Chapter 1 what is statistics

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Chapter 1 what is statistics

  1. 1. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />Probability and Statistical <br />Pro. f Ahmed HassenYoussef <br />Department of Applied Statistics, Institute of Statistics, Cairo University <br />
  2. 2. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br /><ul><li>COURSE TITLE: </li></ul> Introduction to Statistics And Probability<br /><ul><li>COURSE NUMBER: </li></ul>MST 103 <br /><ul><li>NUMBER OF CREDITS: 3
  3. 3. CLASS TIME AND PLACE: Sunday 9:00 – 11:00 am; Loc:B2.2 </li></li></ul><li>MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />Textbook <br />Statistical Techniques in Business and Economics with Global Data sets <br />By <br />Douglas A. Lind <br />William G. Marchal <br />Samuel A. Wathen <br />McGrow- Hill, Irwin 2008 <br />
  4. 4. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />GOALS <br /><ul><li>Understand why we study statistics.
  5. 5. Explain what is meant by descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.
  6. 6. Distinguish between a qualitative variable and a quantitative variable.
  7. 7. Describe how a discrete variable is differentfrom a continuous variable.
  8. 8. Distinguish among the nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio levels of measurement. </li></ul>Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />
  9. 9. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />What is Meant by Statistics? <br />Statistics is the science of <br />collecting, organizing, presenting, <br />analyzing, and interpreting <br />numerical data to assist in making More Effective Decisions<br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />
  10. 10. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />A few headlines <br /><ul><li>70 Percent Chance That Lare g Earthuake q Will Strike San Francisco By 2030. 10/15/99, Geological Survey
  11. 11. If Hurricane Ivan Hits U.S., 2004 Would Be </li></ul>A '1 In 50 Year Series Of Storm Events<br />For Insurance Industry. EQECAT <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />
  12. 12. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />Who Uses Statistics? <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />
  13. 13. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />Population versus Sample <br />A population is a collection of all possible individuals, objects, or <br />measurements of interest. <br />A sample is a portion, or part, of the population of interest <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />
  14. 14. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />Quantitative Variables - Classifications <br />Quantitative variables can be classified as either discrete or continuous. <br />Discrete variables: can only assume certain values and there are usually “gaps” between values. <br />EXAMPLE: the number of bedrooms in a house, or the number of hammers sold at the local Home Depot (1,2,3,...,etc). <br />Continuous variable can assume any value within a specified range. <br />EXAMPLE: The pressure in a tire, the weight of meat, or the height of students in a class. <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />
  15. 15. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />Four Levels of Measurement <br />Nominal level –data that is Classified<br />Into Categoriesand cannot be arranged in<br />any particular order. <br />EXAMPLES: eye color, gender, religious affiliation. <br />Interval level - similar to the ordinal level, with the additional property that meaningful<br />amounts of differences between data values can be determined. There is no natural zero point. <br />EXAMPLE: Temperature on the Fahrenheit scale. <br />Ordinal level – involves data arranged in some order, but the differences between data values Cannot Be Determined Or Are meaningless. <br />EXAMPLE: During a taste test of 4 soft drinks, Coca Cola was ranked number 1, Sprite number 2, Seven-up number 3, and Pepsi number 4. <br />Ratio level- the interval level with an inherent zero starting point. <br />Differences and ratios are Meaningful For This Level<br />Ofmeasurement. <br />EXAMPLES: Monthly income of surgeons, or distance traveled by manufacturer’s representatives per month. <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen<br />
  16. 16. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />Questions of Chapter 1 <br />1. A population is a collection of all individuals, objects, or measurements of interest. <br />True/False <br />Answer: True <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />
  17. 17. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />Questions of Chapter 1 <br />3. There are four levels of measurement qualitative, quantitative, discrete, and continuous. <br />True/False <br />Answer: False <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />
  18. 18. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />Questions of Chapter 1 <br />5. The CIA World Fact book cited these numbers for the U . S: <br /><ul><li>Birthrate is 14.14 births per 1,000 population.
  19. 19. Average life expectancy for females is 80 years.
  20. 20. Approximately 290 million persons residing in the United States. </li></ul>Each of these numbers is referred to as statistic. <br />True/False Answer: True <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />
  21. 21. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />Questions of Chapter 1 <br />7 . The main purpose of descriptive statistics is to:<br />Summarize data in a useful and informative manner. <br />Make inferences about a population. <br />Determine if the data adequately represents The Population.<br />Gather Or Collect Data<br />Answer: A <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />
  22. 22. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />Questions of Chapter 1 <br />9 . Respondents were asked, " Do you now earnmore than or less than you did five years ago?" What is this level of measurement? <br />Interval <br />Ratio <br />Nominal <br />Ordinal<br />None of the above <br />Answer: D <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />
  23. 23. MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />MST 103 – Introduction to Statistics and Probability <br />End of Chapter 1 <br />Prof. Ahmed Hassen <br />

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