Ome1

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Ome1

  1. 1. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  2. 2. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> WE WILL BEGIN IN..
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  14. 14. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Father of the Internet Tim Berners-Lee
  15. 15. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Tim Berners-Lee Tim Berners-Lee was the man leading the development of the World Wide Web , the defining of HTML -used to create web pages, HTTP and URLs (Universal Resource Locators).
  16. 16. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Internet “The internet is a network of networks---a global communications system that links together thousands of individual networks”.
  17. 17. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Internet History • 1968 - DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) contracts with BBN (Bolt, Beranek & Newman) to create ARPAnet
  18. 18. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> ARPANET • 1969- Arpanet (advance research project agency ). • The BBN design this network for united states department of defense. • The military develop the ARPANET in response to the threat of a nuclear attack that might destroy the country’s communication system.
  19. 19. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 1970’ Telecommunication • The ARPA was primarily used by the military. • Some of the large companies such as IBM, and universities. • The general population was not yet connected to the system. • Very few people were on line on network.
  20. 20. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Twenty Three Nodes, 1972 • The ARPA was international • With nodes in Europe at the university college in London, and royal radar establishment in Norway. • RAY Tomlinson, invented E-mail, Who worked at BBN.
  21. 21. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> UUCP, 1976 • At &T BELL labs developed UNIX to UNIX copy. 1977, UUCP was distributed with UNIX.
  22. 22. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> USENET, 1979 • User network (USENET) was started by using UUCP to connect Duke university and the university of north Carolina at chapel hill. News groups emerged from this early development.
  23. 23. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 1980s Telecommunication • Transmission protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP), a set of governing how networks making up the ARPANET communicate was established. • As the internet grew the domain name system (DNS) was developed.
  24. 24. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> CSNET, 1980 • The computer science network (CSNET) connected all university computer science department in the united states. • CSNET joined the ARPANET in 1981.
  25. 25. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> BITNET,1981 • The because its Time Network formed at the university of new York and connected to Yale university.
  26. 26. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> TCP/IP 1983 • The united states defense communications agency required that TCP/IP be used for all ARPANET hosts. • Since TCP/IP was distributed at no charge. • This allow the internet to grow quickly as all connected computers were now speaking g the same language.
  27. 27. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> World Wide Web 1991 • The World wide web created by Tim Berners –Lee. • As a simple way to publish information and make it available on the internet. • The WWW publicly available In 1992
  28. 28. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Mosaic 1993 • Mosaic a graphical browser for the web, released by Marc Andreessen and several other students at the university of Illinois.
  29. 29. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Netscape Communication 1994 • The company called the Netscape Communications, by Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark, released Netscape Navigator, a web browser that captured the imagination of everyone who use it.
  30. 30. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> • Yahoo 1994 • Java 1995 • Microsoft discovers the Internet, 1995 • Internet courses offers by colleges, 1995 • Over 55 Million Nodes, 1999 • “ I LOVE YOU” Virus, 2000 • Wireless Devices, 2001
  31. 31. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> World Regions Internet Usage, Latest Data % Population ( Penetration ) Usage % of World Usage Growth 2000-2007 Africa 33,545,600 3.6 % 2.9 % 643.1 % Asia 418,007,015 11.3 % 36.2 % 265.7 % Europe 321,853,477 39.8 % 27.9% 206.2 % Middle East 19,539,300 10.1 % 1.7 % 494.8 % North America 232,655,287 69.5 % 20.2% 115.2 % LatinAmerica/ Caribbean 109,961,609 19.8 % 9.5 % 508.6 % Oceania / Australia 18,796,490 54.5 % 1.6 % 146.7 % WORLD TOTAL 1,154,358,778 17.6 % 100.0 % 219.8 % WORLD INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION STATISTICSWORLD INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION STATISTICS
  32. 32. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  33. 33. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> ASIA Population Internet Users, Internet Users, Penetration ( 2007 Est.) (Year 2000) Latest Data (% Population) Afganistan 27,089,593 - 300,000 1.10% Korea, North 23,510,379 -- -- -- China 1,317,431,495 22,500,000 144,000,000 10.90% Japan 128,646,345 47,080,000 86,300,000 67.10% India 1,129,667,528 5,000,000 42,000,000 3.70% Korea, South 51,300,989 19,040,000 34,120,000 66.50% Indonesia 224,481,720 2,000,000 20,000,000 8.90% Vietnam 85,031,436 200,000 15,760,702 18.50% Taiwan 23,001,442 6,260,000 14,500,000 63.00% Philippines 87,236,532 2,000,000 14,000,000 16.00% Malaysia 28,294,120 3,700,000 13,528,200 47.80% Pakistan 167,806,831 133,900 12,000,000 7.20% Thailand 67,249,456 2,300,000 8,420,000 12.50% Hong Kong * 7,150,254 2,283,000 4,878,713 68.20% Singapore 3,654,103 1,200,000 2,421,800 66.30% Internet Usage in Asia
  34. 34. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> How Do You Get On The Internet You need three items to get on the Internet: –A computer to surf the Internet with –An Internet Service Provider (ISP) to provide access to the Internet –A modem or router to hook up your computer to the Internet via the ISP
  35. 35. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Also Recommended(!) While not technically necessary it is highly recommended your computer also have the following when hooked up to the Internet: – Anti-virus Software – Firewall – Anti-Spyware Software – Latest Updates To Your Operating System Your Internet Service Provider may be able to help with these
  36. 36. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Today’s Goal: Internet Services • To look at several services provided by the Internet – FTP – Telnet – WWW (Web) – eMail – Instant messaging – VoIP But first, we need to find out about the addressing scheme used on the Internet
  37. 37. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Internet Addressing • Regular post cannot be delivered unless we write a destination address on the envelope • Same is true for the Internet • Regular post can be delivered at the intended address even if the given address is not precise. That is not the case for Internet addressing
  38. 38. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 203.215.177.33 www.vu.edu.pk IP addressDNS address
  39. 39. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> IP Address (1) • A unique identifier for a computer on a TCP/IP network • Format: four 8-bit numbers separated by periods. Each 8-bit number can be 0 to 255 • Example: – 203.215.177.33 (IP address of the VU Web server)
  40. 40. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> ??clientclient serverserver
  41. 41. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> IP Address (2) • Networks using TCP/IP route messages based on the IP address of the destination • Any IP addresses (as long as they are unique) can be assigned within a PN • However, connecting a PN to the Internet requires using unique, registered IP addresses
  42. 42. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Domain Names • IP addresses are fine for computers, but difficult to recognize and remember for humans • A domain name is a meaningful, easy-to- remember ‘label’ for an IP address • Examples: 203.215.177.33 www.vu.edu.pk 216.239.33.101 www.google.com
  43. 43. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> DNS: Domain Name System (1) • DNS is the way that Internet domain names are located & translated into IP addresses • Maintaining a single, central table of domain name/IP address relationships is impractical – Billions of DNS-IP translations take place every day – The DNS-IP tables get updated continuously
  44. 44. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> DNS: Domain Name System (2) • Tables of DNs & IP addresses are distributed throughout the Internet on numerous servers • There is a DNS server at most ISPs. It converts the domain names in our Internet requests to actual IP addresses • In case it does not have a particular domain name in its table, it makes a request to another DNS server on the Internet
  45. 45. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Internet Services There are many, but we will look at only the following: • FTP • Telnet • WWW (Web) • eMail • Instant messaging • VoIP
  46. 46. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> FTP: File Transfer Protocol • Used to transfer files between computers on a TCP/IP network (e.g Internet) • The files are stores on special types of server called the ftp server. • The browser can be use to transfer files from ftp server to the client computer but it is slow process to transfer files. A lot of ftp client program of different software companies are available through which files can be download from ftp server into to your local computer very easily and quickly. Similarly the files from your commuter can be uploaded to the ftp server. These special programs are WS_FTP and cute FTP. • Simple commands allow the user to: – List, change, create folders on a remote computer – Upload and download files • Typical use: Transferring Web content from the developer’s PC to the Web server
  47. 47. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Telnet Protocol • Using Telnet, a user can remotely log on to a computer (connected to the user’s through a TCP/IP network, e.g. Internet) & have control over it like a local user, including control over running various programs • In contrast, FTP allows file operations only • Typical use: Configuring and testing of a remote Web server
  48. 48. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> www (The Web ) • In 1991, the World Wide Web was developed by Tim Berners-Lee as a way for people to share information. – The hyper-text format available through his Web made the internet much easier to use because all documents could be seen easily on screen without downloading. • The first browser software—Mosaic—was introduced by Marc Andreesen in 1993, and it enabled more fluid use of images and graphics online and opened up a new world for internet users. • A user may access any item on the Web through a URL, e.g. http://www.vu.edu.pk/cs/index.html • Before, going any further, I like to tell about URL
  49. 49. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> A URL (or uniform resource locator) is the unique address of any Web page on theA URL (or uniform resource locator) is the unique address of any Web page on the World Wide Web. Here’s an example:World Wide Web. Here’s an example: http://www.vu.edu.pk/cs/index.html Protocol Identifier Server Address Directory & File Name
  50. 50. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> So, how do you get on to the World Wide Web?
  51. 51. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> A web browser is software that provides access to the World Wide Web. Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, and Firefox are some popular browsers.
  52. 52. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  53. 53. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> DIFFERENT TYPES OF BROWSERS • Amaya, • AOL Explorer, • Arachne • Arlington Kiosk • Avant • Camino • Dillo • Elinks • Epiphany • Flock • Galeon • iCab • Internet Explorer, • Internet Explorer for Mac • KioWare • Konqueror • Links, • Lynx • Maxthon • Mosaic • Mozilla Firefox • Netscape • OmniWeb • SeaMonkey • Safari • Opera • Off By One • K-Meleon
  54. 54. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> How does the Web work?
  55. 55. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer User launches the browser on his/her computer Browser
  56. 56. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer User types in the URL into the browser
  57. 57. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer The browser breaks down the URL http://www.vu.edu.pk/cs/index.html http Protocol Identifier www.vu.edu.pk Server’s Name cs/index.html Directory & File Name
  58. 58. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer DNS Server Browser sends server’s name to the DNS server Domain Name IP Address
  59. 59. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer Web Server Internet Browser establishes a connection with the server
  60. 60. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer Web Server Browser sends a ‘GET’ request for cs/index.html
  61. 61. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer Web Server Server sends the requested file to the browser
  62. 62. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer Browser displays index.html X
  63. 63. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> eMail • Computer-to-computer messaging • Inexpensive, and quite quick, but not instant! • The most popular service on the Internet, even more than surfing, but soon to be overtaken by instant messaging • Billions are sent every day
  64. 64. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> How does an eMail system work?
  65. 65. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> But first, the components: • eMail client • SMTP server • POP3 server
  66. 66. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> eMail Clients • Programs used for writing, sending, receiving, and displaying eMail messages • Examples: Outlook, Communicator, Hotmail, YahooMail
  67. 67. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol A protocol used to send and receive eMail messages over a TCP/IP network
  68. 68. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> POP3: Post Office Protocol • A protocol used for receiving eMail messages • A POP3 server maintains text files (one file per user account) containing all messages received by a user • eMail client interacts with the POP3 server for discovering and downloading new eMail messages
  69. 69. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sender’s Computer The message is prepared using the eMail client eMail Client
  70. 70. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sender’s Computer SMTP Server The eMail client sends it to the SMTP server
  71. 71. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sender’s Computer SMTP Server POP3 Server If the receiver is local, it goes to the POP3 server
  72. 72. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sender’s Computer POP3 Server The receiver picks it at his/her convenience Receiver's Computer SMTP Server
  73. 73. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sender’s Computer SMTP Server SMTP Server Internet Otherwise, it is sent to receiver's SMTP server
  74. 74. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sender’s Computer SMTP Server POP3 Server SMTP Server Which forwards it to the local POP3 server
  75. 75. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sender’s Computer SMTP Server POP3 Server SMTP Server The receiver picks it at his/her convenience Receiver's Computer
  76. 76. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> The Trouble with eMail • Slow response times • No way of knowing if the person we are sending eMail to is there to read it • The process of having a conversation through eMail by exchanging several short messages is too cumbersome Instant messaging (IM) solves these problems
  77. 77. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Instant Messaging • The IM services available on the Internet (e.g. ICQ, AIM, MSN Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger) allow us to maintain a list of people (contacts) that we interact with regularly • We can send an instant messages to any of the contacts in our list as long as that contact is online
  78. 78. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Using Instant Messaging (1) • Whenever a contact in our list comes online, the IM client informs us through an alert message and by playing a sound • To send an instant message to a contact, just click on the contact in the IM client, and start typing the message
  79. 79. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Using Instant Messaging (2) • The selected contact will receive that message almost immediately after you press ‘Enter’ • When the contact’s IM client receives the message, it alerts the contact with a blinking message and by playing a sound
  80. 80. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Using Instant Messaging (3) • That contact then can type a response to the received message, and send it instantly • Several such conversations can be carried out simultaneously, each occupying a separate IM windows
  81. 81. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> How instant messaging works?
  82. 82. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User launches the IM client My Computer IM Client Internet
  83. 83. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> IM client finds the IM server & logs in My Computer IM Server
  84. 84. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> It sends communication info (IP address, etc) to the IM server My Computer IM Server Temporary File
  85. 85. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> IM server finds user’s contacts & sends him/her the communication info for the ones online My Computer IM Server
  86. 86. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> IM server also tells the contacts that the user is online; sends his/her communication info to them My Computer IM Server Contact’s Computer
  87. 87. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> My Computer IM Server Contact’s Computer Now the user’s & the contact’s IM clients are ready to communicate directly (P2P) The IM server doesn’t play any part in this P2P
  88. 88. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> My Computer IM Server Contact A’s Computer As new contact’s come online, IM server informs them about the user being online & vice versa Contact B’s Computer
  89. 89. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> My Computer IM Server Contact A’s Computer Multiple, simultaneous conversations are possible Contact B’s Computer
  90. 90. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> My Computer IM Server Contact A’s Computer When the user logs-off, his/her IM client informs the IM server Contact B’s Computer
  91. 91. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> My Computer IM Server Contact A’s Computer IM server erases the temporary file and informs the user’s contact’s about his/her ‘offline’ status Contact B’s Computer
  92. 92. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Key Point • Once the IM server provides the communication info to the user and his/her contact’s IM client, the two are able to communicate with each other without the IM server’s assistance • This server-less connection is termed as a P2P connection
  93. 93. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> VoIP: Voice over IP • Voice delivered from one device to another using the Internet Protocol • Voice is first converted into a digital form, is broken down into packets, and then transmitted over a TCP/IP network (e.g. Internet)
  94. 94. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Advantage Much cheaper than traditional phone service Disadvantage Noticeably poor quality of voice as compared with land-line phone service, but not much worse than cell phone service
  95. 95. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  96. 96. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> E commerce E commerce or electronic commerce is very important services provided by internet through which financial transitions are carried out over the internet, it is modern way to carry out business on international bases. When business is conducted with the help of computer network. This activity is usually termed as e commerce or e trade. Through e commerce, goods can be purchased and sold from any where in the world. Credit cards are used for payment. It is estimated that the size of e commerce is growing at a rate of 25% to 30% per month in the world. The e commerce can only be conducted on the computer network. Therefore computer network has become the need of every nation including Pakistan. The example of e commerce are; online shopping, online advertising, online banking etc.
  97. 97. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Other Services • Chat rooms • Forums • Online Services  Shopping  Banking  Games
  98. 98. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Video Conferencing Equipment
  99. 99. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Top 10 Uses 1.Email 2.Research 3.Downloading files 4.Discussion groups 5. Games 6.Education 7.Businesses 8.News and Weather 9.Job (Search & Work) 10.Shopping
  100. 100. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  101. 101. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Advantages Communication: Information Entertainment Services E-Commerce
  102. 102. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Disadvantages Theft of Personal information Spamming: Virus threat Pornography:
  103. 103. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Did you know? The Internet Service was started by the US military in 1969 with four computers. It grew and in the following 10 years it connected 200 computers in the military and educational establishments. By 1996, there were more than 50 million users connected to 4 million computers. The Internet service is available in about 200 countries.

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