Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Ome1
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Ome1

705

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
705
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 2. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> WE WILL BEGIN IN..
  • 3. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 10
  • 4. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 9
  • 5. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 8
  • 6. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 7
  • 7. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 6
  • 8. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 5
  • 9. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 4
  • 10. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 3
  • 11. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 12. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 13. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 14. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Father of the Internet Tim Berners-Lee
  • 15. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Tim Berners-Lee Tim Berners-Lee was the man leading the development of the World Wide Web , the defining of HTML -used to create web pages, HTTP and URLs (Universal Resource Locators).
  • 16. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Internet “The internet is a network of networks---a global communications system that links together thousands of individual networks”.
  • 17. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Internet History • 1968 - DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) contracts with BBN (Bolt, Beranek & Newman) to create ARPAnet
  • 18. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> ARPANET • 1969- Arpanet (advance research project agency ). • The BBN design this network for united states department of defense. • The military develop the ARPANET in response to the threat of a nuclear attack that might destroy the country’s communication system.
  • 19. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 1970’ Telecommunication • The ARPA was primarily used by the military. • Some of the large companies such as IBM, and universities. • The general population was not yet connected to the system. • Very few people were on line on network.
  • 20. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Twenty Three Nodes, 1972 • The ARPA was international • With nodes in Europe at the university college in London, and royal radar establishment in Norway. • RAY Tomlinson, invented E-mail, Who worked at BBN.
  • 21. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> UUCP, 1976 • At &T BELL labs developed UNIX to UNIX copy. 1977, UUCP was distributed with UNIX.
  • 22. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> USENET, 1979 • User network (USENET) was started by using UUCP to connect Duke university and the university of north Carolina at chapel hill. News groups emerged from this early development.
  • 23. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 1980s Telecommunication • Transmission protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP), a set of governing how networks making up the ARPANET communicate was established. • As the internet grew the domain name system (DNS) was developed.
  • 24. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> CSNET, 1980 • The computer science network (CSNET) connected all university computer science department in the united states. • CSNET joined the ARPANET in 1981.
  • 25. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> BITNET,1981 • The because its Time Network formed at the university of new York and connected to Yale university.
  • 26. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> TCP/IP 1983 • The united states defense communications agency required that TCP/IP be used for all ARPANET hosts. • Since TCP/IP was distributed at no charge. • This allow the internet to grow quickly as all connected computers were now speaking g the same language.
  • 27. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> World Wide Web 1991 • The World wide web created by Tim Berners –Lee. • As a simple way to publish information and make it available on the internet. • The WWW publicly available In 1992
  • 28. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Mosaic 1993 • Mosaic a graphical browser for the web, released by Marc Andreessen and several other students at the university of Illinois.
  • 29. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Netscape Communication 1994 • The company called the Netscape Communications, by Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark, released Netscape Navigator, a web browser that captured the imagination of everyone who use it.
  • 30. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> • Yahoo 1994 • Java 1995 • Microsoft discovers the Internet, 1995 • Internet courses offers by colleges, 1995 • Over 55 Million Nodes, 1999 • “ I LOVE YOU” Virus, 2000 • Wireless Devices, 2001
  • 31. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> World Regions Internet Usage, Latest Data % Population ( Penetration ) Usage % of World Usage Growth 2000-2007 Africa 33,545,600 3.6 % 2.9 % 643.1 % Asia 418,007,015 11.3 % 36.2 % 265.7 % Europe 321,853,477 39.8 % 27.9% 206.2 % Middle East 19,539,300 10.1 % 1.7 % 494.8 % North America 232,655,287 69.5 % 20.2% 115.2 % LatinAmerica/ Caribbean 109,961,609 19.8 % 9.5 % 508.6 % Oceania / Australia 18,796,490 54.5 % 1.6 % 146.7 % WORLD TOTAL 1,154,358,778 17.6 % 100.0 % 219.8 % WORLD INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION STATISTICSWORLD INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION STATISTICS
  • 32. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 33. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> ASIA Population Internet Users, Internet Users, Penetration ( 2007 Est.) (Year 2000) Latest Data (% Population) Afganistan 27,089,593 - 300,000 1.10% Korea, North 23,510,379 -- -- -- China 1,317,431,495 22,500,000 144,000,000 10.90% Japan 128,646,345 47,080,000 86,300,000 67.10% India 1,129,667,528 5,000,000 42,000,000 3.70% Korea, South 51,300,989 19,040,000 34,120,000 66.50% Indonesia 224,481,720 2,000,000 20,000,000 8.90% Vietnam 85,031,436 200,000 15,760,702 18.50% Taiwan 23,001,442 6,260,000 14,500,000 63.00% Philippines 87,236,532 2,000,000 14,000,000 16.00% Malaysia 28,294,120 3,700,000 13,528,200 47.80% Pakistan 167,806,831 133,900 12,000,000 7.20% Thailand 67,249,456 2,300,000 8,420,000 12.50% Hong Kong * 7,150,254 2,283,000 4,878,713 68.20% Singapore 3,654,103 1,200,000 2,421,800 66.30% Internet Usage in Asia
  • 34. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> How Do You Get On The Internet You need three items to get on the Internet: –A computer to surf the Internet with –An Internet Service Provider (ISP) to provide access to the Internet –A modem or router to hook up your computer to the Internet via the ISP
  • 35. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Also Recommended(!) While not technically necessary it is highly recommended your computer also have the following when hooked up to the Internet: – Anti-virus Software – Firewall – Anti-Spyware Software – Latest Updates To Your Operating System Your Internet Service Provider may be able to help with these
  • 36. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Today’s Goal: Internet Services • To look at several services provided by the Internet – FTP – Telnet – WWW (Web) – eMail – Instant messaging – VoIP But first, we need to find out about the addressing scheme used on the Internet
  • 37. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Internet Addressing • Regular post cannot be delivered unless we write a destination address on the envelope • Same is true for the Internet • Regular post can be delivered at the intended address even if the given address is not precise. That is not the case for Internet addressing
  • 38. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> 203.215.177.33 www.vu.edu.pk IP addressDNS address
  • 39. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> IP Address (1) • A unique identifier for a computer on a TCP/IP network • Format: four 8-bit numbers separated by periods. Each 8-bit number can be 0 to 255 • Example: – 203.215.177.33 (IP address of the VU Web server)
  • 40. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> ??clientclient serverserver
  • 41. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> IP Address (2) • Networks using TCP/IP route messages based on the IP address of the destination • Any IP addresses (as long as they are unique) can be assigned within a PN • However, connecting a PN to the Internet requires using unique, registered IP addresses
  • 42. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Domain Names • IP addresses are fine for computers, but difficult to recognize and remember for humans • A domain name is a meaningful, easy-to- remember ‘label’ for an IP address • Examples: 203.215.177.33 www.vu.edu.pk 216.239.33.101 www.google.com
  • 43. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> DNS: Domain Name System (1) • DNS is the way that Internet domain names are located & translated into IP addresses • Maintaining a single, central table of domain name/IP address relationships is impractical – Billions of DNS-IP translations take place every day – The DNS-IP tables get updated continuously
  • 44. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> DNS: Domain Name System (2) • Tables of DNs & IP addresses are distributed throughout the Internet on numerous servers • There is a DNS server at most ISPs. It converts the domain names in our Internet requests to actual IP addresses • In case it does not have a particular domain name in its table, it makes a request to another DNS server on the Internet
  • 45. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Internet Services There are many, but we will look at only the following: • FTP • Telnet • WWW (Web) • eMail • Instant messaging • VoIP
  • 46. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> FTP: File Transfer Protocol • Used to transfer files between computers on a TCP/IP network (e.g Internet) • The files are stores on special types of server called the ftp server. • The browser can be use to transfer files from ftp server to the client computer but it is slow process to transfer files. A lot of ftp client program of different software companies are available through which files can be download from ftp server into to your local computer very easily and quickly. Similarly the files from your commuter can be uploaded to the ftp server. These special programs are WS_FTP and cute FTP. • Simple commands allow the user to: – List, change, create folders on a remote computer – Upload and download files • Typical use: Transferring Web content from the developer’s PC to the Web server
  • 47. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Telnet Protocol • Using Telnet, a user can remotely log on to a computer (connected to the user’s through a TCP/IP network, e.g. Internet) & have control over it like a local user, including control over running various programs • In contrast, FTP allows file operations only • Typical use: Configuring and testing of a remote Web server
  • 48. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> www (The Web ) • In 1991, the World Wide Web was developed by Tim Berners-Lee as a way for people to share information. – The hyper-text format available through his Web made the internet much easier to use because all documents could be seen easily on screen without downloading. • The first browser software—Mosaic—was introduced by Marc Andreesen in 1993, and it enabled more fluid use of images and graphics online and opened up a new world for internet users. • A user may access any item on the Web through a URL, e.g. http://www.vu.edu.pk/cs/index.html • Before, going any further, I like to tell about URL
  • 49. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> A URL (or uniform resource locator) is the unique address of any Web page on theA URL (or uniform resource locator) is the unique address of any Web page on the World Wide Web. Here’s an example:World Wide Web. Here’s an example: http://www.vu.edu.pk/cs/index.html Protocol Identifier Server Address Directory & File Name
  • 50. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> So, how do you get on to the World Wide Web?
  • 51. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> A web browser is software that provides access to the World Wide Web. Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, and Firefox are some popular browsers.
  • 52. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 53. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> DIFFERENT TYPES OF BROWSERS • Amaya, • AOL Explorer, • Arachne • Arlington Kiosk • Avant • Camino • Dillo • Elinks • Epiphany • Flock • Galeon • iCab • Internet Explorer, • Internet Explorer for Mac • KioWare • Konqueror • Links, • Lynx • Maxthon • Mosaic • Mozilla Firefox • Netscape • OmniWeb • SeaMonkey • Safari • Opera • Off By One • K-Meleon
  • 54. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> How does the Web work?
  • 55. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer User launches the browser on his/her computer Browser
  • 56. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer User types in the URL into the browser
  • 57. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer The browser breaks down the URL http://www.vu.edu.pk/cs/index.html http Protocol Identifier www.vu.edu.pk Server’s Name cs/index.html Directory & File Name
  • 58. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer DNS Server Browser sends server’s name to the DNS server Domain Name IP Address
  • 59. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer Web Server Internet Browser establishes a connection with the server
  • 60. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer Web Server Browser sends a ‘GET’ request for cs/index.html
  • 61. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer Web Server Server sends the requested file to the browser
  • 62. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User’s Computer Browser displays index.html X
  • 63. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> eMail • Computer-to-computer messaging • Inexpensive, and quite quick, but not instant! • The most popular service on the Internet, even more than surfing, but soon to be overtaken by instant messaging • Billions are sent every day
  • 64. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> How does an eMail system work?
  • 65. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> But first, the components: • eMail client • SMTP server • POP3 server
  • 66. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> eMail Clients • Programs used for writing, sending, receiving, and displaying eMail messages • Examples: Outlook, Communicator, Hotmail, YahooMail
  • 67. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol A protocol used to send and receive eMail messages over a TCP/IP network
  • 68. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> POP3: Post Office Protocol • A protocol used for receiving eMail messages • A POP3 server maintains text files (one file per user account) containing all messages received by a user • eMail client interacts with the POP3 server for discovering and downloading new eMail messages
  • 69. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sender’s Computer The message is prepared using the eMail client eMail Client
  • 70. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sender’s Computer SMTP Server The eMail client sends it to the SMTP server
  • 71. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sender’s Computer SMTP Server POP3 Server If the receiver is local, it goes to the POP3 server
  • 72. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sender’s Computer POP3 Server The receiver picks it at his/her convenience Receiver's Computer SMTP Server
  • 73. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sender’s Computer SMTP Server SMTP Server Internet Otherwise, it is sent to receiver's SMTP server
  • 74. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sender’s Computer SMTP Server POP3 Server SMTP Server Which forwards it to the local POP3 server
  • 75. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Sender’s Computer SMTP Server POP3 Server SMTP Server The receiver picks it at his/her convenience Receiver's Computer
  • 76. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> The Trouble with eMail • Slow response times • No way of knowing if the person we are sending eMail to is there to read it • The process of having a conversation through eMail by exchanging several short messages is too cumbersome Instant messaging (IM) solves these problems
  • 77. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Instant Messaging • The IM services available on the Internet (e.g. ICQ, AIM, MSN Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger) allow us to maintain a list of people (contacts) that we interact with regularly • We can send an instant messages to any of the contacts in our list as long as that contact is online
  • 78. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Using Instant Messaging (1) • Whenever a contact in our list comes online, the IM client informs us through an alert message and by playing a sound • To send an instant message to a contact, just click on the contact in the IM client, and start typing the message
  • 79. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Using Instant Messaging (2) • The selected contact will receive that message almost immediately after you press ‘Enter’ • When the contact’s IM client receives the message, it alerts the contact with a blinking message and by playing a sound
  • 80. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Using Instant Messaging (3) • That contact then can type a response to the received message, and send it instantly • Several such conversations can be carried out simultaneously, each occupying a separate IM windows
  • 81. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> How instant messaging works?
  • 82. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> User launches the IM client My Computer IM Client Internet
  • 83. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> IM client finds the IM server & logs in My Computer IM Server
  • 84. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> It sends communication info (IP address, etc) to the IM server My Computer IM Server Temporary File
  • 85. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> IM server finds user’s contacts & sends him/her the communication info for the ones online My Computer IM Server
  • 86. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> IM server also tells the contacts that the user is online; sends his/her communication info to them My Computer IM Server Contact’s Computer
  • 87. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> My Computer IM Server Contact’s Computer Now the user’s & the contact’s IM clients are ready to communicate directly (P2P) The IM server doesn’t play any part in this P2P
  • 88. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> My Computer IM Server Contact A’s Computer As new contact’s come online, IM server informs them about the user being online & vice versa Contact B’s Computer
  • 89. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> My Computer IM Server Contact A’s Computer Multiple, simultaneous conversations are possible Contact B’s Computer
  • 90. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> My Computer IM Server Contact A’s Computer When the user logs-off, his/her IM client informs the IM server Contact B’s Computer
  • 91. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> My Computer IM Server Contact A’s Computer IM server erases the temporary file and informs the user’s contact’s about his/her ‘offline’ status Contact B’s Computer
  • 92. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Key Point • Once the IM server provides the communication info to the user and his/her contact’s IM client, the two are able to communicate with each other without the IM server’s assistance • This server-less connection is termed as a P2P connection
  • 93. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> VoIP: Voice over IP • Voice delivered from one device to another using the Internet Protocol • Voice is first converted into a digital form, is broken down into packets, and then transmitted over a TCP/IP network (e.g. Internet)
  • 94. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Advantage Much cheaper than traditional phone service Disadvantage Noticeably poor quality of voice as compared with land-line phone service, but not much worse than cell phone service
  • 95. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 96. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> E commerce E commerce or electronic commerce is very important services provided by internet through which financial transitions are carried out over the internet, it is modern way to carry out business on international bases. When business is conducted with the help of computer network. This activity is usually termed as e commerce or e trade. Through e commerce, goods can be purchased and sold from any where in the world. Credit cards are used for payment. It is estimated that the size of e commerce is growing at a rate of 25% to 30% per month in the world. The e commerce can only be conducted on the computer network. Therefore computer network has become the need of every nation including Pakistan. The example of e commerce are; online shopping, online advertising, online banking etc.
  • 97. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Other Services • Chat rooms • Forums • Online Services  Shopping  Banking  Games
  • 98. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Video Conferencing Equipment
  • 99. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Top 10 Uses 1.Email 2.Research 3.Downloading files 4.Discussion groups 5. Games 6.Education 7.Businesses 8.News and Weather 9.Job (Search & Work) 10.Shopping
  • 100. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >>
  • 101. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Advantages Communication: Information Entertainment Services E-Commerce
  • 102. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Disadvantages Theft of Personal information Spamming: Virus threat Pornography:
  • 103. >> 0 >> 1 >> 2 >> 3 >> 4 >> Did you know? The Internet Service was started by the US military in 1969 with four computers. It grew and in the following 10 years it connected 200 computers in the military and educational establishments. By 1996, there were more than 50 million users connected to 4 million computers. The Internet service is available in about 200 countries.

×