratuity and give notice in writing to that person to whom the gratuity is payable.
    Notice is also given to the controlling authority specifying the amount of gratuity so determined.
    Calculation of gratuity is to be done by the employer whether an application has been made or not.
    • Mode of Payment of Gratuity [Sections 7(3),(3-A)]
    The employer shall arrange to pay the amount of gratuity within 30 days from the date it becomes payable to the person.
    If the gratuity is not paid in time the employer shall pay interest at the rate notified by the Central Government.
    No interest will be paid if the delay is due to the fault of the employee and the employer has obtained permission in writing from the controlling authority.
    Payment & Provisions
    • Dispute as to Gratuity [Section 7(4)]
    If there is any dispute about-
    Amount of gratuity payable to an employee.
    Admissibility of any claim.
    As to the person entitled to gratuity, the employer shall deposit the amount which he admits is payable with the controlling authority.
    Where there is a dispute about the above matters the employee can also make an application to the controlling authority for taking necessary action.
    The controlling authority, after making the enquiry and giving the amount of gratuity payable to the employee. Further, as a result of the enquiry if any additional amount is payable to the employee, he shall direct the employer to pay the additional amount.
    The controlling authority shall pay the amount deposited including the additional amount, if any, to the person entitled.
    Payment & Provisions
    • Recovery of Gratuity
    If the employee is not paid gratuity by the employer the employee can make an application to the controlling authority for the same. The controlling authority, if satisfied, shall issue a certificate for recovery of the amount to the collector.
    The collector shall recover the amount as arrears of land revenue.
    Such arrears are payable to the employee together with compound interest at such rate specified by the central government.
    This amount is to be recovered after the date of expiry of the prescribed time.
    The controlling authority, before issuing a certificate, shall give a reasonable opportunity for the employer of showing cause against issue of the certificate.
    The amount of interest payable shall not exceed the amount of gratuity.
    The interest becomes payable only when the collector issues a Certificate of Recovery of the dues as a public demand.
    Payment & Provisions
    • Meaning- naming the person or persons, who shall be entitled to the amount of gratuity if the employee dies before receiving the amount.
    • Family [Section 2(h)]: in relation to an employee, shall be deemed to consist of:
    Male Employees:
    Himself.
    His wife.
    His children (whether married or unmarried)
    His dependent parents.
    Dependent parents of his wife.
    Widow and children of his predeceased son, if any.
    Female Employees:
    Herself.
    Her husband.
    Her children (whether married or unmarried)
    Her dependent parents.
    Dependent parents of her wife.
    Widow and children of her predeceased son, if any.
    Nomination
    • Every employee under this Act, is required to make a nomination as per the following rules:
    Employee to make nomination: Every employee who has completed service of 1 year shall make a nomination within 30 days after completing 1 year’s service.
    More than 1 nominee: An employee can, in his nomination, distribute the amount of gratuity between more than one nominee.
    Family members to be nominated: If the employee has a family at the time of nomination, the nomination can be made favoring member or members of his family.
    No Family: If the employee does not have a family, then nomination can be made in favor of any person.
    Nomination
  • Family after nomination: If the employee acquires a family afterwards, such nomination becomes invalid. The employee shall make a fresh nomination within 90 days in favor of family members.
    Modification of nomination: Can be done by the employee at anytime, after giving a notice to the employer.
    Death of Nominee: If the nominee does before the employee, then employee shall make a fresh nomination.
    Safe custody of nomination: Every:
    Nomination
    Fresh nomination
    Alteration of nomination, as the case may be, shall be sent by the employee to the employer, who shall keep the same in his safe custody. Further, it shall take effect from the date of receipt by the employer.
    Nomination
  • Indian Hume Pipe Co. Ltd. V/s Workmen
    HELD:- The general principle underlying gratuity schemes is that by faithful service over a long period the employee is entitled to claim a certain amount as retirement benefit.
    Delhi Cloth and General Mills Ltd. V/s Workmen
    HELD:- The object of providing a gratuity scheme is to provide a retiring benefit to the workmen who have rendered long and unblemished service to the employer and thereby contributed to the prosperity of the employer.
    Case Law Studies
    • DBR Mills Ltd. V/s Appellate Authority
    HELD:- Cessation of work by the employee on these days cannot be said to be due to any fault of the employee. Therefore, he would be deemed in continuous service if he has been actually employed by an employer during the 12 months, immediately preceding the year for not less than 240 days in an establishment.
    • Patel HiralalRamlal & Co. Vs. Smt. ChandbibPirubhai
    HELD:- The workmen carrying raw materials from the employer’s premises to their home and rolling up bidis at their home for manufacturer are employees, and as such are entitled to claim and payment of gratuity.
    Case Law Studies