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    Voc (dutch east india company) Voc (dutch east india company) Document Transcript

    • 2. Early Modern Europe <br />10 pointsDue:  Tuesday, February 15Research your Nation in Wikipedia, with a focus on the history of the 15th and 16th centuries.  <br />Start with this summary of Early Modern Europe<br />Then look up information on the history of your nation during the 15th and 16th centuries, such as:  France, the Netherlands, Spain, England, Italy (Genoa & Venice) and Portugal.  The Italian situation is a little more complicated, but no less important.<br />Apart from researching a general survey of this period, each member of the group will focus on a particular theme, such as:<br />war (big theme here), art, music, politics, economy, cheese, wine, cities, language, geography<br />By Tuesday, February 15, each member of the group should have four (4) slides to contribute to the group discussion on your nation.<br />2 slides on general history of the period, including early modern Europe in general<br />2 slides on your specialized topic for your nation (sic)<br />Eighty Years' War (1568–1648). The war years marked the beginning of the Dutch Golden Age, a period of great commercial and cultural prosperity roughly spanning the 17th century and driven by great migrations from the South to the North.<br />Golden Age<br />Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius<br />Main articles: Dutch Golden Age and Economic history of the Netherlands (1500–1815)<br />During the Eighty Years' War the Dutch provinces became the most important trading centre of Northern Europe, replacing Flanders in this respect; Dutch ships hunted whales off Svalbard, traded spices in India and Indonesia (via the Dutch East India Company) and founded colonies in New Amsterdam (now New York), South Africa and the West Indies. In addition some Portuguese colonies were conquered, namely in Northeastern Brazil, Angola, Indonesia and Ceylon. This new nation flourished culturally and economically, creating what historian Simon Schama has called an "embarrassment of riches". Speculation in the tulip trade led to a first stock market crash in 1637, but the economic crisis was soon overcome. Due to these developments the 17th century has been dubbed the Golden Age of the Netherlands. As the Netherlands was a republic, it was largely governed by an aristocracy of city-merchants called the regents, rather than by a king. Every city and province had its own government and laws, and a large degree of autonomy. After attempts to find a competent sovereign proved unsuccessful, it was decided that sovereignty would be vested in the various provincial Estates, the governing bodies of the provinces. The Estates-General, with its representatives from all the provinces, would decide on matters important to the Republic as a whole. However, at the head of each province was the stadtholder of that province, a position held by a descendant of the House of Orange. Usually the stadtholdership of several provinces was held by a single man.<br />'Skating fun' by 17th century Dutch painter Hendrick Avercamp.<br />In 1650, the stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange suddenly died of smallpox; his son, the later stadtholder and subsequent king of England, William III, was born only 8 days later, hence leaving the nation without an obvious successor. Since the conception of the Republic, there had been an ongoing struggle for power between the 'regents', an informal elite of affluent citizens on the one hand and the House of Orange on the other hand, whose supporters, Orangists, were mainly to be found among the common people. For now, the regents seized the opportunity: there would be no new stadtholder (in Holland) for 22 years to come. Johan de Witt, a brilliant politician and diplomat, emerged as the dominant figure. Princes of Orange became the stadtholder and an almost hereditary ruler in 1672 and 1748. The Dutch Republic of the United Provinces was a true republic only from 1650–1672 and 1702–1748. These periods are called the First Stadtholderless Period and Second Stadtholderless Period.<br />In the year 1651, England imposed its first Navigation Act, which severely hurt Dutch trade interests. An incident at sea concerning the Act resulted in the First Anglo-Dutch War, which lasted from 1652 to 1654, ending in the Treaty of Westminster (1654), which left the Navigation Act in effect.<br />[edit] Slave trade<br />Main articles: History of Aruba, History of Curaçao, History of Saint Martin, and History of Suriname<br />Although slavery was illegal inside the Netherlands it flourished in the Dutch Empire, and helped support the economy.[29] In 1619 The Netherlands took the lead in building a large-scale slave trade between Africa and Virginia, by 1650 becoming the pre-eminent slave trading country in Europe. It was overtaken by Britain around 1700. Historians agree that in all the Dutch shipped about 550,000 African slaves across the Atlantic, about 75,000 of whom died on board before reaching their destinations. From 1596-1829, the Dutch traders sold 250,000 slaves in the Dutch Guianas, 142,000 in the Dutch Caribbean islands, and 28,000 in Dutch Brazil.[30] In addition, tens of thousands of slaves, mostly from India and some from Africa, were carried to the Dutch East Indies [31] and slaves from the East Indies to Africa and the West Indies.<br />Whaling is the hunting of whales mainly for meat and oil. Its earliest forms date to at least 3000 BC.[1] Various coastal communities have long histories of sustenance whaling and harvesting beached whales. Industrial whaling emerged with organized fleets in the 17th century; competitive national whaling industries in the 18th and 19th centuries; and the introduction of factory ships along with the concept of whale harvesting in the first half of the 20th century.<br />As technology increased and demand for the seemingly vast resources remained high, catches far exceeded the sustainable limit for whale stocks. In the late 1930s more than 50,000 whales were killed annually HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whaling" l "cite_note-1" [2] and by the middle of the century whale stocks were not being replenished. In 1986 the International Whaling Commission (IWC) banned commercial whaling so that stocks might recover.<br />While the moratorium has been successful in averting the extinction of whale species due to overhunting, contemporary whaling is subject to intense debate. Pro-whaling countries wish to lift the ban on stocks that they believe have recovered sufficiently to sustain limited hunting. Anti-whaling countries and environmental groups contend that those stocks remain vulnerable and that whaling is immoral and should remain banned.<br />Dutch East India Company<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />Jump to: navigation, search <br />This article is about the trading company. For the record label, see Dutch East India Trading.<br />Dutch East India Company lFormer typePublic companyIndustryTradeFateBankruptcyFounded20 March 1602 (1602-03-20)Defunct17 March 1798 (1798-03-17)HeadquartersEast India House, Amsterdam, Holland, Dutch Republic<br />The shipyard of the Dutch East India Company in Amsterdam, circa 1750.<br />The Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC in Dutch, literally "United East Indian Company") was a chartered company established in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly to carry out colonial activities in Asia. It was the first multinational corporation in the world and the first company to issue stock.[1] It was also arguably the world's first megacorporation, possessing quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts,[2] negotiate treaties, coin money, and establish colonies.[3]<br />Statistically, the VOC eclipsed all of its rivals in the Asia trade. Between 1602 and 1796 the VOC sent almost a million Europeans to work in the Asia trade on 4,785 ships, and netted for their efforts more than 2.5 million tons of Asian trade goods. By contrast, the rest of Europe combined sent only 882,412 people from 1500 to 1795, and the fleet of the English (later British) East India Company, the VOC’s nearest competitor, was a distant second to its total traffic with 2,690 ships and a mere one-fifth the tonnage of goods carried by the VOC. The VOC enjoyed huge profits from its spice monopoly through most of the 17th century.[4]<br />Having been set up in 1602, to profit from the Malukan spice trade, in 1619 the VOC established a capital in the port city of Batavia (now Jakarta). Over the next two centuries the Company acquired additional ports as trading bases and safeguarded their interests by taking over surrounding territory.[5] It remained an important trading concern and paid an 18% annual dividend for almost 200 years. Weighed down by corruption in the late 18th century, the Company went bankrupt and was formally dissolved in 1800, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_East_India_Company" l "cite_note-RICKLEFSp110-5" [6] its possessions and the debt being taken over by the government of the Dutch Batavian Republic. The VOC's territories became the Dutch East Indies and were expanded over the course of the 19th century to include the whole of the Indonesian archipelago, and in the 20th century would form <br />History<br />See also: Economic History of the Netherlands (1500 - 1815)<br />[edit] Background<br />A bond issued by the Dutch East India Company, dating from 7 November 1623, for the amount of 2,400 florins.<br />During the 16th century, the spice trade was dominated by the Portuguese who used Lisbon as a staple port. Before the Dutch Revolt, Antwerp had played an important role as a distribution center in northern Europe, but after 1591 the Portuguese used an international syndicate of the German Fuggers and Welsers, and Spanish and Italian firms that used Hamburg as its northern staple, to distribute their goods, thereby cutting out Dutch merchants. At the same time, the Portuguese trade system was so inefficient that it was unable to supply growing demand, in particular the demand for pepper. The demand for spices was relatively inelastic, and the lagging supply of pepper therefore caused a sharp rise in pepper prices at the time.<br />Likewise, as Portugal had been "united" with the Spanish crown, with which the Dutch Republic was at war, in 1580, the Portuguese Empire became an appropriate target for military incursions. These three factors formed motive for Dutch merchants to enter the intercontinental spice trade themselves at this time. Finally, a number of Dutchmen like Jan Huyghen van Linschoten and Cornelis de Houtman obtained first hand knowledge of the "secret" Portuguese trade routes and practices, thereby providing opportunity.[7] The stage was thus set for Houtman's four-ship exploratory expedition to Banten, the main pepper port of West Java, where they clashed with both the Portuguese and indigenous Indonesians. Houtman's expedition then sailed east along the north coast of Java, losing twelve crew to a Javanese attack at Sidayu and killing a local ruler in Madura. Half the crew were lost before the expedition made it back to the Netherlands the following year, but with enough spices to make a considerable profit.[8]<br />VOC headquarters in Amsterdam (the Oost-Indisch Huis)<br />In 1598, an increasing number of new fleets were sent out by competing merchant groups from around the Netherlands. Some fleets were lost, but most were successful, with some voyages producing high profits. In March 1599, a fleet of eight ships under Jacob van Neck was the first Dutch fleet to reach the ‘Spice Islands’ of Maluku. The ships returned to Europe in 1599 and 1600 and the expedition made a 400 percent profit.[8] In 1600, the Dutch joined forces with the local Hituese (near Ambon) in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the Dutch were given the sole right to purchase spices from Hitu.[9] Dutch control of Ambon was achieved in alliance with Hitu when in February 1605, they prepared to attack a Portuguese fort in Ambon but the Portuguese surrendered. In 1613, the Dutch expelled the Portuguese from their Solor fort, but a subsequent Portuguese attack led to a second change of hands; following this second reoccupation, the Dutch once again captured Solor, in 1636.[9] East of Solor on the island of Timor Dutch advances were halted by an autonomous and powerful group of Portuguese Eurasians called the Topasses. They remained in control of the Sandalwood trade and their resistance lasted throughout the 17th and 18th century, causing West Timor to remain under the Portuguese sphere of control.[10] [11]<br />[edit] Formation<br />Reproduction of a map of the city Batavia circa 1627 , collection Tropenmuseum<br />At the time, it was customary for a company to be set up only for the duration of a single voyage, and to be liquidated on the return of the fleet. Investment in these expeditions was a very high-risk venture, not only because of the usual dangers of piracy, disease and shipwreck, but also because the interplay of inelastic demand and relatively elastic supply HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_East_India_Company" l "cite_note-11" [12] of spices could make prices tumble at just the wrong moment, thereby ruining prospects of profitability. To manage such risk the forming of a cartel to control supply would seem logical. This first occurred to the English, who bundled their forces into a monopoly enterprise, the East India Company in 1600, thereby threatening their Dutch competitors with ruin. In 1602, the Dutch government followed suit, sponsoring the creation of a single "United East Indies Company" that was also granted a monopoly over the Asian trade. The charter of the new company empowered it to build forts, maintain armies, and conclude treaties with Asian rulers. It provided for a venture that would continue for 21 years, with a financial accounting only at the end of each decade.[13]<br />Dutch Batavia in 1652, built in what is now North Jakarta<br />In 1603, the first permanent Dutch trading post in Indonesia was established in Banten, West Java and in 1611, another was established at Jayakarta (later 'Batavia' and then 'Jakarta').[14] In 1610, the VOC established the post of Governor General to enable firmer control of their affairs in Asia. To advise and control the risk of despotic Governors General, a Council of the Indies (Raad van Indië) was created. The Governor General effectively became the main administrator of the VOC's activities in Asia, although the Heeren XVII continued to officially have overall control.[9]<br />VOC headquarters were in Ambon for the tenures of the first three Governors General (1610–1619), but it was not a satisfactory location. Although it was at the centre of the spice production areas, it was far from the Asian trade routes and other VOC areas of activity ranging from Africa to Japan. A location in the west of the archipelago was thus sought; the Straits of Malacca were strategic, but had become dangerous following the Portuguese conquest and the first permanent VOC settlement in Banten was controlled by a powerful local ruler and subject to stiff competition from Chinese and English traders.[9]<br />In 1604, a second English East India Company voyage commanded by Sir Henry Middleton reached the islands of Ternate, Tidore, Ambon and Banda; in Banda, they encountered severe VOC hostility, which saw the beginning of Anglo-Dutch competition for access to spices.[14] From 1611 to 1617, the English established trading posts at Sukadana (southwest Kalimantan), Makassar, Jayakarta and Jepara in Java, and Aceh, Pariaman and Jambi in Sumatra which threatened Dutch ambitions for a monopoly on East Indies trade.[14] Diplomatic agreements in Europe in 1620 ushered in a period of cooperation between the Dutch and the English over the spice trade.[14] This ended with a notorious, but disputed incident, known as the 'Amboyna massacre', where ten Englishmen were arrested, tried and beheaded for conspiracy against the Dutch government.[15] Although this caused outrage in Europe and a diplomatic crisis, the English quietly withdrew from most of their Indonesian activities (except trading in Bantam) and focused on other Asian interests.<br />[edit] Growth<br />Graves of Dutch dignitaries in the ruined St. Paul's Church, Melaka in the former Dutch Malacca<br />In 1619, Jan Pieterszoon Coen was appointed Governor-General of the VOC. He saw the possibility of the VOC becoming an Asian power, both political and economic. He was not afraid to use brute force to put the VOC on a firm footing. On 30 May 1619, Coen, backed by a force of nineteen ships, stormed Jayakarta driving out the Banten forces; and from the ashes established Batavia as the VOC headquarters. In the 1620s almost the entire native population of the Banda Islands was driven away, starved to death, or killed in an attempt to replace them with Dutch plantations. These plantations were used to grow cloves and nutmeg for export. Coen hoped to settle large numbers of Dutch colonists in the East Indies, but this part of his policies never materialized, because the Heren XVII were wary at the time of large, open-ended financial commitments.[16]<br />Another of Coen's ventures was more successful. A major problem in the European trade with Asia at the time was that the Europeans could offer few goods that Asian consumers wanted, except silver and gold. European traders therefore had to pay for spices with the precious metals, and this was in short supply in Europe, except for Spain and Portugal. The Dutch and English had to obtain it by creating a trade surplus with other European countries. Coen discovered the obvious solution for the problem: to start an intra-Asiatic trade system, whose profits could be used to finance the spice trade with Europe. In the long run this obviated the need for exports of precious metals from Europe, though at first it required the formation of a large trading-capital fund in the Indies. The VOC reinvested a large share of its profits to this end in the period up to 1630.[17] The VOC traded throughout Asia. Ships coming into Batavia from the Netherlands carried supplies for VOC settlements in Asia. Silver and copper from Japan were used to trade with India and China for silk, cotton, porcelain, and textiles. These products were either traded within Asia for the coveted spices or brought back to Europe. The VOC was also instrumental in introducing European ideas and technology to Asia. The Company supported Christian missionaries and traded modern technology with China and Japan. A more peaceful VOC trade post on Dejima, an artificial island off the coast of Nagasaki, was for more than two hundred years the only place where Europeans were permitted to trade with Japan.[18]<br />In 1640, the VOC obtained the port of Galle, Sri Lanka, from the Portuguese and broke the latter's monopoly of the cinnamon trade. In 1658, Gerard Pietersz. Hulft laid siege to Colombo, which was captured with the help of King Rajasinghe II of Kandy. By 1659, the Portuguese had been expelled from the coastal regions, which were then occupied by the VOC, securing for it the monopoly over cinnamon. To prevent the Portuguese or the English from ever recapturing Sri Lanka, the VOC went on to conquer the entire Malabar Coast upon the Portuguese, almost entirely driving them from the west coast of India. When news of a peace agreement between Portugal and the Netherlands reached Asia in 1663, Goa was the only remaining Portuguese city on the west coast.[19]<br />VOC Monogram formerly above the entrance to the Castle of Good Hope.<br />In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck established an outpost at the Cape of Good Hope (the southwestern tip of Africa, currently in South Africa) to re-supply VOC ships on their journey to East Asia. This post later became a full-fledged colony, the Cape Colony, when more Dutch and other Europeans started to settle there.<br />VOC trading posts were also established in Persia (now Iran), Bengal (now Bangladesh, but then part of India), Malacca (Melaka, now in Malaysia), Siam (now Thailand), mainland China (Canton), Formosa (now Taiwan) and the Malabar Coast and Coromandel Coast in India. In 1662, however, Koxinga expelled the Dutch from Taiwan (see History of Taiwan).<br />By 1669, the VOC was the richest private company the world had ever seen, with over 150 merchant ships, 40 warships, 50,000 employees, a private army of 10,000 soldiers, and a dividend payment of 40% on the original investment.[20]<br />Many of the VOC employees inter-mixed with the indigenous peoples and expanded the Mestizo population of Indos in pre-colonial history [21][22] .<br />[edit] Reorientation<br />Around 1670, two events caused the growth of VOC trade to stall. In the first place, the highly profitable trade with Japan started to decline. The loss of the outpost on Formosa to Koxinga and related internal turmoil in China (where the Ming dynasty was being replaced with the Qing dynasty) brought an end to the silk trade after 1666. Though the VOC substituted Bengali for Chinese silk other forces affected the supply of Japanese silver and gold. The shogunate enacted a number of measures to limit the export of these precious metals, in the process limiting VOC opportunities for trade, and severely worsening the terms of trade. Therefore, Japan ceased to function as the lynchpin of the intra-Asiatic trade of the VOC by 1685.[23]<br />Even more importantly, the Third Anglo-Dutch War temporarily interrupted VOC trade with Europe. This caused a spike in the price of pepper, which enticed the English East India Company (EIC) to aggressively enter this market in the years after 1672. Previously, one of the tenets of the VOC pricing policy was to slightly over-supply the pepper market, so as to depress prices below the level where interlopers were encouraged to enter the market (instead of striving for short-term profit maximization). The wisdom of such a policy was illustrated when a fierce price war with the EIC ensued, as that company flooded the market with new supplies from India. In this struggle for market share, the VOC (which had much larger financial resources) could wait out the EIC. Indeed by 1683, the latter came close to bankruptcy; its share price plummeted from 600 to 250; and its president Josiah Child was temporarily forced from office.[24]<br />However, the writing was on the wall. Other companies, like the French East India Company and the Danish East India Company also started to make inroads on the Dutch system. The VOC therefore closed the heretofore flourishing open pepper emporium of Bantam by a treaty of 1684 with the Sultan. Also, on the Coromandel Coast, it moved its chief stronghold from Pulicat to Negapatnam, so as to secure a monopoly on the pepper trade at the detriment of the French and the Danes.[25] However, the importance of these traditional commodities in the Asian-European trade was diminishing rapidly at the time. The military outlays that the VOC needed to make to enhance its monopoly were not justified by the increased profits of this declining trade.[26]<br />Nevertheless, this lesson was slow to sink in and at first the VOC made the strategic decision to improve its military position on the Malabar Coast (hoping thereby to curtail English influence in the area, and end the drain on its resources from the cost of the Malabar garrisons) by using force to compel the Zamorin of Calicut to submit to Dutch domination. In 1710, the Zamorin was made to sign a treaty with the VOC undertaking to trade exclusively with the VOC and expel other European traders. For a brief time, this appeared to improve the Company's prospects. However, in 1715, with EIC encouragement, the Zamorin renounced the treaty. Though a Dutch army managed to suppress this insurrection temporarily, the Zamorin continued to trade with the English and the French, which led to an appreciable upsurge in English and French traffic. The VOC decided in 1721 that it was no longer worth the trouble to try and dominate the Malabar pepper and spice trade. A strategic decision was taken to scale down the Dutch military presence and in effect yield the area to EIC influence.[27]<br />The 1741 Battle of Colachel by Nairs of Travancore under Raja Marthanda Varma was therefore a rearguard action. The Dutch commander Captain Eustachius De Lannoy was captured. Marthanda Varma agreed to spare the Dutch captain's life on condition that he joined his army and trained his soldiers on modern lines. This defeat in the Travancore-Dutch War is considered the earliest example of an organized Asian power overcoming European military technology and tactics; and it signaled the decline of Dutch power in India.[28]<br />The attempt to continue as before as a low volume-high profit business enterprise with its core business in the spice trade had therefore failed. The Company had however already (reluctantly) followed the example of its European competitors in diversifying into other Asian commodities, like tea, coffee, cotton, textiles, and sugar. These commodities provided a lower profit margin and therefore required a larger sales volume to generate the same amount of revenue. This structural change in the commodity composition of the VOC's trade started in the early 1680s, after the temporary collapse of the EIC around 1683 offered an excellent opportunity to enter these markets. The actual cause for the change lies, however, in two structural features of this new era.<br />In the first place, there was a revolutionary change in the tastes affecting European demand for Asian textiles, and coffee and tea, around the turn of the 18th century. Secondly, a new era of an abundant supply of capital at low interest rates suddenly opened around this time. The second factor enabled the Company to easily finance its expansion in the new areas of commerce.[29] Between the 1680s and 1720s, the VOC was therefore able to equip and man an appreciable expansion of its fleet, and acquire a large amount of precious metals to finance the purchase of large amounts of Asian commodities, for shipment to Europe. The overall effect was to approximately double the size of the company.[30]<br />The tonnage of the returning ships rose by 125 percent in this period. However, the Company's revenues from the sale of goods landed in Europe rose by only 78 percent. This reflects the basic change in the VOC's circumstances that had occurred: it now operated in new markets for goods with an elastic demand, in which it had to compete on an equal footing with other suppliers. This made for low profit margins.[31] Unfortunately, the business information systems of the time made this difficult to discern for the managers of the company, which may partly explain the mistakes they made from hindsight. This lack of information might have been counteracted (as in earlier times in the VOC's history) by the business acumen of the directors. Unfortunately by this time these were almost exclusively recruited from the political regent class, which had long since lost its close relationship with merchant circles.[32]<br />Low profit margins in themselves don't explain the deterioration of revenues. To a large extent the costs of the operation of the VOC had a "fixed" character (military establishments; maintenance of the fleet and such). Profit levels might therefore have been maintained if the increase in the scale of trading operations that in fact took place, had resulted in economies of scale. However, though larger ships transported the growing volume of goods, labor productivity did not go up sufficiently to realize these. In general the Company's overhead rose in step with the growth in trade volume; declining gross margins translated directly into a decline in profitability of the invested capital. The era of expansion was one of "profitless growth".[33]<br />Concretely: "[t]he long-term average annual profit in the VOC's 1630-70 'Golden Age' was 2.1 million guilders, of which just under half was distributed as dividends and the remainder reinvested. The long-term average annual profit in the 'Expansion Age' (1680–1730) was 2.0 million guilders, of which three-quarters was distributed as dividend and one-quarter reinvested. In the earlier period, profits averaged 18 percent of total revenues; in the latter period, 10 percent. The annual return of invested capital in the earlier period stood at approximately 6 percent; in the latter period, 3.4 percent."[33]<br />Nevertheless, in the eyes of investors the VOC did not do too badly. The share price hovered consistently around the 400 mark from the mid-1680s (which, during a hiccup around the Glorious Revolution in 1688), and they reached an all-time high of around 642 in the 1720s. VOC shares then yielded a return of 3.5 percent, only slightly less than the yield on Dutch government bonds.[34]<br />[edit] Decline<br />Colombo, gravure uit circa 1680Panorama van Ayutthaya in het Bushuis, AmsterdamKraakporselein in een museum in MalakkaDe voorpagina van de Hortus Malabaricus door Hendrik Adriaan van Reede tot DrakesteinHet schip Vryburg op een schotel, gemaakt in opdracht (1756)Anoniem schilderij met de Tafelberg op de achtergrond (1762)<br />However, from there on the fortunes of the VOC started to decline. Five major problems, not all of equal weight, can be adduced to explain its decline in the next fifty years to 1780.[35]<br />There was a steady erosion of intra-Asiatic trade by changes in the Asiatic political and economic environment that the VOC could do little about. These factors gradually squeezed the company out of Persia, Surat, the Malabar Coast, and Bengal. The company had to confine its operations to the belt it physically controlled, from Ceylon through the Indonesian archipelago. The volume of this intra-Asiatic trade, and its profitability, therefore had to shrink.<br />The way the company was organized in Asia (centralized on its hub in Batavia) that initially had offered advantages in gathering market information, began to cause disadvantages in the 18th century, because of the inefficiency of first shipping everything to this central point. This disadvantage was most keenly felt in the tea trade, where competitors like the EIC and the Ostend Company shipped directly from China to Europe.<br />The "venality" of the VOC's personnel (in the sense of corruption and non-performance of duties), though a problem for all East-India Companies at the time, seems to have plagued the VOC on a larger scale than its competitors. To be sure, the company was not a "good employer". Salaries were low, and "private-account trading" was officially not allowed. Not surprisingly, it proliferated in the 18th century to the detriment of the company's performance.[36] From about the 1790s onward, the phrase perished by corruption (also abbreviated VOC in Dutch) came to summarize the company's future.<br />A problem that the VOC shared with other companies was the high mortality and morbidity among its employees. This decimated the company's ranks and enervated many of the survivors.<br />A self-inflicted wound was the VOC's dividend policy. The dividends distributed by the company had exceeded the surplus it garnered in Europe in every decade but one (1710–1720) from 1690 to 1760. However, in the period up to 1730 the directors shipped resources to Asia to build up the trading capital there. Consolidated bookkeeping therefore probably would have shown that total profits exceeded dividends. In addition, between 1700 and 1740 the company retired 5.4 million guilders of long-term debt. The company therefore was still on a secure financial footing in these years. This changed after 1730. While profits plummeted the bewindhebbers only slightly decreased dividends from the earlier level. Distributed dividends were therefore in excess of earnings in every decade but one (1760–1770). To accomplish this, the Asian capital stock had to be drawn down by 4 million guilders between 1730 and 1780, and the liquid capital available in Europe was reduced by 20 million guilders in the same period. The directors were therefore constrained to replenish the company's liquidity by resorting to short-term financing from anticipatory loans, backed by expected revenues from home-bound fleets.<br />Despite of all this, the VOC in 1780 remained an enormous operation. Its capital in the Republic, consisting of ships and goods in inventory, totaled 28 million guilders; its capital in Asia, consisting of the liquid trading fund and goods en route to Europe, totaled 46 million guilders. Total capital, net of outstanding debt, stood at 62 million guilders. The prospects of the company at this time therefore need not have been hopeless, had one of the many plans to reform it been taken successfully in hand. However, then the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War intervened. British attacks in Europe and Asia reduced the VOC fleet by half; removed valuable cargo from its control; and devastated its remaining power in Asia. The direct losses of the VOC can be calculated at 43 million guilders. Loans to keep the company operating reduced its net assets to zero.[37]<br />From 1720 on, the market for sugar from Indonesia declined as the competition from cheap sugar from Brazil increased. European markets became saturated. Dozens of Chinese sugar traders went bankrupt which led to massive unemployment, which in turn led to gangs of unemployed coolies. The Dutch government in Batavia did not adequately respond to these problems. In 1740, rumors of deportation of the gangs from the Batavia area led to widespread rioting. The Dutch military searched houses of Chinese in Batavia searching for weapons. When a house accidentally burnt down, military and impoverished citizens started slaughtering and pillaging the Chinese community.[38] This massacre of the Chinese was deemed sufficiently serious for the board of the VOC to start an official investigation into the Government of the Dutch East Indies for the first time in its history.<br />After the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, the VOC was a financial wreck, and after vain attempts by the provincial States of Holland and Zeeland to reorganize it, was nationalised on 1 March 1796[39] by the new Batavian Republic. Its charter was renewed several times, but allowed to expire on 31 December 1800.[40] Most of the possessions of the former VOC were subsequently occupied by Great Britain during the Napoleonic wars, but after the new United Kingdom of the Netherlands was created by the Congress of Vienna, some of these were restored to this successor state of the old Dutch Republic by the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814.<br />[edit] Organization<br />The VOC had two types of shareholders: the participanten, who could be seen as non-managing partners, and the 76 bewindhebbers (later reduced to 60) who acted as managing partners. This was the usual set-up for Dutch joint-stock companies at the time. The innovation in the case of the VOC was, that the liability of not just the participanten, but also of the bewindhebbers was limited to the paid-in capital (usually, bewindhebbers had unlimited liability). The VOC therefore was a limited-liability company. Also, the capital would be permanent during the lifetime of the company. As a consequence, investors that wished to liquidate their interest in the interim could only do this by selling their share to others on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange.[41]<br />The VOC consisted of six Chambers (Kamers) in port cities: Amsterdam, Delft, Rotterdam, Enkhuizen, Middelburg and Hoorn. Delegates of these chambers convened as the Heeren XVII (the Lords Seventeen). They were selected from the bewindhebber-class of shareholders.[42]<br />Of the Heeren XVII, eight delegates were from the Chamber of Amsterdam (one short of a majority on its own), four from the Chamber of Zeeland, and one from each of the smaller Chambers, while the seventeenth seat was alternatively from the Chamber of Zeeland or rotated among the five small Chambers. Amsterdam had thereby the decisive voice. The Zeelanders in particular had misgivings about this arrangement at the beginning. The fear was not unfounded, because in practice it meant Amsterdam stipulated what happened.<br />Two sides of a duit, a coin minted in 1735 by the VOC.<br />The six chambers raised the start-up capital of the Dutch East India Company:<br />ChamberCapital (Guilders)Amsterdam3,679,915Middelburg1,300,405Enkhuizen540,000Delft469,400Hoorn266,868Rotterdam173,000Total:6,424,588<br />The raising of capital in Rotterdam did not go so smoothly. A considerable part originated from inhabitants of Dordrecht. Although it did not raise as much capital as Amsterdam or Zeeland, Enkhuizen had the largest input in the share capital of the VOC. Under the first 358 shareholders, there were many small entrepreneurs, who dared to take the risk. The minimum investment in the VOC was 3,000 guilders, which priced the Company's stock within the means of many merchants.[43]<br />Among the early shareholders of the VOC, immigrants played an important role. Under the 1,143 tenderers were 39 Germans and no fewer than 301 from the Southern Netherlands (roughly present Belgium and Luxembourg, then under Habsburg rule), of whom Isaac le Maire was the largest subscriber with ƒ85,000. VOC's total capitalization was ten times that of its British rival.<br />The logo of the Amsterdam Chamber of the VOC.<br />The logo of the VOC consisted of a large capital 'V' with an O on the left and a C on the right leg. It appeared on various corporate items, such as cannons and the coin illustrated above. The first letter of the hometown of the chamber conducting the operation was placed on top (see figure for example of the Amsterdam chamber logo). The flag of the company was orange, white, blue (see Dutch flag) with the company logo embroidered on it.<br />The Heeren XVII (Lords Seventeen) met alternately 6 years in Amsterdam and 2 years in Middelburg. They defined the VOC's general policy and divided the tasks among the Chambers. The Chambers carried out all the necessary work, built their own ships and warehouses and traded the merchandise. The Heeren XVII sent the ships' masters off with extensive instructions on the route to be navigated, prevailing winds, currents, shoals and landmarks. The VOC also produced its own charts.<br />In the context of the Dutch-Portuguese War the company established its headquarters in Batavia, Java (now Jakarta, Indonesia). Other colonial outposts were also established in the East Indies, such as on the Spice Islands (Moluccas), which include the Banda Islands, where the VOC forcibly maintained a monopoly over nutmeg and mace. Methods used to maintain the monopoly included the violent suppression of the native population, not stopping short of extortion and mass murder.[44] In addition, VOC representatives sometimes used the tactic of burning spice trees in order to force indigenous populations to grow other crops, thus artificially cutting the supply of spices like nutmeg and cloves.[45]<br />[edit] VOC outposts<br />Organization and leadership structures were varied as necessary in the various VOC outposts:<br />Opperhoofd is a Dutch word (plural Opperhoofden) which literally means 'supreme head[man]'. In this VOC context, the word is a gubernatorial title, comparable to the English Chief factor, for the chief executive officer of a Dutch factory in the sense of trading post, as lead by a Factor, i.e. agent.<br />See more at VOC Opperhoofden in Japan<br />[edit] Council of Justice in Batavia<br />The Council of Justice in Batavia was the appelate court for all the other VOC Company posts in the VOC empire.<br />[edit] Notable VOC ships<br />Replicas have been constructed of several VOC ships, marked with an (R)<br />Replica of the VOC vessel "Batavia" 1620-1629<br />VOC Amsterdam replicates the three-masted, full-rigged VOC vessel which was launched in 1748 and sunk in 1749.<br />A modern reconstruction of the 18th century VOC Amsterdam is permanently anchored in the harbor at the Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum (the National Maritime Museum) in Amsterdam.<br />Amsterdam (R)<br />Arnhem<br />Batavia (R)<br />Braek<br />Concordia<br />Duyfken ("Little Dove") (R)<br />Eendracht (1615) ("Unity")<br />Galias<br />Grooten Broeck ("Great Brook")<br />Gulden Zeepaert ("Golden Seahorse")<br />Halve Maen ("Half moon") (R)<br />Hoogkarspel<br />Heemskerck<br />Hollandia<br />Klein Amsterdam ("Small Amsterdam")<br />Leeuwerik ("Lark")<br />Leyden<br />Limmen<br />Meermin[46]<br />Pera<br />Prins Willem ("Prince William") (R)<br />Ridderschap van Holland ("Knighthood of Holland")<br />Rooswijk<br />Sardam<br />Texel<br />Utrecht<br />Vergulde Draeck ("Gilded Dragon")<br />Vianen<br />Vliegende Hollander ("Flying Dutchman")<br />Vliegende Swaan ("Flying Swan")<br />Wapen van Hoorn ("Arms of Hoorn")<br />Wezel ("Weasel")<br />Zeehaen ("Sea Cock")<br />Zeemeeuw ("Seagull")<br />Zeewijk<br />Zuytdorp ("South Village")<br />[edit] See also<br />Indonesia portal<br />Dutch and other European settlements in India.<br />Chartered companies<br />Spice wars<br />Other trade companies of the age of the sail<br />The British East India Company, founded in 1600<br />The Danish East India Company, founded in 1616<br />The Dutch West India Company, founded in 1621<br />The French East India Company, founded in 1664<br />The Ostend Company, founded in 1715<br />The Swedish East India Company, founded in 1731<br />The Emden Company, founded 1751<br />Governors General of the Dutch East India Company<br />Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies<br />Famous people of the VOC<br />Steven van der Hagen (1563–1621 admiral)<br />Pieter van den Broecke (1585–1640 merchant)<br />Willem Ysbrandtsz Bontekoe (1587–1657 a well-known VOC skipper)<br />Cornelis Matelieff de Jonge (1569–1632 admiral)<br />Jan Pieterszoon Coen (1587–1629 governor)<br />Wiebbe Hayes (1608–? soldier on Batavia)<br />Hendrik Hamel (1630–1692 bookkeeper, writer)<br />Engelbert Kaempfer (1651–1716 surgeon, writer)<br />Carl Peter Thunberg (1743–1828 naturalist)<br />Isaac Titsingh (1745–1812 merchant)<br />Hendrik Doeff (1803–1817 chief merchant of Deshima)<br />Jan van Riebeeck (1619–1677 commander of first Dutch settlement in the Cape of Good Hope)<br />[edit] References<br />Constructs such as ibid. and loc. cit. are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title.<br />^ Mondo Visione web site: Chambers, Clem. "Who needs stock exchanges?" Exchanges Handbook. -- retrieved 1 February 2008.<br />^ "Slave Ship Mutiny: Program Transcript". Secrets of the Dead. PBS. 2010-11-11. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/transcripts/slave-ship-mutiny-program-transcript/755/. Retrieved 2010-11-12. <br />^ Ames, Glenn J. (2008). The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European Discovery, 1500-1700. pp. 102–103. <br />^ Van Boven, M. W.. "Towards A New Age of Partnership (TANAP): An Ambitious World Heritage Project (UNESCO Memory of the World – reg.form, 2002)". VOC Archives Appendix 2, p.14. http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/files/22635/11546101681netherlands_voc_archives.doc/netherlands%2Bvoc%2Barchives.doc. <br />^ Vickers (2005), p. 10<br />^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 110. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. <br />^ De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 383<br />^ a b Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 27. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. <br />^ a b c d Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 25–28. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. <br />^ (Portuguese) Matos, Artur Teodoro de (1974), Timor Portugues, 1515-1769, Lisboa: Instituto Histórico Infante Dom Henrique.<br />^ (Dutch) Roever, Arend de (2002), De jacht op sandelhout: De VOC en de tweedeling van Timor in de zeventiende eeuw, Zutphen: Walburg Pers.<br />^ In the medium term, as new suppliers could enter the market. In the short term the supply was, of course, also inelastic.<br />^ De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 384-385<br />^ a b c d Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 29. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. <br />^ Miller, George (ed.) (1996). To The Spice Islands and Beyond: Travels in Eastern Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press. xvi. ISBN 967-65-3099-9. <br />^ De Vries and Vander Woude, p. 386<br />^ De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 386<br />^ Ames, Glenn J. (2008). The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European Discovery, 1500-1700. p. 115. <br />^ VOC Warfare - political interaction<br />^ The share price had appreciated significantly, so in that respect the dividend was less impressive<br />^ De Witt, D.. "The Easternization of the West: The Role of Melaka, the Malay-Indonesian archipelago and the Dutch (VOC). (International seminar by the Melaka State Government, the Malaysian Institute of Historical and Patriotism Studies (IKSEP), the Institute of Occidental Studies (IKON) at the National University of Malaysia (UKM) and the Netherlands Embassy in Malaysia. Malacca, Malaysia, 27 July 2006". Children of the VOC at. http://www.dutchmalaysia.net/press/Easternization.html. <br />^ Blusse, Leonard. Strange company: Chinese settlers, Mestizo women, and the Dutch in VOC Batavia. (Dordrecht-Holland; Riverton, U.S.A., Foris Publications, 1986. xiii, 302p.) number: 959.82 B659. <br />^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp. 434-435<br />^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp. 430-433<br />^ During the Nine Year's War, the French and Dutch companies came to blows on the Indian Subcontinent. The French sent naval expeditions from metropolitan France, which the VOC easily countered. On the other hand, the VOC conquered the important fortress of Pondichérie after a siege of only sixteen days by an expedition of 3000 men and 19 ships under Laurens Pit from Negapatnam in September 1693. The Dutch then made the defenses of the fortress impregnable, which they came to regret when the Dutch government returned it to the French by the Treaty of Ryswick in exchange for tariff concessions in Europe by the French. Chauhuri and Israel, p 424<br />^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp. 433-434<br />^ Chaudhuri and Israel, pp. 428-429<br />^ However, the VOC had been defeated many times before. On the Indian Subcontinent, the EIC had suffered a resounding defeat from the Mughal forces in its 1689 Mughal War; Chaudhury and Israel, pp. 435-436<br />^ It was also helpful that the price war with the EIC in the early decade had caused the accumulation of enormous inventories of pepper and spices, which enabled the VOC to cut down on shipments later on, thereby freeing up capital to increase shipments of other goods;De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 436<br />^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp.436-437<br />^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp. 437-440<br />^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp. 441-442<br />^ a b De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 447<br />^ De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 448<br />^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp.449-455<br />^ A particularly egregious example was that of the "Amfioen Society". This was a business of higher VOC-employees that received a monopoly of the opium trade on Java, at a time when the VOC had to pay monopoly prices to the EIC to buy the opium in Bengal; Burger, passim<br />^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp.454-455<br />^ Kumar, Ann (1997). Java and Modern Europe: Ambiguous Encounters. p. 32. <br />^ TANAP, The end of the VOC<br />^ ibid.<br />^ De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 385<br />^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp.384-385<br />^ Ames, Glenn J. (2008). The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European Discovery, 1500-1700. p. 103. <br />^ Hanna, Willard A. (1991). Indonesian Banda: Colonialism and its Aftermath in the Nutmeg Islands. Bandanaira: Yayasan Warisan dan Budaya Banda Naira.<br />^ Ames, Glenn J. (2008). The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European Discovery, 1500-1700. p. 111. <br />^ "Slave Ship Mutiny". Secrets of the Dead. PBS. 2010-11-07. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/secrets/featured/slave-ship-mutiny-about-this-episode/674/. Retrieved 2010-11-12. <br />[edit] Further reading<br />Ames, Glenn J. The Globe Encompassed: The Age of European Discovery, 1500-1700. Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.<br />Blussé, L. et al., eds. The Deshima [sic] Dagregisters: Their Original Tables of Content. Leiden, 1995-2001.<br />Blussé, L. et al., eds. The Deshima Diaries Marginalia 1740-1800. Tokyo, 2004.<br />Boxer, C.R. Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1850: An Essay on the Cultural Aristic and Scientific Influence Exercised by the Hollanders in Japan from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Centuries. Den Haag, 1950.<br />Boxer, C.R. The Dutch Seaborne Empire: 1600-1800. London, 1965.<br />Burger, M.(2003), "The Forgotten Gold? The Importance of the Dutch opium trade in the Seventeenth Century", in Eidos. University College Utrecht Academic Magazine. Issue 2/2003 Utrecht University<br />Chaudhuri, K.N., and Israel, J.I.(1991), "The English and Dutch East India Companies and the Glorious Revolution of 1688-9", in: Israel, J.I. (ed.), The Anglo-Dutch moment. Essays on the Glorious Revolution and its world impact, Cambridge U.P, ISBN 0-521-39075-3, pp. 407–438<br />De Lange, William. (2006) Pars Japonica: the first Dutch expedition to reach the shores of Japan, Floating World Editions. ISBN 1891640232<br />Vries, J. de, and Woude, A. van der (1997), The First Modern Economy. Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500-1815, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-57825-7<br />Furber, Holden, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient 1600-1800. Minneapolis, 1976<br />Israel, Jonathan I., Dutch Primacy in World Trade 1585-1740. Oxford, 1989<br />Glamann, Kristof., Dutch-Asiatic Trade 1620-1740. The Hague, 1958<br />[edit] External links<br />Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Dutch East India Company<br />Dutch Wikisource has original text related to this article: Octrooi van de VOC<br />Dutch India — a chronology of Dutch rule in India<br />Oldest share — the oldest share in the world (VOC 1606)<br />A taste of adventure — The history of spices is the history of trade, The Economist, 17 December 1998.<br />Dutch Portuguese Colonial History<br />Voyages by VOC ships to Australia<br />Why did the Largest Corporation in the World go Broke?<br />The history of the Dutch East Indies Company (Lectures at Gresham College, 1 March and 8 March 2006)<br />Manuscript chart of the Netherlands, VOC, ca.1690 (high resolution zoomable scan)<br />Old print of headquarters of V.O.C. ca.1750 (high resolution zoomable scan)<br />Death of an East Indiaman<br />Towards a New Age of Partnership; a Dutch/Asian/South-African programme of cooperation based on a mutual past (TANAP) - joint archival project of UNESCO, and the Netherlands and Indonesian national archives on the VOC: "An Ambitious World Heritage". http://www.tanap.net/content/about/heritage.cfm. <br />VOC voyages - online database of voyages of VOC ships<br />Atlas of Mutual Heritage - online atlas of VOC settlements<br />VOC shipwrecks database<br />(Dutch) Database of VOC crew members<br />VOC Warfare Website on the military aspects of the history of the VOC<br />[show] Links to related articles[show]v · d · eDutch Empire[hide] Former coloniesAfricaArguin · Cape Colony · Delagoa Bay (Maputo Bay) · Dutch Gold Coast · Senegambia · Mauritius · Dutch AngolaAmericasDutch colonization of the Americas · Dutch Brazil · Dutch Guiana ( Suriname · Berbice · Essequibo · Demerara · Pomeroon · Cayenne ) · Curaçao and Dependencies · New Netherland · Tobago · Virgin IslandsAsia · OceaniaDutch Ceylon · Dutch India · Deshima (Dejima) · Dutch East Indies · Kharg Island · Dutch Malacca · Netherlands New Guinea · Dutch Formosa  · SuratteArcticSmeerenburgSee also Dutch East India Company · Dutch West India Company[hide] Present dependencies (constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)Aruba · Curaçao · Sint Maarten[hide] Present public bodies within the NetherlandsBonaire · Saint Eustatius · Saba[show]v · d · eChartered companiesBritishCompany of Merchant Adventurers of London · Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands · London and Bristol Company · African Company of Merchants · Muscovy Company · Spanish Company · Eastland Company · Morocco Company · East India Company · Levant Company · Virginia Company · French Company · Massachusetts Bay Company · Providence Island Company · Royal West Indian Company · Hudson's Bay Company · Royal African Company · Greenland Company · South Sea Company · Sierra Leone Company · New Zealand Company · Eastern Archipelago Company · Royal British Bank · North Borneo Company · Royal Niger Company · South Africa CompanyFrenchCompany of One Hundred Associates · Compagnie de l'Occident · Compagnie du Mississippi · Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique · Compagnie des Indes Occidentales · Compagnie des Indes OrientalesGermanBrandenburg African Company · Emden Company · West African Company · New Guinea Company · East Africa CompanyPortugueseCompanhia da Guiné · Companhia de Moçambique · Companhia do Nyassa · Portuguese East India Company · House of IndiaLow CountriesDutch East India Company · Nordic Company · New Netherland Company · Dutch West India Company · Ostend CompanyScandinavianDanish East India Company · Danish West India Company · Royal Greenland · New Sweden Company · Swedish Africa Company · Swedish East India Company · Swedish West India Company · Swedish Levant Company<br />Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_East_India_Company"<br />Categories: Dutch East India Company | 1602 establishments | 1800 disestablishments | Chartered companies | Colonial Indian companies | Companies established in the 17th century | Defunct companies of the Netherlands | Dutch Empire | Dutch East Indies | History of the Netherlands | Maritime history of South Africa | Monopolies | Multinational companies headquartered in the Netherlands | Trading companies<br />Hidden categories: Articles containing Dutch language text | Articles needing cleanup from April 2010 | All pages needing cleanup<br />Personal tools<br />Log in / create account<br />Namespaces<br />Article<br />Discussion<br />Variants<br />Views<br />Read<br />Edit<br />View history<br />Actions<br />Search<br />Top of Form<br />Bottom of Form<br />Navigation<br />Main page<br />Contents<br />Featured content<br />Current events<br />Random article<br />Donate to Wikipedia<br />Interaction<br />Help<br />About Wikipedia<br />Community portal<br />Recent changes<br />Contact Wikipedia<br />Toolbox<br />What links here<br />Related changes<br />Upload file<br />Special pages<br />Permanent link<br />Cite this page<br />Print/export<br />Create a book<br />Download as PDF<br />Printable version<br />Languages<br />Afrikaans<br />العربية<br />Bân-lâm-gú<br />Български<br />Català<br />Česky<br />Cymraeg<br />Dansk<br />Deutsch<br />Ελληνικά<br />Español<br />Esperanto<br />Français<br />Frysk<br />Galego<br />한국어<br />हिन्दी<br />Hrvatski<br />Bahasa Indonesia<br />Íslenska<br />Italiano<br />עברית<br />Basa Jawa<br />Latviešu<br />Magyar<br />मराठी<br />Bahasa Melayu<br />Nederlands<br />Nedersaksisch<br />日本語<br />‪Norsk (bokmål)‬<br />‪Norsk (nynorsk)‬<br />Polski<br />Português<br />Română<br />Русский<br />Simple English<br />Suomi<br />Svenska<br />தமிழ்<br />ไทย<br />Українська<br />Tiếng Việt<br />吴语<br />中文<br />This page was last modified on 7 February 2011 at 02:02.<br />Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.<br />Contact us<br />New Amsterdam<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />Jump to: navigation, search <br />This article is about the settlement that became New York City. For other uses, see New Amsterdam (disambiguation).<br />This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.It needs additional references or sources for verification. Tagged since February 2011.Its introduction may be too long. Tagged since February 2011.It may require general cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Tagged since February 2011.<br />Drawing of New Amsterdam from 1648, found in 1991 in Vienna's Albertina, is probably the oldest image found to date<br />[show]New Netherland seriesExplorationFortifications: • Fort Amsterdam • Fort Nassau (North) • Fort Orange • Fort Nassau (South) • Fort Goede Hoop • De Wal • Fort Casimir • Fort Altena • Fort Wilhelmus • Fort Beversreede • Fort Nya Korsholm • De RondoutSettlements: • Noten Eylandt • New Amsterdam • Rensselaerswyck • New Haarlem • Noortwyck • Beverwijck • Wiltwyck • Bergen • Pavonia • Vriessendael • Achter Col • Vlissingen • Oude Dorpe • Colen Donck • Greenwich • Heemstede • Rustdorp • Gravesende • Breuckelen • New Amersfoort • Midwout • New Utrecht • Boswyck • Swaanendael • New Amstel • Nieuw DorpThe Patroon System Charter of Freedoms and ExemptionsDirectors of New Netherland: Cornelius Jacobsen May (1620-25)Willem Verhulst (1625-26)Peter Minuit (1626-32)Sebastiaen Jansen Krol (1632-33)Wouter van Twiller (1633-38)Willem Kieft (1638-47)Peter Stuyvesant (1647-64)People of New Netherland New NetherlanderTwelve MenEight MenFlushing Remonstrance<br />New Amsterdam (Dutch: Nieuw-Amsterdam) was a 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherland. It later became New York City.<br />The town, outside of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island in the New Netherland territory (1614–1674), was situated between 38 and 42 degrees latitude and was as a provincial extension of the Dutch Republic as of 1624. Provincial possession of the territory had been accomplished with the first settlement, established on Noten Eylandt (which the British would later rename Governors Island) in 1624. A year later in 1625, construction of a citadel comprising Fort Amsterdam was commenced on the southern tip of nearby Manhattan Island and the first settlers were moved there from Governors Island.[1]<br />By 1609, the harbor and the river had been discovered, explored and charted by an expedition of the Dutch East India Company captained by Henry Hudson when he first sailed by what is now Manhattan.[2] From 1611 through 1614, the territory was surveyed and charted by private commercial companies on behalf of the States General of the Dutch Republic and operated commercially before it became a provincial entity in 1624.<br />The town was founded in 1625 by Willem Verhulst who, together with his council, selected Manhattan Island as the optimal place for permanent settlement by the Dutch West India Company. That year, military engineer and surveyor Krijn Frederiksz laid out a citadel with Fort Amsterdam as its centerpiece. To secure the settlers' property and its surroundings according to Dutch law, Peter Minuit created a deed with the Manhattan Indians in 1626 which signified legal possession of Manhattan. He was appointed New Netherland's third director by the local council after Willem Verhulst returned home in November 1626.<br />The city, situated on the strategic, fortifiable southern tip of the island of Manhattan was to maintain New Netherland's provincial integrity by defending river access to the company's fur trade operations in the North River, later named Hudson River. Furthermore, it was entrusted to safeguard the West India Company's exclusive access to New Netherland's other two estuaries; the Delaware River and the Connecticut River. Fort Amsterdam was designated the capital of the province in 1625 and developed into the largest Dutch colonial settlement of the New Netherland province, now the New York Tri-State Region, and remained a Dutch possession until September 1664, when it fell provisionally and temporarily into the hands of the English.<br />The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 by treaty.<br />The 1625 date of the founding of New Amsterdam is now commemorated in the official Seal of New York City (formerly, the year on the seal was 1664, the year of the provisional Articles of Transfer, ensuring New Netherlanders that they "shall keep and enjoy the liberty of their consciences in religion", negotiated with the English by Petrus Stuyvesant and his council).<br />History of New York CityPeriodsLenape and New NetherlandNew AmsterdamBritish and RevolutionFederal and early AmericanTammany and ConsolidationEarly 20th centuryPost–World War IIModern and post-9/11<br />Contents[hide]1 History 1.1 Early Settlement (1609–1625) 1.1.1 Pilgrim attempt to settle the Hudson River area1.1.2 The Dutch return1.2 Fort Amsterdam (1625)1.3 1625–16742 Maps of New Amsterdam3 Legacy4 See also5 Notes6 External links<br />[edit] History<br />See also: Dutch colonization of the Americas and History of New York City<br />A map of the Hudson River Valley c. 1635 (North is to the right)<br />[edit] Early Settlement (1609–1625)<br />Main article: New Netherland<br />The first recorded exploration by the Dutch of the area around what is now called New York Bay was in 1609 with the voyage of the ship Halve Maen or "Half Moon", captained by Henry Hudson, in the service of the Dutch Republic, as the emissary of Holland's stadholder Maurits. Hudson named the river the Mauritius River and was covertly attempting to find the Northwest Passage for the Dutch East India Company. Instead, he brought back news about the possibility of exploitation of beaver pelts in the area, leading to private commercial interest by the Dutch who sent commercial, private missions to the area the following years.<br />At the time, beaver pelts were highly prized in Europe, because the fur could be felted to make waterproof hats. A by-product of the trade in beaver pelts was castoreum—the secretion of the animals' anal glands—which was used for its supposed medicinal properties. The expeditions by Adriaen Block and Hendrick Christiansz in the years 1611, 1612, 1613 and 1614 resulted in the surveying and charting of the region from the 38th parallel to the 45th parallel. On their 1614 map, which gave them a four year trade monopoly under a patent of the States General, they named the newly discovered and mapped territory New Netherland for the first time. It also showed the first year-round, top-of-the-Hudson River, island-based trading presence in New Netherland, Fort Nassau, which years later, in 1624, would be replaced by Fort Orange on the main land which grew into the town of Beverwyck, now Albany.<br />The territory of Novo Belgio HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Amsterdam" l "cite_note-2" [3] or New Netherland, comprising the Northeast's largest rivers with access to the beaver trade, was provisionally a private, profit-making commercial enterprise focusing on cementing alliances and conducting trade with the diverse Indian tribes. They enabled the serendipitous surveying and exploration of the region as a prelude to anticipated official settlement by the Dutch Republic which occurred in 1624.<br />[edit] Pilgrim attempt to settle the Hudson River area<br />An 1882 depiction of the Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor<br />The Pilgrims, in 1620, attempted to sail to the Hudson River from England. According to the arrangements made by Robert Carver[disambiguation needed] and John Cushman, the Speedwell was to meet up with the Mayflower off the coast of England and both would sail to the Hudson River. The Speedwell, however, proved too leaky to make the voyage and about 100 passengers were instead crowded aboard the Mayflower. Joining the Scrooby congregation were about 50 colonists who had been recruited by the Merchant Adventurers for their vocational skills which would prove useful in establishing a colony.[4]<br />The Mayflower reached Cape Cod (now part of Massachusetts) on November 9, 1620, after a voyage of 64 days.[5] For a variety of reasons, primarily a shortage of supplies, the Mayflower could not proceed to the Hudson River and the colonists decided to settle somewhere on or near Cape Cod.[5] An attempt was made to sail the ship around the cape towards the Hudson River, but the voyagers encountered shoals and difficult currents around Malabar (a land mass that formerly existed in the vicinity of present-day Monomoy). It was decided to turn around, and by November 11/November 21 the ship was anchored in what is today known as Provincetown Harbor.[6] [7] The colonists had no permission from the Crown to settle near Cape Cod, and the legal status of the colony would therefore become void. The leaders of the colony felt this situation might lead to political anarchy and, motivated by mutinous outbursts from some of the colonists, they drafted the Mayflower Compact off the coast of Cape Cod.[8]<br />During the ensuing days, they explored the bay and found a suitable place for settlement, now the site of downtown Plymouth, Massachusetts. The location featured a prominent hill (now known as Burial Hill) ideal for a defensive fort. There were numerous brooks providing fresh water. Also, the site had been the location of a Native American village known as Patuxet, therefore much of the area had already been cleared for planting corn. The Patuxet tribe, between 1616 and 1619, had been wiped out by plagues resulting from contact with English fisherman--diseases to which the Patuxet had no immunity.[9] Bradford later wrote that bones of the dead were clearly evident in many places.[10]<br />[edit] The Dutch return<br />Immediately after the armistice period between the Dutch Republic and Spain (1609–1621), the Dutch West India Company was founded in 1621. That year, as well as in 1622 and 1623, orders were given to the private, commercial traders to vacate the territory, thus opening up the territory to the transplantation of Dutch culture onto the North American continent whereon the laws and ordinances of the states of Holland would now apply. Previously, during the private, commercial period, only the law of the ship had applied. The mouth of the Hudson River was selected as the most perfect place for initial settlement as it had easy access to the ocean while securing an ice free lifeline to the beaver-rich, unexploited forests farther north where the company's traders could be in close contact with the American Indian hunters who supplied them with pelts in exchange for European-made trade goods for barter and wampum, which was soon being "minted" under Dutch auspices on Long Island.<br />Thus in 1624 when the first group of families arrived on Noten Eylandt (later Governors) to be followed by the second group of settlers to the island in 1625, in order to take possession of the New Netherland territory and to operate various trading posts, they were spread out to Verhulsten Island (Burlington Island) in the South River (Delaware River), to Kievitshoek (now Old Saybrook, Connecticut) at the mouth of the Verse River (Connecticut River) and at the top of the Mauritius or North River (Hudson River), now Albany.<br />[edit] Fort Amsterdam (1625)<br />The potential threat of attack from other interloping European colonial powers prompted the Directors of the Dutch West India Company to formulate a plan to protect the entrance to the Hudson River, and to consolidate the trading operations and the bulk of the settlers into the vicinity of a new fort. In 1625, most of them were moved from Noten Eylant, (later Governors), to Manhattan Island where a citadel to contain Fort Amsterdam was being laid out by Cryn Frederickz van Lobbrecht at the direction of Willem Verhulst who had been empowered by the Dutch West India Company to make that decision in his and his council's best judgment.<br />For the location of the fort, company director Willem Verhulst and Military Engineer and Surveyor Cryn Fredericks chose a site just above the southern tip of Manhattan. The new fortification was to be called Fort Amsterdam. By the end of the year 1625, the site had been staked out directly south of Bowling Green on the site of the present U.S. Custom House; west of the fort's site, later landfill has now created Battery Park.<br />[edit] 1625–1674<br />New Amsterdam in 1664<br />Willem Verhulst, who with his council was responsible for the selection of Manhattan as permanent place of settlement and situating Fort Amsterdam, was replaced as the company director-general of New Amsterdam by Peter Minuit in 1626.<br />To legally safeguard the settlers' investments, possessions and farms on Manhattan island, Minuit negotiated the "purchase" of Manhattan from the Manahatta band of Lenape for 60 guilders worth of trade goods. The deed itself has not survived so the conditions causing the negotiation and validation of the deed are unknown. A textual reference to the deed became a foundation for the legend that Minuit had purchased Manhattan from the Native Americans for 24 dollars' worth of trinkets. However, the actual purchasing power of 60 guilders back then amounts to around $1000 nowadays [11]<br />While the originally designed large fort, meant to contain the population as in a fortified city, was being constructed, the Mohawk—Mahican War at the top of the Hudson led the company to relocate the settlers from there to the vicinity of the new Fort Amsterdam. As the settlers were at peace with the Manahatta Indians, the fact that no large scale foreign powers were imminently trying to seize the territory, and that colonizing was a prohibitively expensive undertaking, only partly subsidized by the fur trade, led a scaling back of the original plans. By 1628, a smaller fort was constructed with walls containing a mixture of clay and sand, like in Holland.<br />Upon first settlement on Noten Eylant (now Governors Island) in 1624, a fort and sawmill was built. The latter was constructed by Franchoys Fezard. The New Amsterdam settlement had a population of approximately 270 people, including infants. In 1642 the new director-general Willem Kieft decided to build a stone church within the fort, and the work was carried out by recent English immigrants, the brothers John and Richard Ogden. The church was finished in 1645 and stood till burned in the "Great Negro Riot" of 1741. A pen-and-ink view of New Amsterdam,[12] drawn on-the-spot and discovered in the map collection of the Austrian National Library of Vienna in 1991, provides a unique view of Nieuw Amsterdam as it appeared from Capske (small Cape) Rock in 1648. Capske Rock was situated in the water close to Manhattan between Manhattan and Noten Eylant (renamed Governors Island in 1784), which signaled the start of the East River roadstead. New Amsterdam received municipal rights on February 2, 1653 thus becoming a city. (Albany, then named Beverwyck, received its city rights in 1652) and was unilaterally reincorporated under English law as New York City in June 1665.<br />The Fall of New Amsterdam, by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris, showing Peter Stuyvesant (left of center, with wooden leg) standing on shore among residents of New Amsterdam who are pleading with him not to open fire on the British who have arrived in warships waiting in the harbor to claim the territory for England.<br />On August 22, 1654, the first Ashkenazic Jews arrived with West India Company passports from Amsterdam to be followed in September by a sizable group of Sephardic Jews, without passports, fleeing from the Portuguese reconquest of Dutch possessions in Brazil. The legal-cultural foundation of toleration as the basis for plurality in New Amsterdam superseded matters of personal intolerance or individual bigotry. Hence, and in spite of certain private objections (including that of director-general Peter Stuyvesant), the Sephardim were granted permanent residency on the basis of "reason and equity" in 1655. Nieuw Haarlem was formally recognized in 1658.<br />On August 27, 1664, in a surprise incursion when England and the Dutch Republic were at peace, four English frigates sailed in New Amsterdam's harbor and demanded New Netherland's surrender, whereupon New Netherland was provisionally ceded by director-general Peter Stuyvesant. This resulted in the Second Anglo-Dutch War, between England and the Dutch Republic.<br />In 1667, the Dutch did not press their claims on New Netherland (but did not relinquish them either) in the Treaty of Breda, in return for an exchange with the tiny Island of Run in North Maluku, rich in nutmegs and the guarantee for the factual possession of Suriname, that year captured by them. The New Amsterdam city was subsequently renamed New York, after the Duke of York (later King James II). He was brother of the English King Charles II, who had been granted the lands.<br />However, in the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch recaptured New Netherland in July 1673 and installed Anthony Colve as New Netherland's first Governor (previously there had only been West India Company Directors), and the city was renamed "New Orange". After the signing of the Treaty of Westminster in November 1674 the city was relinquished to English rule and the name reverted to "New York"; Suriname became an official Dutch possession in return.<br />New Orange, c. 1674<br />[edit] Maps of New Amsterdam<br />The original city map of New Amsterdam called Castello Plan from 1660<br />Redraft of the Castello Plan, drawn in 1916<br />New Amsterdam's beginnings, unlike most other colonies in the New World, were thoroughly documented in city maps. During the time of New Netherland colonization the Dutch were Europe's pre-eminent cartographers. Moreover, as the Dutch West India Company's delegated authority over New Netherlander was threefold, maintaining sovereignty on behalf of the States General, generating cash flow through commercial enterprise for its shareholders and funding the province's growth, its directors regularly required that censuses be taken. These tools to measure and monitor the province's progress were accompanied by accurate maps and plans. These surveys, as well as grassroots activities to seek redress of grievances, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Amsterdam" l "cite_note-de_Koning-11" [12] account for the existence of some of the most important of the early documents.[13]<br />There is a particularly detailed city map called the Castello Plan. Virtually every structure in New Amsterdam at the time is believed to be represented, and by a fortunate coincidence it can be determined who resided in every house from the Nicasius de Sille List of 1660, which enumerates all the citizens of New Amsterdam and their addresses.[14]<br />The city map known as the Duke's Plan probably derived from the same 1660 census as the Castello Plan. The Duke's Plan includes the earliest suburban development on Manhattan (the two outlined areas along the top of the plan). The work was created for James (1633–1701), the duke of York and Albany, after whom New York City and New York State's capital Albany was named, just after the seizure of New Amsterdam by the English.[15] After that provisional relinquishment of New Netherland, Stuyvesant reported to his superiors that he "had endeavored to promote the increase of population, agriculture and commerce...the flourishing condition which might have been more flourishing if the now afflicted inhabitants had been protected by a suitable garrison...and had been helped with the long sought for settlement of the boundary, or in default thereof had they been seconded with the oft besought reinforcement of men and ships against the continual troubles, threats, encroachments and invasions of the English neighbors and government of Hartford Colony, our too powerful enemies."<br />The existence of these city maps has proven to be very useful in the archaeology of New York. For instance, the excavation of the Stadthuys (City Hall) of New Amsterdam had great help in finding the exact location of the building from the Castello map.[16]<br />[edit] Legacy<br />Early 20th century Dutch Revival buildings on S William Street in lower Manhattan recall the Dutch origins of the city. The original 17th century architecture of New Amsterdam has completely vanished (affected by the fires of 1776 and 1835),[17][18] leaving only archaeological remnants.<br />The presentation of the legacy of the unique culture of 17th century New Amsterdam remains a concern of preservationists and educators. The National Park Service celebrated in 2009 the 400th anniversary of the Henry Hudson's 1609 voyage on behalf of the Dutch with the New Amsterdam Trail.[19][20]<br />Writer Elizabeth Bear published the New Amsterdam Series, detective stories taking place in an alternative history where the city remained Dutch until the Napoleonic Wars and retained its name also afterwards.<br />[edit] See also<br />Director-General of New Netherland<br />Roosevelt family<br />[edit] Notes<br />^ New York City Department of Parks & Recreation (October 06, 2000). "Battery Park". http://www.nycgovparks.org/sub_your_park/historical_signs/hs_historical_sign.php?id=7712. Retrieved 2008-01-17. <br />^ Nieuwe Wereldt ofte Beschrijvinghe van West-Indien, uit veelerhande Schriften ende Aen-teekeningen van verscheyden Natien (Leiden, Bonaventure & Abraham Elseviers, 1625) p.83: "/in den jare 1609 sonden de bewindt-hebbers van de gheoctroyeerde Oost-Indischische compagnie het jacht de halve mane/ daer voor schipper ende koopman op roer Hendrick Hudson[...]"("in the year 1609 the administrators of the East Indies Company sent the half moon captained by the merchant Hudson[...]")<br />^ "New York and its origins - Legend and reality". http://users.skynet.be/newyorkfoundation/US/the_birth_of_new_york.html. <br />^ Philbrick, Nathaniel (2006). Mayflower: A Story of Community, Courage and War. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780143111979. http://books.google.com/?id=qk9AXww_XysC.  (page 25).<br />^ a b Stratton, Eugene A. (1986). Plymouth Colony: Its History & People, 1620–1691. Salt Lake City: Ancestry Incorporated. ISBN 0916489132. http://books.google.com/?id=17zCU76ZtH0C.  (page 20).<br />^ * Bradford, William (1898) [1651]. Hildebrandt, Ted. ed (PDF). Bradford's History "Of Plimoth Plantation". Boston: Wright & Potter Printing Co.. http://faculty.gordon.edu/hu/bi/Ted_Hildebrandt/NEReligiousHistory/Bradford-Plimoth/Bradford-PlymouthPlantation.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-28. <br />^ Winslow (2003), p. 64.*Winslow, Edward; Caleb Johnson, ed. (2003). "Hypocrisy Unmasked" (PDF). MayflowerHistory.com. http://mayflowerhistory.com/PrimarySources/HypocrisyUnmasked.pdf. Retrieved 2008-11-28. <br />^ Philbrick, 40.<br />^ Philbrick, 79.<br />^ Philbrick, 80.<br />^ According to a calculation by the International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam at International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, Netherlands<br />^ a b de Koning, Joep M.J. (July/August 2000). "From Van der Donck to Visscher". Mercator's World. http://web.archive.org/web/20030630211837/mercatorsworld.com/article.php3?i=75. Retrieved 2008-01-17. <br />^ Robert Augustyn, "Maps in the making of Manhattan" Magazine Antiques, September 1995. URL accessed on December 15, 2005.<br />^ Several reproductions of the Castello plan can be found on-line: New Netherland Project, New York Public Library, Wikimedia Commons. Colored versions from 1916 can be found here: New York University and here: HYPERLINK "https://www.nyhistory.org/web/crossroads/gallery/background_matter/castello_plan_redraft.html" New York Historical Society. A "Digital redraft of the Castello Plan of New Amsterdam in New Netherland in 1660" is an interactive map that can be found here: [1]. This map allows you to click in various places to learn more about the ownership and use of the land and buildings. All URLs accessed on February 17, 2010. A Google Earth File of the Castello Plan is posted here: HYPERLINK "http://bbs.keyhole.com/ubb/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showthreaded&Number=1206679" [2].<br />^ An image of the Duke's map can be found on-line at the British Library site: THE BRITISH LIBRARY URL accessed on December 15, 2005.<br />^ A slideshow of the famous Stadt Huys dig, a landmark archaeological excavation of one of the central blocks of New Amsterdam, can be found here: [3]. A 17-century picture of the Stadthuys can be found here: [4]. Both URLs accessed on February 2, 2011.<br />^ NY Public Library Picture Collection. "Map of Great Fire 1776". http://www.bklyn-genealogy-info.com/Map/1776greatfire.html. Retrieved 2011-02-02. <br />^ CUNY. "Map of Damages - 1835". http://www.virtualny.cuny.edu/Search/search_res_image.php?id=502. Retrieved 2011-02-02. <br />^ "The New Amsterdam Trail". National Park Service, New York Harbor Parks. 2009. http://www.nyharborparks.org/visit/tour-new-amsterdam.html. <br />^ "The Henry Hudson 400 Foundation". http://www.henryhudson400.com/home.php. <br />[edit] External links<br />Wikimedia Commons has media related to: New Amsterdam<br />The New Amsterdam Trail, a downloadable audio walking tour of Lower Manhattan<br />Nieuw Amsterdam to New York, an audio history from the National Parks of New York Harbor Conservancy<br />New Amsterdam from the New Netherland Project<br />From Van der Donck to Visscher: a 1648 view of New Amsterdam, discovered in Vienna in 1991<br />Background on the Native Americans of the area<br />[show]v · d · eDutch Empire[hide] Former coloniesAfricaArguin · Cape Colony · Delagoa Bay (Maputo Bay) · Dutch Gold Coast · Senegambia · Mauritius · Dutch AngolaAmericasDutch colonization of the Americas · Dutch Brazil · Dutch Guiana ( Suriname · Berbice · Essequibo · Demerara · Pomeroon · Cayenne ) · Curaçao and Dependencies · New Netherland · Tobago · Virgin IslandsAsia · OceaniaDutch Ceylon · Dutch India · Deshima (Dejima) · Dutch East Indies · Kharg Island · Dutch Malacca · Netherlands New Guinea · Dutch Formosa  · SuratteArcticSmeerenburgSee also Dutch East India Company · Dutch West India Company[hide] Present dependencies (constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)Aruba · Curaçao · Sint Maarten[hide] Present public bodies within the NetherlandsBonaire · Saint Eustatius · Saba<br />Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Amsterdam"<br />Categories: New Netherland | Colonial United States (Dutch) | 1620s establishments | History of New York City | Historic Jewish communities | 1664 disestablishments | Pre-state history of New York<br />Hidden categories: Articles lacking reliable references from February 2011 | Articles needing cleanup from February 2011 | Wikipedia introduction cleanup from February 2011 | All pages needing cleanup | Articles containing Dutch language text | Articles with links needing disambiguation<br />Personal tools<br />Log in / create account<br />Namespaces<br />Article<br />Discussion<br />Variants<br />Views<br />Read<br />Edit<br />View history<br />Actions<br />Search<br />Top of Form<br />Bottom of Form<br />Navigation<br />Main page<br />Contents<br />Featured content<br />Current events<br />Random article<br />Donate to Wikipedia<br />Interaction<br />Help<br />About Wikipedia<br />Community portal<br />Recent changes<br />Contact Wikipedia<br />Toolbox<br />What links here<br />Related changes<br />Upload file<br />Special pages<br />Permanent link<br />Cite this page<br />Print/export<br />Create a book<br />Download as PDF<br />Printable version<br />Languages<br />العربية<br />Català<br />Česky<br />Dansk<br />Deutsch<br />Eesti<br />Español<br />Esperanto<br />فارسی<br />Français<br />Galego<br />한국어<br />Bahasa Indonesia<br />Italiano<br />עברית<br />ქართული<br />Македонски<br />Bahasa Melayu<br />Nederlands<br />日本語<br />‪Norsk (bokmål)‬<br />Português<br />Русский<br />Simple English<br />Suomi<br />Türkçe<br />This page was last modified on 2 February 2011 at 19:51.<br />Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.<br />Contact us<br />South Africa<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />Jump to: navigation, search <br />This article is about the country in southern Africa. For its predecessor, see Union of South Africa. For the southern region of Africa, see Southern Africa.<br />Not to be confused with South African Republic.<br />Republic of South Africa[show]Republiek van Suid-Afrika (Afrikaans)iRiphabliki yeSewula Afrika (S. Ndebele)iRiphabliki yomZantsi Afrika (Xhosa)iRiphabhuliki yaseNingizimu Afrika (Zulu)iRiphabhulikhi yeNingizimu Afrika (Swazi)Repabliki ya Afrika-Borwa (N. Sotho)Rephaboliki ya Afrika Borwa (S. Sotho)Rephaboliki ya Aforika Borwa (Tswana)Riphabliki ra Afrika Dzonga (Tsonga)Riphabuḽiki ya Afurika Tshipembe (Venda)(all 11 names are official)[1]FlagCoat of armsMotto: !ke e: ǀxarra ǁke  (ǀXam)"Unity In Diversity"Anthem: National anthem of South AfricaCapitalPretoria (executive)Bloemfontein (judicial)Cape Town (legislative)Largest cityJohannesburg (2006) [2]Official language(s)11[3][show]AfrikaansEnglish (South African English)Southern NdebeleNorthern SothoSouthern SothoSwaziTsongaTswanaVendaXhosaZuluEthnic groups 79.4% Black9.2% White8.8% Coloured2.6% Asian[4]DemonymSouth AfricanGovernmentConstitutional parliamentary republic - PresidentJacob Zuma - Deputy PresidentKgalema Motlanthe - NCOP ChairmanM. J. Mahlangu - National Assembly SpeakerMax Sisulu - Chief JusticeSandile NgcoboLegislatureParliament - Upper HouseNational Council of Provinces - Lower HouseNational AssemblyIndependencefrom the United Kingdom  - Union31 May 1910  - Statute of Westminster11 December 1931  - Republic31 May 1961 Area - Total1,221,037 km2 (25th)471,443 sq mi  - Water (%)NegligiblePopulation - 2010 estimate49,991,300[4] (25th) - 2001 census44,819,778[5]  - Density41/km2 (170th)106.2/sq miGDP (PPP)2009 estimate - Total$505.214 billion[6]  - Per capita$10,243[6] GDP (nominal)2009 estimate - Total$287.219 billion[6]  - Per capita$5,823[6] Gini (2000)57.8 (high) HDI (2009)0.683  (medium) (129th)CurrencyRand (ZAR)Time zoneSAST (UTC+2)Drives on theleftISO 3166 codeZAInternet TLD.zaCalling code+27<br />Coordinates: 30°S 25°E / 30°S 25°E / -30; 25 The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary democracy comprising nine provinces which is located at the southern tip of Africa, with a 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) coastline[7][8] on the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.[9] To the north lie Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe; to the east are Mozambique and Swaziland; while Lesotho is an enclave surrounded by South African territory.[10]<br />South Africa is known for a diversity in cultures and languages. Eleven official languages are recognised in the constitution.[9] Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans, a language which originated mainly from Dutch that is spoken by the majority of white and Coloured South Africans, and South African English. Though English is commonly used in public and commercial life, it is only the fifth most-spoken home language.[9]<br />South Africa is ethnically diverse. About 79.5% of the South African population is of black African ancestry,[4] divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, nine of which have official status.[9] South Africa also contains the largest communities of European, Asian, and racially mixed ancestry in Africa. About a quarter of the population is unemployed[11] and lives on less than US $1.25 a day.[12]<br />South Africa is a constitutional democracy in the form of a parliamentary republic; unlike most parliamentary republics, the positions of head of state and head of government are merged in a parliament-dependent President. It is one of the founding members of the African Union, and has the largest economy of all the members. It is also a founding member of the United Nations and NEPAD. South Africa is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Antarctic Treaty System, Group of 77, South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, Southern African Customs Union, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, G20 and G8+5.<br />Contents[hide]1 History 1.1 20th century2 Government and politics3 Foreign relations and military4 Geography 4.1 Climate4.2 Flora and fauna5 Economy 5.1 Electricity crisis5.2 Agriculture6 Demographics 6.1 Religion6.2 Languages6.3 Largest municipalities7 Health8 Science and technology9 Society and culture 9.1 Art9.2 Literature9.3 Cinema9.4 Music9.5 Sports9.6 Education10 Social problems11 See also12 References13 Further reading14 External links<br />History<br />This section needs additional citations for verification.Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2008)<br />Main article: History of South Africa<br />South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological sites in the world.[13][14][15] Extensive fossil remains at the Sterkfontein, Kromdraai and Makapansgat caves suggest that various australopithecines existed in South Africa from about three million years ago.[16] These were succeeded by various species, including Homo habilis, Homo erectus and modern humans, Homo sapiens.<br />Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were already present south of the Limpopo River (now the northern border with Botswana and Zimbabwe) by the fourth or fifth century CE. (see Bantu expansion). They displaced, conquered and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu slowly moved south. The earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people. The Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations displaced or assimilated earlier peoples, who often had hunter-gatherer societies[ HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" o "Wikipedia:Citation needed" citation needed].<br />Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for more than 100,000 years. At the time of European contact, the dominant indigenous peoples were Bantu-speaking peoples who had migrated from other parts of Africa about one thousand years before. The two major historic groups were the Xhosa and Zulu peoples.<br />The arrival of Jan van Riebeeck, the first European to settle in South Africa, with Devil's Peak in the background<br />Historical statesin present-daySouth Africa[show] before 1600Mapungubwe (1050–1270)[show] 1600-1700Cape Colony (1652–1910)[show] 1700-1800Swellendam (1795)Graaff Reinet (1795–1796)[show] 1800-1850Waterboer's Land (1813–1871)Zulu Kingdom (1818–1897)Adam Kok's Land (1825–1861)Winburg (1836–1844)Potchefstroom (1837–1848)Natalia Republic (1839–1843)[show] 1850-1875Orange Free State (1854–1902)Republic of Utrecht (1854–1858)Lydenburg Republic (1856–1860)South African Republic (1857–1902)Griqualand East (1861–1879)Griqualand West (1870)[show] 1875-1900Stellaland (1882–1885)Goshen (1882–1883)Nieuw Republiek (1884–1888)Klein Vrystaat (1886–1891)[show] 1900-presentCape Colony (1652–1910)Union of South Africa (1910–1961)Transkei (1976–1994)Bophuthatswana (1977–1994)Venda (1979–1994)Ciskei (1981–1994)Republic of South Africa (1961–present)more<br />In 1487, the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias became the first European known to have reached southern Africa. On December 4, he landed at Walfisch Bay (now known as Walvis Bay in present day Namibia). This was south of the furthest point reached in 1485 by his predecessor, the Portuguese navigator Diogo Cão (Cape Cross, north of the bay). Dias continued down the western cost of southern Africa. After 8 January 1488, prevented by storms from proceeding along the coast, he sailed out of sight of land and passed the southernmost point of Africa without seeing it. After he had reached as far up the eastern coast of Africa as what he called Rio do Infante, probably present-day [[Groot River (Eastern Cape), in May 1488 on his return he saw the Cape, which he first named Cabo das Tormentas (Cape of Storms). His King, John II, renamed the point Cabo da Boa Esperança or Cape of Good Hope, as it led to the riches of the East Indies.[17] Dias' feat of navigation was later memorialized in Camões' epic Portuguese poem, The Lusiads (1572).<br />In 1652, a century and a half after the discovery of the Cape Sea Route, Jan van Riebeeck established a refreshment station at the Cape of Good Hope, at what would become Cape Town,[18] on behalf of the Dutch East India Company. The Dutch transported slaves from Indonesia, Madagascar, and India as labour for the colonists in Cape Town. As they expanded east, the Dutch settlers met the southwesterly migrating Xhosa people in the region of the Fish River. A series of wars, called the Cape Frontier Wars, ensued, caused by thei conflicting land and livestock interests.<br />The discovery of diamonds and later gold triggered the 19th-century conflict known as the Anglo-Boer War, as the Boers (original Dutch, Flemish, German and French settlers) and the British fought for the control of the South African mineral wealth. Cape Town became a British colony in 1806. European settlement expanded during the 1820s as the Boers and the British 1820 Settlers claimed land in the north and east of the country. Conflicts arose among the Xhosa, Zulu and Afrikaner groups who competed for territory.<br />Great Britain took over the Cape of Good Hope area in 1795, to prevent it from falling under control of the French First Republic, which had invaded the Dutch Republic. Given its standing interests in Australia and India, Great Britain wanted to use Cape Town as an interim port for its merchants' long voyages. The British returned Cape Town to the Dutch in 1803, but soon afterwards the Dutch East India Company declared bankruptcy.<br />The British annexed the Cape Colony in 1806. The British continued the frontier wars against the Xhosa, pushing the eastern frontier through a line of forts established along the Fish River. They consolidated the territory by encouraging British settlement. Due to pressure of abolitionist societies in Britain, the British parliament stopped its global slave trade with the passage of the Slave Trade Act 1807, then abolished slavery in all its colonies with the Slavery Abolition Act 1833.<br />Boers in combat (1881)<br />In the first two decades of the 19th century, the Zulu people grew in power and expanded their territory under their leader, Shaka.[19] Shaka’s warfare led indirectly to the Mfecane (“Crushing”) that devastated the inland plateau in the early 1820s.[20] An offshoot of the Zulu, the Matabele people created a larger empire under their king Mzilikazi, including large parts of the highveld.<br />During the 1830s, approximately 12,000 Boers (later known as Voortrekkers), departed from the Cape Colony, where they had been subjected to British control. They migrated to the future Natal, Orange Free State and Transvaal regions. The Boers founded the Boer Republics: the South African Republic (now Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga and North West provinces) and the Orange Free State (Free State).<br />The discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold in 1884 in the interior encouraged economic growth and immigration, the so called Mineral Revolution. This intensified the European-South African subjugation of the indigenous people. The struggle to control these important economic resources was a factor between Europeans and the indigenous population, and also between the Boers and the British.[21]<br />The Boer Republics successfully resisted British encroachments during the First Boer War (1880–1881) using guerrilla warfare tactics, which were well suited to local conditions. However, the British returned with greater numbers, more experience, and new strategy in the Second Boer War (1899–1902), which they won.<br />20th century<br />Main article: South Africa under apartheid<br />Within the country, anti-British policies among white South Africans focused on independence. During the Dutch and British colonial years, racial segregation was mostly informal, though some legislation were enacted to control the settlement and movement of native people, including the Native Location Act of 1879 and the system of pass laws.[22][23][24] Power was held by the ethnic European colonists.<br />After four years of negotiating, the South Africa Act 1909 created the Union of South Africa from the Cape and Natal colonies, as well as the republics of Orange Free State and Transvaal, on 31 May 1910, eight years after the end of the Second Boer War. The newly created Union of South Africa was a dominion of the British Empire. The Natives' Land Act of 1913 severely restricted the ownership of land by blacks; at that stage natives controlled only 7% of the country. The amount of land reserved for indigenous peoples was later marginally increased.[25]<br />In the Boer republics,[26] from as early as the Pretoria Convention (chapter XXVI),[27] and subsequent South African governments, the legislature passed legally institutionalised segregation, later known as apartheid. The government established three racial classes: white, coloured (people of Asian or mixed racial ancestry), and black, with rights and restrictions for each.<br />In 1931 the union was effectively granted independence from the United Kingdom with the passage of the Statute of Westminster. In 1934, the South African Party and National Party merged to form the United Party, seeking reconciliation between Afrikaners and English-speaking "Whites". In 1939 the party split over the entry of the Union into World War II as an ally of the United Kingdom, a move which the National Party followers strongly opposed.<br />"For use by white persons" – sign from the apartheid era.<br />In 1948, the National Party was elected to power. It strengthened the racial segregation begun under Dutch and British colonial rule, and subsequent South African governments since the Union was formed[ HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" o "Wikipedia:Citation needed" citation needed]. The Nationalist Government classified all peoples into three races, developed rights and limitations for each, such as pass laws and residential restrictions[ HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" o "Wikipedia:Citation needed" citation needed]. The white minority controlled the vastly larger black majority. The system of segregation became known collectively as apartheid.<br />While the White minority enjoyed the highest standard of living in all of Africa, comparable to First World Western nations, the Black majority remained disadvantaged by almost every standard, including income, education, housing, and life expectancy. On 31 May 1961, following a whites-only referendum, the country became a republic and left the Commonwealth. Queen Elizabeth II ceased to be head of state, and the last Governor-General became State President.<br />Despite opposition both within and outside the country, the government legislated for a continuation of apartheid. Apartheid became increasingly controversial, and some Western nations and institutions began to boycott doing business with South Africa because of its racial policies and oppression of civil rights. [International sanctions]], divestment of holdings by investors accompanied growing unrest and oppression within South Africa. The government harshly oppressed resistance movements, and violence became widespread, with anti-apartheid activists using strikes, marches, protests, and sabotage by bombing and other means. The African National Congress (ANC) was a major resistance movement.<br />In the late 1970s, South Africa began a programme of nuclear weapons development. In the following decade, it produced six deliverable nuclear weapons.[28][29]<br />The Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith, signed by Mangosuthu Buthelezi and Harry Schwarz in 1974, enshrined the principles of peaceful transition of power and equality for all, the first of such agreements by acknowledged black and white political leaders in South Africa. Ultimately, F.W. de Klerk negotiated with Nelson Mandela in 1993 for a transition of policies and government.<br />In 1990 the National Party government took the first step towards dismantling discrimination when it lifted the ban on the African National Congress and other political organisations. It released Nelson Mandela from prison after twenty-seven years' serving a sentence for sabotage. A negotiation process followed. The government repealed apartheid legislation. South Africa destroyed its nuclear arsenal and acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. South Africa held its first universal elections in 1994, which the ANC won by an overwhelming majority. It has been in power ever since. The country rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations.<br />In post-apartheid South Africa, unemployment has been extremely high as the country has struggled with many changes. While many blacks have risen to middle or upper classes, the overall unemployment rate of blacks worsened between 1994 and 2003.[30] Poverty among whites, previously rare, increased.[31] While some have attributed this partly to the legacy of apartheid, increasingly many attribute it to the failure of the current government's policies. In addition, the current government has struggled to achieve the monetary and fiscal discipline to ensure both redistribution of wealth and economic growth. Since the ANC-led government took power, the United Nations Human Development Index of South Africa has fallen, while it was steadily rising until the mid-1990s.[32] Some may be attributed to the AIDS pandemic, and the failure of the government to take steps to address it in the early years.[33]<br />Government and politics<br />Main articles: Government of South Africa, Politics of South Africa, Provinces of South Africa, Law of South Africa, and President of South Africa<br />The Union Buildings in Pretoria, seat of the executive<br />The Houses of Parliament in Cape Town, seat of the legislature<br />South Africa has three capital cities: Cape Town, the largest of the three, is the legislative capital; Pretoria is the administrative capital; and Bloemfontein is the judicial capital. South Africa has a bicameral parliament: the National Council of Provinces (the upper house) has 90 members, while the National Assembly (the lower house) has 400 members.<br />Members of the lower house are elected on a population basis by proportional representation: half of the members are elected from national lists and the other half are elected from provincial lists. Ten members are elected to represent each province in the National Council of Provinces, regardless of the population of the province. Elections for both chambers are held every five years. The government is formed in the lower house, and the leader of the majority party in the National Assembly is the President.<br />The primary sources of South Africa law are Roman-Dutch mercantile law and personal law with English Common law, as imports of Dutch settlements and British colonialism.[34] The first European based law in South Africa was brought by the Dutch East India Company and is called Roman-Dutch law. It was imported before the codification of European law into the Napoleonic Code and is comparable in many ways to Scots law. This was followed in the 19th century by English law, both common and statutory. Starting in 1910 with unification, South Africa had its own parliament which passed laws specific for South Africa, building on those previously passed for the individual member colonies. During the years of apartheid, the country's political scene was dominated by figures like B. J. Vorster and P. W. Botha, as well as opposition figures such as Harry Schwarz, Joe Slovo and Helen Suzman.<br />Since the end of apartheid in 1994, South African politics have been dominated by the African National Congress (ANC), which has been the dominant party with 60–70% of the vote. The main challenger to the rule of the ANC is the Democratic Alliance party, which received 16.7% of the vote in the 2009 election and 14.8% in the 2006 election.<br />The formerly dominant New National Party, which introduced apartheid through its predecessor, the National Party, chose to merge with the ANC on 9 April 2005. Other major political parties represented in Parliament are the Congress of the People, which split from the ANC and won 7.4% of the vote in 2009, and the Inkatha Freedom Party, which mainly represents Zulu voters and took 4.6% of the vote in the 2009 election.<br />Since 2004, the country has had many thousands of popular protests, some violent, making it, according to one academic, the "most protest-rich country in the world".[35] Many of these protests have been organised from the growing shanty towns that surround South African cities.<br />In 2008, South Africa placed 5th out of 48 sub-Saharan African countries on the Ibrahim Index of African Governance. South Africa scored well in the categories of Rule of Law, Transparency & Corruption and Participation & Human Rights, but was let down by its relatively poor performance in Safety & Security. The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African governance, based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to its citizens.[36]<br />After the end of apartheid in 1994, the "independent" and "semi-independent" Bantustans were integrated into the political structure of South Africa by the abolition of the four former provinces (Cape Province, Natal Province, Orange Free State and Transvaal Province) and the creation of nine fully integrated new provinces. The generally smaller size of the new provinces theoretically means that local governments have more resources to distribute over smaller areas. The provinces are subdivided into 52 districts: 6 metropolitan and 46 district municipalities. The district municipalities are further subdivided into 231 local municipalities. The metropolitan municipalities perform the functions of both district and local municipalities. The new provinces are:<br />South African provinces<br />Province[37]Capital[38]Area (km²)[39]Population (2010 est.)[40]Eastern CapeBhisho168,9666,743,800Free StateBloemfontein129,8252,824,500GautengJohannesburg18,17811,191,700KwaZulu-NatalPietermaritzburg94,36110,645,400LimpopoPolokwane125,7545,439,600MpumalangaNelspruit76,4953,617,600Northern CapeKimberley372,8891,103,900North WestMafikeng104,8823,200,900Western CapeCape Town129,4625,223,900Total1,220,81349,991,300<br />Foreign relations and military<br />Main articles: South African National Defence Force, Foreign relations of South Africa, and South Africa and weapons of mass destruction<br />South African Denel AH-2 Rooivalk attack helicopter<br />Since the end of apartheid, the South African foreign policy has focused on its African partners particularly in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the African Union. South Africa has played a key role as a mediator in African conflicts over the last decade, such as in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Comoros, and Zimbabwe. After apartheid ended, South Africa was readmitted to the Commonwealth of Nations.<br />As the Union of South Africa, South Africa was a founding member of the United Nations. The then Prime Minister Jan Smuts wrote the preamble to the United Nations Charter.[41][42] South Africa was a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council between 2007 and 2008, and has attracted controversy by voting against a resolution criticising the Burmese government in 2006 and against the implementation of sanctions against Zimbabwe in 2008. South Africa is a member of the Group of 77 and chaired the organisation in 2006. South Africa is a member of the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, Southern African Customs Union, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, G20 and G8+5.<br />The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) was created in 1994,[43][44] as an all volunteer force composed of as the former South African Defence Force, the forces of the African nationalist groups (Umkhonto we Sizwe and Azanian People's Liberation Army), and the former Bantustan defence forces.[43] The SANDF is subdivided into four branches, the South African Army, the South African Air Force, the South African Navy, and the South African Medical Service.[45]<br />In recent years, the SANDF has become a major peacekeeping force in Africa,[46] and has been involved in operations in Lesotho, the Democratic Republic of the Congo,[46] and Burundi,[46] amongst others. It has also participated as a part of multi-national UN peacekeeping forces.<br />South Africa undertook a nuclear weapons programme in the 1970s HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa" l "cite_note-fas-ocp27-46" [47] and may have conducted a nuclear test over the Atlantic in 1979.[48] It is the only African country to have successfully developed nuclear weapons. It has become the first country (followed by Ukraine) with nuclear capability to voluntarily renounce and dismantle its programme and in the process signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991.[47]<br />Geography<br />Main article: Geography of South Africa<br />Satellite picture of South Africa<br />The Drakensberg mountains, the highest mountain range in South Africa<br />South Africa is located at the southernmost region of Africa, with a long coastline that stretches more than 2,500 km (1,553 mi) and along two oceans (the South Atlantic and the Indian). At 1,219,912 km2 (471,011 sq mi), HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa" l "cite_note-48" [49] South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world and is comparable in size to Colombia. Njesuthi in the Drakensberg at 3,408 m (11,181 ft) is the highest peak in South Africa. Excluding the Prince Edward Islands, the country lies between latitudes 22° and 35°S, and longitudes 16° and 33°E.<br />The interior of South Africa is a vast, flat, and sparsely populated scrubland, the Karoo, which is drier towards the northwest along the Namib desert. In contrast, the eastern coastline is lush and well-watered, which produces a climate similar to the tropics.<br />To the north of Johannesburg, the altitude drops beyond the escarpment of the Highveld, and turns into the lower lying Bushveld, an area of mixed dry forest and an abundance of wildlife. East of the Highveld, beyond the eastern escarpment, the Lowveld stretches towards the Indian Ocean. It has particularly high temperatures, and is also the location of extended subtropical agriculture.<br />South Africa also has one possession, the small sub-Antarctic archipelago of the Prince Edward Islands, consisting of Marion Island (290 km2/110 sq mi) and Prince Edward Island (45 km2/17 sq mi) (not to be confused with the Canadian province of the same name).<br />Climate<br />Main article: Climate of South Africa<br />See also: Climate<br />South Africa has a generally temperate climate, due in part to being surrounded by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans on three sides, by its location in the climatically milder southern hemisphere and due to the average elevation rising steadily towards the north (towards the equator) and further inland. Due to this varied topography and oceanic influence, a great variety of climatic zones exist.<br />The climatic zones vary, from the extreme desert of the southern Namib in the farthest northwest to the lush subtropical climate in the east along the Mozambique border and the Indian ocean. From the east, the land quickly rises over a mountainous escarpment towards the interior plateau known as the Highveld. Even though South Africa is classified as semi-arid, there is considerable variation in climate as well as topography.<br />The extreme southwest has a climate remarkably similar to that of the Mediterranean with wet winters and hot, dry summers, hosting the famous Fynbos Biome of grassland and thicket. This area also produces much of the wine in South Africa. This region is also particularly known for its wind, which blows intermittently almost all year. The severity of this wind made passing around the Cape of Good Hope particularly treacherous for sailors, causing many shipwrecks. Further east on the south coast, rainfall is distributed more evenly throughout the year, producing a green landscape. This area is popularly known as the Garden Route.<br />The Free State is particularly flat because it lies centrally on the high plateau. North of the Vaal River, the Highveld becomes better watered and does not experience subtropical extremes of heat. Johannesburg, in the centre of the Highveld, is at 1,740 m (5,709 ft) and receives an annual rainfall of 760 mm (29.9 in). Winters in this region are cold, although snow is rare.<br />The high Drakensberg mountains, which form the south-eastern escarpment of the Highveld, offer limited skiing opportunities in winter. The coldest place in South Africa is Sutherland in the western Roggeveld Mountains, where midwinter temperatures can reach as low as −15 °C (5.0 °F). The deep interior has the hottest temperatures: a temperature of 51.7 °C (125.06 °F) was recorded in 1948 in the Northern Cape Kalahari near Upington.[50]<br />[hide]Climate data for Cape Town, South AfricaMonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYearAverage high °C (°F)26.1(79)26.5(79.7)25.4(77.7)23.0(73.4)20.3(68.5)18.1(64.6)17.5(63.5)17.8(64)19.2(66.6)21.3(70.3)23.5(74.3)24.9(76.8)22.0(71.6)Average low °C (°F)15.7(60.3)15.6(60.1)14.2(57.6)11.9(53.4)9.4(48.9)7.8(46)7.0(44.6)7.5(45.5)8.7(47.7)10.6(51.1)13.2(55.8)14.9(58.8)11.4(52.5)Precipitation mm (inches)15(0.59)17(0.67)20(0.79)41(1.61)69(2.72)93(3.66)82(3.23)77(3.03)40(1.57)30(1.18)14(0.55)17(0.67)515(20.28)Avg. precipitation days5.54.64.88.311.413.311.813.710.48.74.96.2103.6Sunshine hours337.9299.9291.4234.0204.6174.0192.2210.8225.0279.0309.0334.83,092.2Source: Hong Kong Observatory[51]<br />Flora and fauna<br />See also: Wildlife of South Africa and Protected areas of South Africa<br />South Africa is ranked sixth out of the world’s seventeen megadiverse countries, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa" l "cite_note-51" [52] with more than 20,000 different plants, or about 10% of all the known species of plants on Earth, making it particularly rich in plant biodiversity. The most prevalent biome in South Africa is the grassland, particularly on the Highveld, where the plant cover is dominated by different grasses, low shrubs, and acacia trees, mainly camel-thorn and whitethorn. Vegetation becomes even more sparse towards the northwest due to low rainfall. There are several species of water-storing succulents like aloes and euphorbias in the very hot and dry Namaqualand area. The grass and thorn savannah turns slowly into a bush savannah towards the north-east of the country, with denser growth. There are significant numbers of baobab trees in this area, near the northern end of Kruger National Park.[53]<br />The Fynbos Biome, which makes up the majority of the area and plant life in the Cape floristic region, one of the six floral kingdoms, is located in a small region of the Western Cape and contains more than 9,000 of those species, making it among the richest regions on earth in terms of floral biodiversity. The majority of the plants are evergreen hard-leaf plants with fine, needle-like leaves, such as the sclerophyllous plants. Another uniquely South African plant is the protea genus of flowering plants. There are around 130 different species of protea in South Africa.<br />While South Africa has a great wealth of flowering plants, only 1% of South Africa is forest, almost exclusively in the humid coastal plain of KwaZulu-Natal, where there are also areas of Southern Africa mangroves in river mouths. There are even smaller reserves of forests that are out of the reach of fire, known as montane forests. Plantations of imported tree species are predominant, particularly the non-native eucalyptus and pine. South Africa has lost a large area of natural habitat in the last four decades, primarily due to overpopulation, sprawling development patterns and deforestation during the nineteenth century. South Africa is one of the worst affected countries in the world when it comes to invasion by alien species with many (e.g. Black Wattle, Port Jackson, Hakea, Lantana and Jacaranda) posing a significant threat to the native biodiversity and the already scarce water resources. The original temperate forest found by the first European settlers was exploited ruthlessly until only small patches remained. Currently, South African hardwood trees like Real Yellowwood (Podocarpus latifolius), stinkwood (Ocotea bullata), and South African Black Ironwood (Olea laurifolia) are under government protection.<br />Numerous mammals are found in the bushveld including lions, leopards, white rhinos, blue wildebeest, kudus, impalas, hyenas, hippopotamus and giraffes. A significant extent of the bushveld exists in the north-east including Kruger National Park and the Mala Mala Reserve, as well as in the far north in the Waterberg Biosphere.<br />Climate change is expected to bring considerable warming and drying to much of this already semi-arid region, with greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as heatwaves, flooding and drought. According to computer generated climate modelling produced by the South African National Biodiversity Institute[54] parts of southern Africa will see an increase in temperature by about one degree Celsius along the coast to more than four degrees Celsius in the already hot hinterland such as the Northern Cape in late spring and summertime by 2050.<br />The Cape Floral Kingdom has been identified as one of the global biodiversity hotspots since it will be hit very hard by climate change and has such a great diversity of life. Drought, increased intensity and frequency of fire and climbing temperatures are expected to push many of these rare species towards extinction.<br />South Africa houses many endemic species, among them the critically endangered Riverine Rabbit (Bunolagus monticullaris) in the Karoo.<br />Fynbos, a floral kingdom unique to South Africa, is found near Cape TownSwartberg mountains near the town of OudtshoornA field of flowers in the West Coast National Park<br />Economy<br />Main article: Economy of South Africa<br />Table Mountain. Cape Town has become an important retail and tourism centre for the country, and attracts the largest number of foreign visitors in South Africa<br />The Nelson Mandela Bridge in Johannesburg. Gauteng produces 33% of South Africa's GDP and 10% of the African continent's GDP<br />JSE is the largest stock exchange on the African continent<br />South Africa has a mixed economy with high rate of poverty and low GDP per capita. By UN classification South Africa is a middle-income country with an abundant supply of resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors, a stock exchange that ranks among the top twenty in the world, and a modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centres throughout the entire region. South Africa is ranked 25th in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) as of 2008.<br />Advanced development is significantly localised around four areas: Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Durban, and Pretoria/Johannesburg. Beyond these four economic centres, development is marginal and poverty is still prevalent despite government efforts. Consequently the vast majority of South Africans are poor. However, key marginal areas have experienced rapid growth recently. Such areas include Mossel Bay to Plettenberg Bay; Rustenburg area; Nelspruit area; Bloemfontein; Cape West Coast; and the KwaZulu-Natal North Coast. Unemployment is extremely high and South Africa is ranked in the top 10 countries in the world for income inequality,[55][56][57] measured by the Gini coefficient. During 1995–2003, the number of formal jobs decreased and informal jobs increased; overall unemployment worsened.[30] The average South African household income decreased considerably between 1995 and 2000. As for racial inequality, Statistics South Africa reported that in 1995 the average white household earned four times as much as the average black household. In 2000 the average white household was earning six times more than the average black household.[58] The affirmative action policies, called Black Economic Empowerment, have seen a rise in black economic wealth and an emerging black middle class.[59][60] Other problems are crime, corruption, and HIV/AIDS. South Africa suffers from relatively heavy overall regulation burden compared to developed countries. State ownership and interference impose high barriers to entry in many areas.[61] Restrictive labour regulations have contributed to the unemployment malaise.[30]<br />The 1994 government inherited an economy wracked by long years of internal conflict and external sanctions. The government refrained from resorting to economic populism. Inflation was brought down, public finances were stabilised, and some foreign capital was attracted.[62] However, growth was still subpar.[62] At the start of 2000, then President Thabo Mbeki vowed to promote economic growth and foreign investment by relaxing restrictive labour laws, stepping up the pace of privatisation, and cutting unneeded governmental spending. His policies face strong opposition from organised labour. From 2004 onward economic growth picked up significantly; both employment and capital formation increased.[62]<br />South Africa is the largest energy producer and consumer on the continent. South Africa is a popular tourist destination, and a substantial amount of revenue comes from tourism.[63] Among the main attractions are the diverse and picturesque culture, the game reserves and the highly regarded local wines.<br />The South African rand (ZAR), is the most actively traded emerging market currency in the world. It has joined an elite club of fifteen currencies, the Continuous linked settlement (CLS), where forex transactions are settled immediately, lowering the risks of transacting across time zones. The rand was the best-performing currency against the United States dollar (USD) between 2002 and 2005, according to the Bloomberg Currency Scorecard.<br />The volatility of the rand has affected economic activity, falling sharply during 2001 and hitting a historic low of 13.85 ZAR to the US$, raising fears of inflation, and causing the Reserve Bank to increase interest rates. The rand has since recovered, trading at 7.09 ZAR to the dollar as of Sept. 2010. However, as exporters are put under considerable pressure from a stronger domestic currency, many call for government intervention to help soften the rand.<br />Refugees from poorer neighbouring countries include many immigrants from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Malawi and others, representing a large portion of the informal sector. With high unemployment levels amongst poorer South Africans, xenophobia is prevalent and many people born in South Africa feel resentful of immigrants who are seen to be depriving the native population of jobs, a feeling which has been given credibility by the fact that many South African employers have employed migrants from other countries for lower pay than South African citizens, especially in the construction, tourism, agriculture and domestic service industries. Illegal immigrants are also heavily involved in informal trading.[64] However, many immigrants to South Africa continue to live in poor conditions, and the South African immigration policy has become increasingly restrictive since 1994.[65]<br />Principal international trading partners of South Africa—besides other African countries—include Germany, the United States, China, Japan, the United Kingdom and Spain.[66] Chief exports include corn, diamonds, fruits, gold, metals and minerals, sugar, and wool. Machinery and transportation equipment make up more than one-third of the value of the country’s imports. Other imports include chemicals, manufactured goods, and petroleum.<br />Arnot power station<br />Electricity crisis<br />After unsuccessful attempts by the government to encourage private construction of power generation capacity, the state-owned power supplier Eskom started experiencing deficiency in capacity in the electrical generating and reticulation infrastructure in 2007. Such lack led to inability to meet the routine demands of industry and consumers, resulting in countrywide rolling blackouts. Initially, the lack of capacity was triggered by a failure at Koeberg nuclear power station, but a general lack of capacity due to increased demand has become evident since then. The supplier has been widely criticised for failing to adequately plan for and construct sufficient electrical generating capacity, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa" l "cite_note-66" [67] although ultimately the government has admitted that it is at fault for refusing to approve funding for investment in infrastructure.[68]<br />The crisis was resolved within a few months, but the margin between national demand and available capacity is still low (particularly in peak hours), and power stations are under strain, such that another phase of rolling blackouts is probable if parts of the supply are halted for whatever reason. The government and Eskom are currently planning new power stations. The power utility plans to have 20,000 megawatts of nuclear power in its grid by 2025.[69][70]<br />Agriculture<br />Workers planting on a farm in the central area of Mpumalanga<br />Farm workers<br />South Africa has a large agricultural sector and is a net exporter of farming products. There are almost a thousand agricultural cooperatives and agribusinesses throughout the country, and agricultural exports have constituted 8% of South African total exports for the past five years. The agricultural industry contributes around 10% of formal employment, relatively low compared to other parts of Africa, as well as providing work for casual labourers and contributing around 2.6% of GDP for the nation.[71] However, due to the aridity of the land, only 13.5% can be used for crop production, and only 3% is considered high potential land.[72]<br />Although the commercial farming sector is relatively well developed, people in some rural areas still survive on subsistence agriculture. It is the eighth largest wine producer in the world, and the eleventh largest producer of sunflower seed. South Africa is a net exporter of agricultural products and foodstuffs, the largest number of exported items being sugar, grapes, citrus, nectarines, wine and deciduous fruit. The largest locally produced crop is maize (corn), and it has been estimated that 9 million tons are produced every year, with 7.4 million tons being consumed. Livestock are also popular on South African farms, with the country producing 85% of all meat consumed. The dairy industry consists of around 4,300 milk producers providing employment for 60,000 farm workers and contributing to the livelihoods of around 40,000 others.[73]<br />In recent years, the government has introduced several agricultural sector reforms, such as land reform and the deregulation of the market for agricultural products. The South African government has set a target of transferring 30% of productive farmland from whites to 'previously disadvantaged' blacks by 2014.[74] Land reform has been criticised both by farmers' groups and by landless workers, the latter alleging that the pace of change has not been fast enough, and the former alleging 'racist' treatment and expressing concerns that a similar situation to Zimbabwe's land reform policy may develop,[75] a fear exacerbated by comments made by former deputy president Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka.[76][77] The sector continues to face problems, with increased foreign competition and crime being two of the major challenges for the industry. The government has been accused of either putting in too much effort, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa" l "cite_note-77" [78] or not enough effort,[79] to tackle the problem of farm attacks as opposed to other forms of violent crime.<br />Another issue which affects South African agriculture is environmental damage caused by misuse of the land and global climate change. South Africa is unusually vulnerable to climate change and resultant diminution of surface waters. Some predictions show surface water supply could decrease by 60% by the year 2070 in parts of the Western Cape.[80] To reverse the damage caused by land mismanagement, the government has supported a scheme which promotes sustainable development and the use of natural resources.[81] Maize production, which contributes to a 36% majority of the gross value of South Africa’s field crops, has also experienced negative effects due to climate change. The estimated value of loss, which takes into consideration scenarios with and without the carbon dioxide fertilisation effect, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa" l "cite_note-81" [82] ranges between 10s and 100s of millions of Rands.[83]<br />Demographics<br />Main article: Demographics of South Africa<br />Historical populationsYearPop. %±19005,014,000—19105,842,00016.5%19206,953,00019.0%19308,580,00023.4%194010,341,00020.5%195013,310,00028.7%196016,385,00023.1%197021,794,00033.0%198024,261,00011.3%199037,944,00056.4%200043,686,00015.1%2010 (est.)[84]49,109,10712.4%<br />The many migrations that formed the modern Rainbow Nation<br />Map of population density in South Africa. <br />  <1 /km²  1–3 /km²  3–10 /km²  10–30 /km²  30–100 /km²  100–300 /km²  300–1000 /km²  1000–3000 /km²  >3000 /km²<br />South Africa is a nation of about 50 million people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions. The last census was held in 2001 and the next will be in 2011. Statistics South Africa provided five racial categories by which people could classify themselves, the last of which, "unspecified/other" drew negligible responses, and these results were omitted.[85] The 2010 midyear estimated figures for the other categories were Black African at 79.4%, White at 9.2%, Coloured at 8.8%, and Indian or Asian at 2.6%.[86] The first census in South Africa in 1911 showed that whites made up 22% of the population; it declined to 16% in 1980.[87]<br />Even though the population of South Africa has increased in the past decade[85][88] (primarily due to immigration), the country had an annual population growth rate of −0.051% in 2010 (CIA est.), where the birth rate is higher than the death rate but there is a net emigration rate.[84][89] South Africa is home to an estimated 5 million illegal immigrants, including some 3 million Zimbabweans.[90][91][92] A series of anti-immigrant riots occurred in South Africa beginning on 11 May 2008.[93][94]<br />By far the major part of the population classified itself as African or black, but it is not culturally or linguistically homogeneous. Major ethnic groups include the Zulu, Xhosa, Basotho (South Sotho), Bapedi (North Sotho), Venda, Tswana, Tsonga, Swazi and Ndebele, all of which speak Bantu languages.<br />Some, such as the Zulu, Xhosa, Bapedi and Venda groups, are unique to South Africa. Other groups are distributed across the borders with neighbours of South Africa: The Basotho group is also the major ethnic group in Lesotho. The Tswana ethnic group constitute the majority of the population of Botswana. The Swazi ethnic group is the major ethnic group in Swaziland. The Ndebele ethnic group is also found in Matabeleland in Zimbabwe, where they are known as the Matabele. These Ndebele people are the descendants of a Zulu faction under the warrior Mzilikazi that escaped persecution from Shaka by migrating to their current territory. The Tsonga ethnic group is also found in southern Mozambique, where they are known as the Shangaan.<br />The white population is not ethnically homogeneous and descends from many ethnic groups: Dutch, Flemish, Portuguese, Norwegian, German, Greek, French Huguenot, English, Polish, Irish, Italian, Scottish and Welsh. Culturally and linguistically, they are divided into the Afrikaners, who speak Afrikaans, and English-speaking groups, many of whom are descended from British and Irish immigrants (see Anglo-African). Many small communities that have immigrated over the last century retain the use of other languages. There is also a substantial (though decreased) Jewish population, the majority of whom came from Lithuania at the turn of the 20th century; though others came then and later from Great Britain, the former Soviet Union and Israel[citation needed]. The white population has until recently[citation needed] been on the decrease due to a low birth rate and emigration; as a factor in their decision to emigrate, many cite the high crime rate and the affirmative action policies of the government.[95][96] Since 1994, approximately 440,000 white South Africans have permanently emigrated.[86] However, between 2009 and 2010 the number of white South Africans grew by 108,000. Their growth rate of 2.5% was the highest of any other population group.[86][not in citation given]<br />Despite high emigration levels, a high level of non-South African white immigrants have settled in the country, in particular from countries such as Britain and Zimbabwe. For example, by 2005, an estimated 212,000 British citizens were residing in South Africa. Since 2003, the numbers of British migrants coming to South Africa has risen by 50%. An estimated 20,000 British migrants moved to South Africa in 2007. There have also been a significant number of white Zimbabwean arrivals, fleeing their home country in light of the economic and political problems currently facing the country. As well as recent arrivals, a significant number of white Zimbabweans emigrated to South Africa in the wake of independence in Zimbabwe in 1980. Some of the more nostalgic members of the community are known in popular culture as "Whenwes", because of their nostalgia for their lives in Rhodesia "when we were in Rhodesia".[97]<br />There have been other white immigration waves to South Africa in recent decades. In the 1970s, many Portuguese residents of African colonies such as Angola and Mozambique, came to live in South Africa after the independence of those nations. In addition, the apartheid government encouraged Eastern European immigration in the 1980s and early 1990s, particularly from Poland and Hungary.<br />The term "coloured" is still used for the people of mixed race descended from slaves brought in from East and Central Africa, the indigenous Khoisan who lived in the Cape at the time, Bantus, Whites (mostly the Dutch/Afrikaner and British settlers) as well as an admixture of Javanese, Malay, Indian, Malagasy and Asian blood (such as Burmese). The majority speak Afrikaans. Khoisan is a term used to describe two separate groups, physically similar: light-skinned and small in stature. The Khoikhoi, who were called Hottentots by the Europeans, were pastoralists and were annihilated; the San, called Bushmen by the Europeans, were hunter-gatherers. Within the Coloured community, more recent immigrants will also be found: Coloureds from the former Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe); Namibia and immigrants of mixed descent from India and Burma (Anglo-Indians/Anglo-Burmese) who were welcomed to the Cape when India and Burma received their Independence.<br />The major part of the South African Asian population is Indian in origin (see Indian South Africans); many of them descended from indentured workers brought in the nineteenth century to work on the sugar plantations of the eastern coastal area then known as Natal. Serious riots in Durban between Indians and Zulus erupted in 1949.[98] There is also a significant group of Chinese South Africans (approximately 100,000 individuals) and Vietnamese South Africans (approximately 50,000 individuals). In 2008, the Pretoria High Court has ruled that Chinese South Africans who arrived before 1994 are to be reclassified as Coloureds. As a result of this ruling, about 12,000–15,000[99] ethnically Chinese citizens who arrived before 1994, numbering 3%–5% of the total Chinese population in the country, will be able to benefit from government BEE policies.[100]<br />South Africa hosts a sizeable refugee and asylum seeker population. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, this population numbered approximately 144,700 in 2007.[101] Groups of refugees and asylum seekers numbering over 10,000 included people from Zimbabwe (48,400), The Democratic Republic of the Congo (24,800), and Somalia (12,900).[101] These populations mainly lived in Johannesburg, Pretoria, Durban, Cape Town, and Port Elizabeth.[101] Many refugees have now also started to work and live in rural areas in provinces such as Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal.<br />Religion<br />Main article: Religion in South Africa<br />The Dutch Reformed Church in Graaff Reinet<br />According to the 2001 national census, Christians accounted for 79.7% of the population. This includes Zion Christian (11.1%), Pentecostal (Charismatic) (8.2%), Roman Catholic (7.1%), Methodist (6.8%), Dutch Reformed (6.7%), Anglican (3.8%); members of other Christian churches accounted for another 36% of the population. Muslims accounted for 1.5% of the population, Hindus about 1.3%, and Judaism 0.2%. 15.1% had no religious affiliation, 2.3% were other and 1.4% were unspecified.[66][102][103]<br />African Indigenous Churches were the largest of the Christian groups. It was believed that many of these persons who claimed no affiliation with any organised religion adhered to traditional indigenous religions. Many peoples have syncretic religious practices combining Christian and indigenous influences.[104]<br />Islam in South Africa constitute mostly of those are described as Coloureds and those who are described as Indians. They have been joined by black or white South African converts as well as others from other parts of Africa.[105] South African Muslims claim that their faith is the fastest-growing religion of conversion in the country, with the number of black Muslims growing sixfold, from 12,000 in 1991 to 74,700 in 2004[105][106]<br />The Hindu population was primarily established during British colonial period, but later waves of immigration from India have also contributed to it. Most Hindus are ethnically South Asian but there are many who come from mixed racial stock, and some are converts with the efforts of Hindu missionaries such as ISKCON.<br />Other minority religions in South Africa are Sikhism, Jainism and Bahá'í Faith.[102]<br />Languages<br />Main article: Languages of South Africa<br />Map showing dominant South African languages. <br />  Afrikaans  English  Ndebele  Xhosa  Zulu  Northern Sotho  Sotho  Tswana  Swazi  Venda  Tsonga  None dominant<br />South Africa has eleven official languages:[107] Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu. In this regard it is third only to Bolivia and India in number. While all the languages are formally equal, some languages are spoken more than others. According to the 2001 National Census, the three most spoken first home languages are Zulu (23.8%), Xhosa (17.6%) and Afrikaans (13.3%).[85] Despite the fact that English is recognised as the language of commerce and science, it was spoken by only 8.2% of South Africans at home in 2001, an even lower percentage than in 1996 (8.6%).[85]<br />The country also recognises several unofficial languages, including Fanagalo, Khoe, Lobedu, Nama, Northern Ndebele, Phuthi, San and South African Sign Language.[108] These unofficial languages may be used in certain official uses in limited areas where it has been determined that these languages are prevalent. Nevertheless, their populations are not such that they require nationwide recognition.<br />Many of the "unofficial languages" of the San and Khoikhoi people contain regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia and Botswana, and elsewhere. These people, who are a physically distinct population from other Africans, have their own cultural identity based on their hunter-gatherer societies. They have been marginalised to a great extent, and many of their languages are in danger of becoming extinct.<br />Many white South Africans also speak other European languages, such as Portuguese (also spoken by black Angolans and Mozambicans), German, and Greek, while some Asians and Indians in South Africa speak South Asian languages, such as Tamil, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu and Telugu. French is still widely spoken by French South Africans[ HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" o "Wikipedia:Citation needed" citation needed] especially in places like Franschhoek, where many South Africans are of French origin. South African French is spoken by fewer than 10,000 individuals. Congolese French is also spoken in South Africa by migrants.<br />Largest municipalities<br />In 2007, there were 6 municipalities with more than 1 million inhabitants,[109] and 8 with between 500,000 and 1 million inhabitants (in 2001 there were 6). Municipalities in the list may include several towns. Some of them consist of hundreds of tiny settlements in very close proximity to each other. This is particularly true of municipalities made up of former Bantustans, e.g. KaNgwane and QwaQwa, and Libode in Transkei, where distributed, non-Western settlement models are practised.<br />view · talk · edit JohannesburgCape TownDurbanGermistonRankMunicipalityCore CityProvincePop.view · talk · edit PretoriaPort ElizabethBloemfonteinEast London1City of JohannesburgJohannesburgGauteng3,888,1802City of Cape TownCape TownWestern Cape3,497,0973eThekwiniDurbanKwaZulu-Natal3,468,0864Ekurhuleni (East Rand)GermistonGauteng2,724,2295City of TshwanePretoriaGauteng2,345,9086Nelson Mandela Bay MetroPort ElizabethEastern Cape1,050,9307MangaungBloemfonteinFree State752,9068Buffalo CityEast LondonEastern Cape724,3129EmfuleniVanderbijlparkGauteng650,86710MsunduziPietermaritzburgKwaZulu-Natal616,73011ThulamelaThohoyandouLimpopo602,81912PolokwanePolokwaneLimpopo561,77213MbombelaNelspruitMpumalanga527,20314BushbuckridgeBushbuckridgeMpumalanga509,97015MakhadoLouis TrichardtLimpopo471,80516RustenburgRustenburgNorth West449,77617King Sabata DalindyeboMthathaEastern Cape444,83018EmalahleniWitbankMpumalanga435,21719MatjhabengWelkomFree State405,03120City of MatlosanaKlerksdorpNorth West385,782Statistics South Africa (2007)[110]<br />Health<br />The impact of AIDS has caused a fall in life expectancy.<br />Main articles: Health in South Africa and HIV/AIDS in South Africa<br />The spread of AIDS (acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome) is an alarming problem in South Africa with up to 31% of pregnant women found to be HIV infected in 2005 and the infection rate among adults estimated at 20%.[111] The link between HIV, a virus spread primarily by sexual contact, and AIDS was long denied by prior president Thabo Mbeki and then health minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who insisted that the many deaths in the country are due to malnutrition, and hence poverty, and not HIV.[112]<br />In 2007, in response to international pressure, the government made efforts to fight AIDS.[113] In September 2008 Thabo Mbeki was recalled by the ANC and chose to resign and Kgalema Motlanthe was appointed for the interim. One of Mr. Motlanthe's first actions was to replace Mrs. Tshabalala-Msimang with Barbara Hogan who immediately started working to improve the Government's approach to AIDS. After the 2009 General Elections, President Jacob Zuma appointed Dr Aaron Motsoaledi as the new minister and committed his government to increasing funding for and widening the scope of AIDS treatment.[114]<br />AIDS affects mainly those who are sexually active and is far more prevalent in the black population. Most deaths are people who are also economically active, resulting in many families losing their primary wage earners. This has resulted in many 'AIDS orphans' who in many cases depend on the state for care and financial support.[115] It is estimated that there are 1,200,000 orphans in South Africa.[115] Many elderly people also lose the support from lost younger members of their family. Roughly 5 million people are infected with the disease.[113]<br />Science and technology<br />Mark Shuttleworth, the first South African in space<br />Several important scientific and technological developments have originated in South Africa. The first human-to-human heart transplant was performed by cardiac surgeon Christiaan Barnard at Groote Schuur Hospital in December 1967. Max Theiler developed a vaccine against Yellow Fever, Allan McLeod Cormack pioneered x-ray Computed tomography, and Aaron Klug developed crystallographic electron microscopy techniques. These advancements were all (with the exception of that of Barnard) recognised with Nobel Prizes. Sydney Brenner won most recently, in 2002, for his pioneering work in molecular biology.<br />Mark Shuttleworth founded an early Internet security company Thawte, that was subsequently bought out by world-leader VeriSign. Despite government efforts to encourage entrepreneurship in biotechnology, IT and other high technology fields, no other notable groundbreaking companies have been founded in South Africa. However, it is the expressed objective of the government to transition the economy to be more reliant on high technology, based on the realisation that South Africa cannot compete with Far Eastern economies in manufacturing, nor can the republic rely on its mineral wealth in perpetuity.<br />South Africa has cultivated a burgeoning astronomy community. It hosts the Southern African Large Telescope, the largest optical telescope in the southern hemisphere. South Africa is currently building the Karoo Array Telescope as a pathfinder for the $20 billion Square Kilometer Array project. South Africa is a finalist, with Australia, to be the host of the SKA.<br />Society and culture<br />Main article: Culture of South Africa<br />Decorated houses, Drakensberg Mountains<br />Traditional South African cuisine<br />South African culture is diverse; foods from many cultures are enjoyed by all and especially marketed to tourists who wish to sample the large variety of South African cuisine. In addition to food, music and dance feature prominently.[ HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" o "Wikipedia:Citation needed" citation needed]<br />South African cuisine is heavily meat-based and has spawned the distinctively South African social gathering known as a braai, or barbecue. South Africa has also developed into a major wine producer, with some of the best vineyards lying in valleys around Stellenbosch, Franschoek, Paarl and Barrydale.[116]<br />The South African black majority still has a substantial number of rural inhabitants who lead largely impoverished lives. It is among these people, however, that cultural traditions survive most strongly; as blacks have become increasingly urbanised and Westernised, aspects of traditional culture have declined. Urban blacks usually speak English or Afrikaans in addition to their native tongue. There are smaller but still significant groups of speakers of Khoisan languages who are not included in the eleven official languages, but are one of the eight other officially recognised languages. There are small groups of speakers of endangered languages, most of which are from the Khoi-San family, that receive no official status; however, some groups within South Africa are attempting to promote their use and revival.<br />Members of middle class, who are predominantly white but whose ranks include growing numbers of black, coloured and Indian people, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa" l "cite_note-116" [117] have lifestyles similar in many respects to that of people found in Western Europe, North America and Australasia. Members of the middle class often study and work abroad for greater exposure to the markets of the world.<br />Asians, predominantly of Indian origin, preserve their own cultural heritage, languages and religious beliefs, being either Christian, Hindu or Sunni Muslim and speaking English, with Indian languages like Hindi, Telugu, Tamil or Gujarati being spoken less frequently, but the majority of Indians being able to understand their mother tongue. The first Indians arrived on the famous Truro ship as indentured labourers in Natal to work the Sugar Cane Fields. There is a much smaller Chinese community in South Africa, although its numbers have increased due to immigration from Republic of China (Taiwan).<br />South Africa has also had a large influence in the Scouting movement, with many Scouting traditions and ceremonies coming from the experiences of Robert Baden-Powell (the founder of Scouting) during his time in South Africa as a military officer in the 1890s. The South African Scout Association was one of the first youth organisations to open its doors to youth and adults of all races in South Africa. This happened on 2 July 1977 at a conference known as Quo Vadis.[118]<br />Art<br />Main article: Art of South Africa<br />Eland, rock painting, Drakensberg, South Africa<br />The oldest art objects in the world were discovered in a South African cave. Dating from 75,000 years ago, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa" l "cite_note-118" [119] these small drilled snail shells could have no other function than to have been strung on a string as a necklace. South Africa was one of the cradles of the human species. One of the defining characteristics of our species is the making of art (from Latin 'ars' meaning worked or formed from basic material).<br />The scattered tribes of Khoisan peoples moving into South Africa from around 10000 BC had their own fluent art styles seen today in a multitude of cave paintings. They were superseded by Bantu/Nguni peoples with their own vocabularies of art forms. In the 20th century, traditional tribal forms of art were scattered and re-melded by the divisive policies of apartheid.<br />New forms of art evolved in the mines and townships: a dynamic art using everything from plastic strips to bicycle spokes. The Dutch-influenced folk art of the Afrikaner Trekboers and the urban white artists earnestly following changing European traditions from the 1850s onwards also contributed to this eclectic mix, which continues to evolve today.<br />Literature<br />Main article: Literature of South Africa<br />Olive Schreiner<br />South Africa's unique social and political history have generated a strong group of local writers, which themes that span the days of apartheid to the lives of people in the "new South Africa".<br />Many of the first black South African authors were missionary-educated, and the majority of which thus wrote in either English or Afrikaans. One of the first well known novels written by a black author in an African language was Solomon Thekiso Plaatje's Mhudi, written in 1930.<br />Notable white South African authors include Nadine Gordimer who was, in Seamus Heaney's words, one of "the guerrillas of the imagination", and who became the first South African and the seventh woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1991. Her most famous novel, July's People, was released in 1981, depicting the collapse of white-minority rule.<br />J.M. Coetzee was the second South African to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 2003. When awarding the prize, the Swedish Academy stated that Coetzee "in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider".[120] The press release for the award also cited his "well-crafted composition, pregnant dialogue and analytical brilliance," while focusing on the moral nature of his work.[120]<br />Athol Fugard, whose plays have been regularly premiered in fringe theatres in South Africa, London (The Royal Court Theatre) and New York. Olive Schreiner's The Story of an African Farm (1883) was a revelation in Victorian literature: it is heralded by many as introducing feminism into the novel form.<br />Alan Paton published the acclaimed novel Cry, the Beloved Country in 1948. He told the tale of a black priest who comes to Johannesburg to find his son, which became an international bestseller. During the 1950s, Drum magazine became a hotbed of political satire, fiction, and essays, giving a voice to urban black culture.<br />Afrikaans-language writers also began to write controversial material. Breyten Breytenbach was jailed for his involvement with the guerrilla movement against apartheid. Andre Brink was the first Afrikaner writer to be banned by the government after he released the novel A Dry White Season about a white South African who discovers the truth about a black friend who dies in police custody.<br />J. R. R. Tolkien, author of The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion, was born in Bloemfontein in 1892.<br />Cinema<br />Main article: Cinema of South Africa<br />While many foreign films have been produced about South Africa (usually involving race relations), few local productions are known outside South Africa itself. One exception was the film The Gods Must Be Crazy in 1980, set in the Kalahari. This is about how life in a traditional community of Bushmen is changed when a Coke bottle, thrown out of an aeroplane, suddenly lands from the sky. The late Jamie Uys, who wrote and directed The Gods Must Be Crazy, also had success overseas in the 1970s with his films Funny People and Funny People II, similar to the TV series Candid Camera in the US. Leon Schuster's You Must Be Joking! films are in the same genre, and hugely popular among South Africans.<br />Arguably, the most high-profile film portraying South Africa in recent years was "District 9". Directed by Neill Blomkamp, a native South African, and produced by Peter Jackson, the action/science-fiction film depicts a sub-class of alien refugees forced to live in the slums of Johannesburg in what many saw as a creative allegory for apartheid. The film was a critical and commercial success worldwide, and was nominated for Best Picture at the 82nd Academy Awards.<br />Other notable exceptions are the film Tsotsi, which won the Academy Award for Foreign Language Film at the 78th Academy Awards in 2006 as well as U-Carmen e-Khayelitsha, which won the Golden Bear at the 2005 Berlin International Film Festival.<br />Music<br />Main article: Music of South Africa<br />There is great diversity in music from South Africa. Many black musicians who sang in Afrikaans or English during apartheid have since begun to sing in traditional African languages, and have developed a unique style called Kwaito. Of note is Brenda Fassie, who launched to fame with her song "Weekend Special", which was sung in English. More famous traditional musicians include Ladysmith Black Mambazo, while the Soweto String Quartet performs classic music with an African flavour. White and Coloured South African singers are historically influenced by European musical styles. South Africa has produced world-famous jazz musicians, notably Hugh Masekela, Jonas Gwangwa, Abdullah Ibrahim, Miriam Makeba, Jonathan Butler, Chris McGregor, and Sathima Bea Benjamin. Afrikaans music covers multiple genres, such as the contemporary Steve Hofmeyr and the punk rock band Fokofpolisiekar. Crossover artists such as Verity (internationally recognised for innovation in the music industry) and Johnny Clegg and his bands Juluka and Savuka have enjoyed various success underground, publicly, and abroad.<br />The South African music scene includes Kwaito, a new music genre that had developed in the mid 80s and has since developed to become the most popular social economical form of representation among the populous. Though some may argue that the political aspects of Kwaito has since diminished after Apartheid, and the relative interest in politics has become a minor aspect of daily life. Some argue that in a sense, Kwaito is in fact a political force that shows activism in its apolitical actions. Today, major corporations like Sony, BMG, and EMI have appeared on the South African scene to produce and distribute Kwaito music. Due to its overwhelming popularity, as well as the general influence of DJs, who are among the top 5 most influential types of people within the country[ HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed" o "Wikipedia:Citation needed" citation needed], Kwaito has taken over radio, television, and magazines.[121]<br />Sports<br />Main article: Sport in South Africa<br />Soccer City during a soccer match between South Africa and Colombia<br />The Springboks in a bus parade after winning the 2007 Rugby World Cup<br />South Africa's most popular sports are soccer, rugby and cricket.[122] Other sports with significant support are swimming, athletics, golf, boxing, tennis and netball. Although soccer commands the greatest following among the youth, other sports like basketball, surfing HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa" l "cite_note-122" [123] and skateboarding are increasingly popular.<br />Famous boxing personalities include Baby Jake Jacob Matlala, Vuyani Bungu, Welcome Ncita, Dingaan Thobela, Gerrie Coetzee and Brian Mitchell. Soccer players who have played for major foreign clubs include Lucas Radebe and Philemon Masinga (both formerly of Leeds United), Quinton Fortune (Atletico Madrid and Manchester United), Benni McCarthy (Ajax Amsterdam, F.C. Porto, Blackburn Rovers and West Ham United), Aaron Mokoena (Ajax Amsterdam, Blackburn Rovers and Portsmouth), Delron Buckley (Borussia Dortmund) and Steven Pienaar (Ajax Amsterdam and Everton). Durban Surfer Jordy Smith won the 2010 Billabong J-Bay competition making him the no 1 ranked surfer in the world. South Africa produced Formula One motor racing's 1979 world champion Jody Scheckter. Famous current cricket players include Herschelle Gibbs, Graeme Smith, Jacques Kallis, JP Duminy, etc. Most of them also participate in the Indian Premier League.<br />South Africa has also produced numerous world class rugby players, including Francois Pienaar, Joost van der Westhuizen, Danie Craven, Frik du Preez, Naas Botha and Bryan Habana. South Africa hosted and won the 1995 Rugby World Cup and won the 2007 Rugby World Cup in France. It followed the 1995 Rugby World Cup by hosting the 1996 African Cup of Nations, with the national team going on to win the tournament. It also hosted the 2003 Cricket World Cup, the 2007 World Twenty20 Championship, and it was the host nation for the 2010 FIFA World Cup, which was the first time the tournament was held in Africa. FIFA president Sepp Blatter awarded South Africa a grade 9 out of 10 for successfully hosting the event.[124]<br />In 2004, the swimming team of Roland Schoeman, Lyndon Ferns, Darian Townsend and Ryk Neethling won the gold medal at the Olympic Games in Athens, simultaneously breaking the world record in the 4x100 freestyle relay. Penny Heyns won Olympic Gold in the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games.<br />In golf, Gary Player is generally regarded as one of the greatest golfers of all time, having won the Career Grand Slam, one of five golfers to have done so. Other South African golfers to have won major tournaments include Bobby Locke, Ernie Els, Retief Goosen, Trevor Immelman and Louis Oosthuizen .<br />Education<br />Main article: Education in South Africa<br />The heart of the Rhodes University campus<br />Learners have twelve years of formal schooling, from grade 1 to 12. Grade R is a pre-primary foundation year. [125] Primary schools span the first seven years of schooling.[126] High School education spans a further five years. The Senior Certificate examination takes place at the end of grade 12 and is necessary for tertiary studies at a South African university.[125] See: Matriculation in South Africa; High school: South Africa.<br />Public universities in South Africa are divided into three types: traditional universities, which offer theoretically oriented university degrees; universities of technology ("Technikons"), which offer vocational oriented diplomas and degrees; and comprehensive universities, which offer both types of qualification. Public institutions are usually English medium, although instruction may take place in Afrikaans as well. There are also a large number of other educational institutions in South Africa - some are local campuses of foreign universities, some conduct classes for students who write their exams at the distance-education University of South Africa and some offer unaccredited or non-accredited diplomas. See: List of universities in South Africa; List of post secondary institutions in South Africa; Category:Higher education in South Africa.<br />Public expenditure on education was at 5.4 % of the 2002-05 GDP.[127]<br />Under Apartheid, schools for blacks were subject to discrimination through inadequate funding and a separate syllabus called Bantu Education which was only designed to give them sufficient skills to work as labourers.[128] Redressing these imbalances has been a focus of recent education policy; see Education in South Africa: Restructuring.<br />Social problems<br />Main articles: Crime in South Africa, Sexual violence in South Africa, and Xenophobia in South Africa<br />Prison buildings on Robben Island<br />According to a survey for the period 1998–2000 compiled by the United Nations, South Africa was ranked second for murder and first for assaults and rapes per capita.[129] Official statistics show that 52 people are murdered every day in South Africa.[130] The reported number of rapes per year is 55,000, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa" l "cite_note-130" [131] and it is estimated that 500,000 rapes are committed annually in South Africa.[132] Total crime per capita is 10th out of the 60 countries in the data set.<br />Rape is a common problem in South Africa, in a 2009 survey one in four South African men admitted to raping someone.[133] One in three of the 4,000 women questioned by the Community of Information, Empowerment and Transparency said they had been raped in the past year.[134] South Africa has some of the highest incidences of child and baby rape in the world.[135] In a related survey conducted among 1,500 schoolchildren in the Soweto township, a quarter of all the boys interviewed said that 'jackrolling', a term for gang rape, was fun.[134]<br />Middle-class South Africans seek security in gated communities. Many emigrants from South Africa also state that crime was a big motivator for them to leave. Crime against the farming community has continued to be a major problem.[136]<br />Along with many African nations, South Africa has been experiencing a "brain drain" in the past 20 years. This is believed to be potentially damaging for the regional economy, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Africa" l "cite_note-136" [137] and is almost certainly detrimental for the well-being of the majority of people reliant on the healthcare infrastructure, given the HIV/AIDS epidemic.[138] The skills drain in South Africa tends to demonstrate racial contours (naturally given the skills distribution legacy of South Africa) and has thus resulted in large white South African communities abroad.[139]<br />In May 2008 societal hostility to African migrants exploded in a series of pogroms that left up to 100 people dead and 100,000 displaced.[140]<br />See also<br />South Africa portal<br />Main article: Outline of South Africa<br />CIVETS<br />List of South Africa–related topics<br />References<br />^ "The Constitution". Constitutional Court of South Africa. http://www.constitutionalcourt.org.za/site/theconstitution/thetext.htm. 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South African Scout Association. 2006. http://www.scouting.org.za/visitors/history.html. Retrieved 30 November 2006. <br />^ World's Oldest Jewellery Found in Cave<br />^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Literature: John Maxwell Coetzee". Swedish Academy. 2003-10-02. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2003/press.html. Retrieved 2009-08-02. <br />^ "South African music after Apartheid: kwaito, the "party politic," and the appropriation of gold as a sign of success". http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2822/is_3_28/ai_n15648564/pg_5. [dead link]<br />^ "Sport in South Africa". SouthAfrica.info. http://www.southafrica.info/about/sport/sportsa.htm. Retrieved 28 June 2010. <br />^ "Surfing Cape Town". http://www.capeintern.com/activities/surfing/. <br />^ Cooper, Billy (12 July 2010). "South Africa gets 9/10 for World Cup". Mail & Guardian. http://www.mg.co.za/article/2010-07-12-sa-gest-910-for-world-cup. Retrieved 9 September 2010. <br />^ a b "A parent's guide to schooling". http://www.southafrica.info/services/education/edufacts.htm. Retrieved 31 August 2010. <br />^ "Education in South Africa". SouthAfrica.info. http://www.southafrica.info/about/education/education.htm. Retrieved 20 June 2010. <br />^ "Human Development Report 2009 - South Africa". Hdrstats.undp.org. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_ZAF.html. Retrieved 30 May 2010. <br />^ "Bantu Education". Overcoming Apartheid. http://overcomingapartheid.msu.edu/sidebar.php?id=3. Retrieved 20 June 2010. <br />^ "NationMaster: South African Crime Statistics". http://www.nationmaster.com/red/country/sf/Crime&b_cite=1. <br />^ Persecuted white South African Brandon Huntley made international race refugee. Times Online. September 3, 2009.<br />^ Behind South Africa's Reggae Murder. Time. 22 October 2007.<br />^ "SOUTH AFRICA: One in four men rape". IRIN Africa. 18 June 2009.<br />^ "South African rape survey shock". BBC News. 18 June 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/8107039.stm. Retrieved 23 May 2010. <br />^ a b "South Africa’s rape shock". BBC News. 19 January 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/258446.stm. Retrieved 30 May 2010. <br />^ Perry, Alex (5 November 2007). "Oprah scandal rocks South Africa". TIME. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1680715,00.html?xid=feed-yahoo-full-world. Retrieved 30 May 2010. <br />^ "Farms of fear". London: The Times Online. 2 April 2006. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/article694534.ece. Retrieved 23 May 2010. <br />^ "World Bank, IMF study 2004". Jae.oxfordjournals.org. 3 December 2004. doi: HYPERLINK "http://dx.doi.org/10.1093%2Fjae%2Fejh042" 10.1093/jae/ejh042. http://jae.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/13/suppl_2/ii15. Retrieved 30 May 2010. <br />^ "Health Personnel in Southern Africa: Confronting maldistribution and brain drain" (PDF). http://www.equinetafrica.org/bibl/docs/healthpersonnel.pdf. Retrieved 30 May 2010. <br />^ Skilled Labour Migration from Developing Countries: Study on South and Southern Africa, Haroon Bhorat et al. 2002. International Migration Programme, International Labour Office, Geneva.<br />^ Abahlali baseMjondolo. "A collection of published articles on the May 2008 pogroms". Abahlali.org. http://abahlali.org/node/3700. Retrieved 30 May 2010. <br />Further reading<br />A History of South Africa, Third Edition. Leonard Thompson. Yale University Press. 1 March 2001. 384 pages. ISBN 0-300-08776-4.<br />Emerging Johannesburg: Perspectives on the Postapartheid City. Richard Tomlinson, et al. 1 January 2003. 336 pages. ISBN 0-415-93559-8.<br />Making of Modern South Africa: Conquest, Segregation and Apartheid. Nigel Worden. 1 July 2000. 194 pages. ISBN 0-631-21661-8.<br />"Religion and Politics in South Africa." David Hein. Modern Age 31 (1987): 21–30.<br />South Africa: A Narrative History. Frank Welsh. Kodansha America. 1 February 1999. 606 pages. ISBN 1-56836-258-7.<br />South Africa in Contemporary Times. Godfrey Mwakikagile. New Africa Press. February 2008. 260 pages. ISBN 978-0-9802587-3-8.<br />The Atlas of Changing South Africa. A. J. Christopher. 1 October 2000. 216 pages. ISBN 0-415-21178-6.<br />The Politics of the New South Africa. Heather Deegan. 28 December 2000. 256 pages. ISBN 0-582-38227-0.<br />Twentieth-Century South Africa. William Beinart Oxford University Press 2001, 414 pages, ISBN 0-19-289318-1<br />The Diamond Mines of South Africa. Gardner F. Williams, General Manager De Beers, Buck & Co, 1905, 845 pages, Vol I and II. Online full text version: Farlang.com, Diamond Mines Vol. I and Farlang.com, Diamond Mines Vol. II<br />The Next Twenty-Five Years: Affirmative Action in Higher Education in the United States and South Africa. David L. Featherman, et al. University of Michigan Press. 2009. 416 pages. ISBN 978-0-472-11705-5.<br />External links<br />Find more about South Africa on Wikipedia's sister projects:Definitions from WiktionaryImages and media from CommonsLearning resources from WikiversityNews stories from WikinewsQuotations from WikiquoteSource texts from WikisourceTextbooks from Wikibooks<br />Government of South Africa<br />Chief of State and Cabinet Members<br />South Africa entry at The World Factbook<br />South Africa from UCB Libraries GovPubs<br />South Africa at the Open Directory Project<br />SouthAfrica.info<br />Wikimedia Atlas of South Africa<br />South Africa travel guide from Wikitravel<br />Stunning South Africa - slideshow by Life magazine<br /> Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "South Africa". Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. <br />[show] Articles related to South Africa[hide]v · d · e  South Africa topicsHistoryTimeline · Cape Colony · Orange Free State · Transvaal · First Boer War · Second Boer War · ApartheidGeographyProvinces · Districts · Municipalities · Populated places · National parks · Wildlife · Rivers · Estuaries · Lakes · Forests · Mountain rangesPoliticsConstitution · Political parties · Social movements · Diplomatic missions · Elections · Military · Police · Foreign relationsEconomyHistory · Rand · Mining industry · Agriculture · Tourism · Stock exchangeDemographicsBantu · Khoisan · Whites · Coloureds · Asians · Religion · Languages · ImmigrationCultureArt · Cinema · Cuisine · Education · Literature · Music · Poets · Public holidays · Sport · Media  · WineOther topicsNotable South Africans · Healthcare · Crime · LGBT rights · Postal codes · Telephone codes · Transport · Time zone[show]  Geographic localeLat. and Long. 33°55′S 18°25′E / 33.917°S 18.417°E / -33.917; 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MotlantheSecretaries-General: Kaire Mbuende · Prega Ramsamy · Tomaz SalomãoSee alsoSouthern African Development Coordination Conference · Southern African Customs Union · Common Monetary Area · Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa[show]v · d · eMember states of the African Union (AU)Algeria · Angola · Benin · Botswana · Burkina Faso · Burundi · Cameroon · Cape Verde · Central African Republic · Chad · Comoros · Democratic Republic of the Congo · Republic of the Congo · Côte d'Ivoire · Djibouti · Egypt · Equatorial Guinea · Eritrea · Ethiopia · Gabon · The Gambia · Ghana · Guinea · Guinea-Bissau · Kenya · Lesotho · Liberia · Libya · Madagascar · Malawi · Mali · Mauritania · Mauritius · Mozambique · Namibia · Niger · Nigeria · Rwanda · Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic · São Tomé and Príncipe · Senegal · Seychelles · Sierra Leone · Somalia · South Africa · Sudan · Swaziland · Tanzania · Togo · Tunisia · Uganda · Zambia · Zimbabwe[show]v · d · eStates belonging to the Community of Democracies at the United NationsMembers Cape Verde ·  Chile ·  Czech Republic ·  El Salvador ·  India ·  Italy ·  South Korea ·  Lithuania ·  Mali ·  Mexico ·  Mongolia ·  Morocco ·  Philippines ·  Poland ·  Portugal ·  South Africa ·  United States[show]v · d · ePeri-Antarctic countries and overseas territoriesArgentina · Australia (Heard Island and McDonald Islands • Macquarie Island) · Chile · Falkland Islands · French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Kerguelen Islands) · New Zealand (New Zealand Sub-Antarctic Islands) · Norway (Bouvet Island) · South Africa (Prince Edward Islands) · South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands"Peri-Antarctic" (meaning "close to the Antarctic") does not include territorial claims on Antarctica itself.[show]v · d · eMembers of the Commonwealth of NationsSovereign statesAntigua and Barbuda · Australia · Bahamas · Bangladesh · Barbados · Belize · Botswana · Brunei · Cameroon · Canada · Cyprus · Dominica · Fiji (suspended) · The Gambia · Ghana · Grenada · 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a lingua franca · Globish · International · Mid-Atlantic (American Theater Standard) · Non-native pronunciations of English · Pidgin · Plain · Simplified · Special · Standard[show]v · d · eEnglish-speaking worldAnglosphereDark blue: Countries and territories where English is an official language and spoken natively by a significant population.Light blue: Countries where English is an official language but less widely spoken.Click on the coloured regions to view the related article.  Regions where English is an official language and spoken by a significant populationAfricaNigeria · Mauritius · Saint Helena · South Africa Americas(Anglo-America)Anguilla · Antigua and Barbuda · The Bahamas · Barbados · Belize · Bermuda · British Virgin Islands · Canada · Cayman Islands · Dominica · Falkland Islands · Grenada · Guyana · Jamaica · Montserrat · Saba · Saint Kitts and Nevis · Saint Lucia · Saint Vincent and the Grenadines · Saint Eustatius · Sint Maarten · Trinidad and Tobago · Turks and 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See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.<br />Contact us<br />Caribbean<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />  (Redirected from West Indies)<br />Jump to: navigation, search <br />"West Indian" redirects here. For the western part of India, see West India.<br />"West Indies" redirects here. For other uses of the phrase, see West Indies (disambiguation).<br />For other uses, see Caribbean (disambiguation).<br />CaribbeanArea2,754,000 km2 (1,063,000 sq mi)Land Area239,681 km2 (92,541 sq mi)Population (2010)36,314,000[1]Density151.5 /km2 (392 /sq mi)Ethnic groupsAfro-Caribbean, Indo-Caribbean, [2] Native Americans (Arawak, Caribs, Tainos), European, AsianDemonymWest Indian, CaribbeanGovernment13 sovereign states; also, 2 overseas departments and 14 dependent territories, tied to the United Kingdom, France, the United States and the NetherlandsLargest citiesSanto DomingoHavanaSantiago de los CaballerosPort-au-PrinceKingstonSantiago de CubaSan JuanHolguinInternet TLDMultipleCalling codeMultipleTime zoneUTC-5 to UTC-4<br />The Caribbean HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Indies" l "cite_note-2" [3] is a region consisting of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (most of which enclose the sea), and the surrounding coasts. The region is located southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and North America, east of Central America, and to the north of South America.<br />Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 7,000 islands, islets, reefs, and cays. These islands, called the West Indies, generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea.[4] These islands are called the West Indies because when Christopher Columbus landed there in 1492 he believed that he had reached the Indies (in Asia).<br />The region consists of the Antilles, divided into the larger Greater Antilles which bound the sea on the north, the Lesser Antilles on the south and east (including the Leeward Antilles), the Bahamas, and the Turks and Caicos Islands or the Lucayan Archipelago, which are in fact in the Atlantic Ocean north of Cuba, not in the Caribbean Sea.<br />Geo-politically, the West Indies are usually regarded as a subregion of North America[5][6][7][8] and are organized into 27 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was a short-lived country called the Federation of the West Indies composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then UK dependencies.<br />The region takes its name from that of the Carib, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of European contact.[9]<br />Contents[hide]1 Definition2 Geography and climate 2.1 Island groups2.2 Historical groupings2.3 Modern day island territories2.4 Continental countries with Caribbean coastlines and islands3 Biodiversity4 Demographics 4.1 Indigenous tribes4.2 Language4.3 Religion5 Politics 5.1 Regionalism 5.1.1 United States effects on regionalism5.1.2 European Union effects on regionalism6 Regional institutions7 Cuisine 7.1 Favorite or national dishes8 See also9 References10 Further reading11 External links<br />[edit] Definition<br />Central America and the Caribbean<br />The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses. Its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.<br />Physiographically, the Caribbean region consists mainly of the Caribbean Sea to north, bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida, the Northern Atlantic Ocean which lies to the east and northeast, and a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea; the coastline of the continent of South America lies to the south.<br />Politically, "Caribbean" may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example the block known as the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) contains both the Co-operative Republic of Guyana and the Republic of Suriname found in South America, along with Belize in Central America as full members. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands which are found in the Atlantic Ocean are Associate members of the Caribbean Community, and the same goes for the Commonwealth of the Bahamas which is a full member of the Caribbean Community.<br />Alternately the organisation known as the Association of Caribbean States (ACS) consists of almost every nation in the surrounding regions which lie on the Caribbean plus El Salvador which lies solely on the Pacific Ocean. According to the ACS the total population of its member states is some 227 million people.[10]<br />[edit] Geography and climate<br />Detail of tectonic plates from: Tectonic plates of the world.<br />The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies. Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin. These islands include Aruba (possessing only minor volcanic features), Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, The Bahamas or Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Guyana, Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Trinidad & Tobago.<br />The climate of the region is tropical but rainfall varies with elevation, size and water currents (cool upwellings keep the ABC islands arid). Warm, moist tradewinds blow consistently from the east creating rainforest/semidesert divisions on mountainous islands. Occasional northwesterlies affect the northern islands in the winter. The region enjoys year-round sunshine, divided into 'dry' and 'wet' seasons, with the last six months of the year being wetter than the first half.<br />The waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish, turtles, and coral reef formations. The Puerto Rico trench, located on the fringe of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea just to the north of the island of Puerto Rico, is the deepest point in all of the Atlantic Ocean.[11]<br />Hurricanes, which at times batter the region, usually strike northwards of Grenada, and to the west of Barbados. The principal hurricane belt arcs to northwest of the island of Barbados in the Eastern Caribbean.<br />The region sits in the line of several major shipping routes with the man-made Panama Canal connecting the western Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.<br />[edit] Island groups<br />Lucayan Archipelago<br />Main article: Lucayan Archipelago<br /> Bahamas<br /> Turks and Caicos Islands<br />Greater Antilles<br />Main article: Greater Antilles<br /> Cuba<br />Hispaniola <br /> Dominican Republic<br /> Haiti<br /> Jamaica<br /> Cayman Islands (United Kingdom)<br /> Puerto Rico (U.S. Commonwealth)<br />Lesser Antilles<br />Main article: Lesser Antilles<br />Leeward Islands<br />Main article: Leeward Islands<br /> U.S. Virgin Islands <br />Saint Croix<br />Saint Thomas<br />Saint John<br />Water Island<br /> British Virgin Islands (United Kingdom) <br />Tortola<br />Virgin Gorda<br />Anegada<br />Jost Van Dyke<br /> Anguilla (United Kingdom)<br /> Antigua and Barbuda <br />Antigua<br />Barbuda<br />Redonda<br />Saint Martin <br /> Saint Martin (French Antilles, France)<br /> Sint Maarten (Kingdom of the Netherlands)<br />Saba (BES islands, Netherlands)<br />Sint Eustatius (BES islands, Netherlands)<br /> Saint Barthélemy (French Antilles, France)<br /> Saint Kitts and Nevis <br />Saint Kitts<br />Nevis<br /> Montserrat (United Kingdom)<br /> Guadeloupe (French Antilles, France)<br />Windward Islands<br />Main article: Windward Islands<br /> Dominica<br /> Martinique (French Antilles, France)<br /> Saint Lucia<br /> Saint Vincent and the Grenadines <br />Saint Vincent<br />The Grenadines<br /> Grenada<br /> Barbados<br /> Trinidad and Tobago <br />Tobago<br />Trinidad<br />Leeward Antilles<br />Main article: Leeward Antilles<br /> Aruba (Kingdom of the Netherlands)<br /> Curaçao (Kingdom of the Netherlands)<br />Bonaire (BES islands, Netherlands)<br />[edit] Historical groupings<br />Main article: History of the Caribbean<br />Political evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present<br />The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean in the 16th century<br />All islands at some point were, and a few still are, colonies of European nations; a few are overseas or dependent territories:<br />British West Indies/Anglophone Caribbean – Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Bay Islands, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Croix (briefly), Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago (from 1797) and the Turks and Caicos Islands<br />Danish West Indies – present-day United States Virgin Islands<br />Dutch West Indies – Aruba, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten, Virgin Islands, Saint Croix (briefly), Tobago and Bay Islands (briefly)<br />French West Indies – Anguilla (briefly), Antigua and Barbuda (briefly), Dominica, Dominican Republic (briefly), Grenada, Haiti, Montserrat (briefly), Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sint Eustatius (briefly), Sint Maarten, St Kitts (briefly), Tobago (briefly), Saint Croix, the current French overseas départements of Martinique and Guadeloupe (including Marie-Galante, La Désirade and Les Saintes), and the current French overseas collectivities of Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin<br />Portuguese West Indies – present-day Barbados, known as Os Barbados in the 16th century when the Portuguese claimed the island en route to Brazil. The Portuguese left Barbados abandoned in 1533, nearly a century prior to the British arrival to the island.<br />Spanish West Indies – Cuba, Hispaniola (present-day Dominican Republic, Haiti(until 1609 to France), Puerto Rico, Jamaica (until 1655 to Great Britain), the Cayman Islands(until 1670 to Great Britain) Trinidad (until 1797 to Great Britain) and Bay Islands (until 1643 to Great Britain), with coastal island of Central America (Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama) and South America (Venezuela and Colombia).<br />Swedish West Indies – present-day French Saint-Barthélemy and Guadeloupe (briefly).<br />Courlander West Indies – Tobago (until 1691)<br />The British West Indies were united by the United Kingdom into a West Indies Federation between 1958 and 1962. The independent countries formerly part of the B.W.I. still have a joint cricket team that competes in Test matches and One Day Internationals. The West Indian cricket team includes the South American nation of Guyana, the only former British colony on that continent.<br />In addition, these countries share the University of the West Indies as a regional entity. The university consists of three main campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, a smaller campus in the Bahamas and Resident Tutors in other contributing territories such as Trinidad.<br />[edit] Modern day island territories<br />Islands in and near the Caribbean<br />Main article: List of islands in the Caribbean<br />See also: Caribbean South America and Caribbean basin<br /> Anguilla (British overseas territory)<br /> Antigua and Barbuda<br /> Aruba (Kingdom of the Netherlands)<br /> Bahamas<br /> Barbados<br /> Bonaire (special municipality of the Netherlands)<br /> British Virgin Islands (British overseas territory)<br /> Cayman Islands (British overseas territory)<br /> Cuba<br /> Curaçao (Kingdom of the Netherlands)<br /> Dominica<br /> Dominican Republic<br /> Grenada<br /> Guadeloupe (overseas department of France)<br /> Haiti<br /> Jamaica<br /> Martinique (overseas department of France)<br /> Montserrat (British overseas territory)<br /> Puerto Rico (commonwealth of the United States)<br /> Saba (special municipality of the Netherlands)<br /> Saint Barthélemy (overseas collectivity of France)<br /> Saint Kitts and Nevis<br /> Saint Lucia<br /> Saint Martin (overseas collectivity of France)<br /> Saint Vincent and the Grenadines<br /> Sint Eustatius (special municipality of the Netherlands)<br /> Sint Maarten (Kingdom of the Netherlands)<br /> Trinidad and Tobago<br /> Turks and Caicos Islands (British overseas territory)<br /> United States Virgin Islands (territory of the US)<br />[edit] Continental countries with Caribbean coastlines and islands<br /> Belize Ambergris CayeBelize CityBig CreekCaye CaulkerGlover's ReefDangrigaHicks CaysHopkinsLighthouse ReefPlacenciaPunta GordaSt. George's CayeSouth Water CayeTurneffe Islands Colombia Archipelago of San Andres and ProvidenciaBarranquillaCartagenaRiohachaSanta Marta Costa Rica Guatemala Guyana Honduras GuanajaRoatánÚtilaCayos CochinosSwan Islands Mexico Quintana Roo CancúnChetumalIsla ContoyIsla CozumelIsla MujeresCozumel Nicaragua Corn IslandsCayos MiskitosPearl Cays Panama Kuna Yala Islands (comprising more than 1300 islands)Bocas del Toro Archipelago (archipelago with approximately 300 islands) United States Florida KeysNavassa Island Venezuela Isla MargaritaCoche IslandCubagua IslandLos Monjes ArchipelagoLas Aves ArchipelagoIsla AvesLos Hermanos ArchipelagoIslas Los FrailesLos Roques ArchipelagoLa Sola IslandLa Tortuga IslandLa OrchilaBlanquilla IslandLos Testigos IslandsIsla de Patos<br />The nations of Belize and Guyana, although on the mainland of Central America and South America respectively, are former British colonies and maintain many cultural ties to the Caribbean. They are members of CARICOM. Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast, often referred to as the Mosquito Coast, was also a former British colony. It maintains many cultural ties to the Caribbean as distinct from the Pacific coast. Guyana participates in West Indies cricket tournaments and many players from Guyana have been on the West Indies Test cricket team. The Turneffe Islands (and many other islands and reefs) are part of Belize and lie in the Caribbean Sea. The nation of Suriname, on the mainland of South America, is a former Dutch colony and also a member of CARICOM.<br />[edit] Biodiversity<br />This section requires expansion.<br />The Caribbean islands are classified as one of Conservation International's biodiversity hotspots because they support exceptionally diverse terrestrial and marine ecosystems, ranging from montane cloud forests to cactus scrublands. The region also contains about 8% (by surface area) of the world's coral reefs[12] along with extensive seagrass meadows,[13] both of which are frequently found in the shallow marine waters bordering island and continental coasts off the region. Many of these ecosystems have been devastated by deforestation, pollution, and human encroachment.<br />The arrival of the first humans is correlated with extinction of giant owls and dwarf ground sloths.[14] The hotspot contains dozens of highly threatened species, ranging from birds, to mammals and reptiles. Popular examples include the Puerto Rican Amazon, two species of solenodon (giant shrews) in Cuba and the Hispaniola island, and the Cuban crocodile. The hotspot is also remarkable for the diversity of its fauna.<br />Saona Island, Dominican Republic<br />The region's coral reefs, which contain about 70 species of hard corals and between 500-700 species of reef-associated fishes HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Indies" l "cite_note-14" [15] have undergone rapid decline in ecosystem integrity in recent years, and are considered particularly vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification [16]<br />[edit] Demographics<br />Beach in Tobago<br />Grand Anse beach, St. George's, Grenada<br />The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been around 750,000 immediately before European contact, although lower and higher figures are given. After contact, genocide and disease led to a decline in the Native American population.[17][18] From 1500 to 1800 the population rose as slaves arrived from West Africa[19] such as the Kongo, Igbo, Akan, Fon and Yoruba as well as military prisoners and captured slaves from Ireland, who were deported during the Cromwellian reign in England.[20] Immigrants from Britain, Italy. France, Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal and Denmark also arrived, although the mortality rate was high for both groups.[21]<br />The population is estimated to have reached 2.2 million by 1800.[22] Immigrants from India, China, and other countries arrived in the 19th century.[23] After the ending of the Atlantic slave trade, the population increased naturally.[24] The total regional population was estimated at 37.5 million by 2000.[25]<br />Puerto Cruz beach in Margarita Island, Venezuela<br />The majority of the Caribbean has populations of mainly Africans in the French Caribbean, Anglophone Caribbean and Dutch Caribbean, there are minorities of mixed-race and European peoples of Dutch, English, French, Italian and Portuguese ancestry. Asians, especially those of Chinese and Indian descent, form a significant minority in the region and also contribute to multiracial communities. All of their ancestors arrived in the 19th century as indentured laborers.<br />The Spanish-speaking Caribbean have primarily mixed race, African, or European majorities. Puerto Rico and Cuba (largest Caribbean island) have a European majority with a mixture of Spaniards–European, Native Americans, and some West African. Cuba has a third of its population of African descent, with a sizable Mulatto (mixed African–European) population. The Dominican Republic has a largely mixed majority who are primarily descended from West Africans and Spaniards, with some Native Americans.<br />Larger islands such as Jamaica, have a large African population in addition to a very large mixed race, Chinese, Europeans, Indian, Lebanese, Latin American, and Syrian populations. This is a result of years of importation of slaves and indentured labourers, and migration. Most multi-racial Jamaicans refer to themselves as either mixed race or simple Black. The situation is similar for the Caricom states of Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago has a multi-racial cosmopolitan society due to the arrival of the Africans, Indians, Chinese, Syrians, Lebanese, Native Amerindians and Europeans. This multi-racial mix has created sub-ethnicities that often straddle the boundaries of major ethnicities and include Chindian and Dougla.<br />[edit] Indigenous tribes<br />Taíno<br />Kalinago<br />Ciboney<br />Ciguayo<br />Galibi<br />Garifuna<br />Igneri<br />Lucayan<br />Macorix<br />[edit] Language<br />Main article: Caribbean Languages<br />Spanish, English, French, Dutch, Haitian Creole and Papiamento are the predominant official languages of various countries in the region, though a handful of unique Creole languages or dialects can also be found from one country to another.<br />[edit] Religion<br />See also: :Category:Religion in the Caribbean<br />The largest religious groups in the region are: Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Rastafari, Santería, and Voodoo ,among others.<br />[edit] Politics<br />[edit] Regionalism<br />Caribbean societies are very different from other Western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens.[26] The current economic and political problems which the states face individually are common to all Caribbean states. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current problems and avoid projected problems. From a political economic perspective, regionalism serves to make Caribbean states active participants in current international affairs through collective coalitions. In 1973, the first political regionalism in the Caribbean Basin was created by advances of the English-speaking Caribbean nations through the institution known as the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM).[27]<br />Certain scholars have argued both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communist systems such as Cuba toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary systems as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial, and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean states. Contemporary Caribbean systems seem to reflect a "blending of traditional and modern patterns, yielding hybrid systems that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent constitutional traditions yet ultimately appear to function in similar ways."[28] The political systems of the Caribbean states share similar practices.<br />The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean is often marginalized. Some scholars believe that regionalism cannot not exist in the Caribbean because each small state is unique. On the other hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean nations that suggest regionalism exists. "Proximity as well as historical ties among the Caribbean nations has led to cooperation as well as a desire for collective action."[29] These attempts at regionalization reflect the nations' desires to compete in the international economic system.[29]<br />Furthermore, a lack of interest from other major states promoted regionalism in the region. In recent years the Caribbean has suffered from a lack of U.S. interest. "With the end of the Cold War, U.S. security and economic interests have been focused on other areas. As a result there has been a significant reduction in U.S. aid and investment to the Caribbean."[30] The lack of international support for these small, relatively poor states, helped regionalism prosper.<br />Following the Cold War another issue of importance in the Caribbean has been the reduced economic growth of some Caribbean States due to the United States and European Union's allegations of special treatment toward the region by each other.<br />[edit] United States effects on regionalism<br />The United States under President Bill Clinton launched a challenge in the World Trade Organization against the EU over Europe's preferential program, known as the Lomé Convention, which allowed banana exports from the former colonies of the Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP) to enter Europe cheaply.[31] The World Trade Organization sided in the United States' favour and the beneficial elements of the convention to African, Caribbean and Pacific states has been partially dismantled and replaced by the Cotonou Agreement.[32]<br />During the US/EU dispute the United States imposed large tariffs on European Union goods (up to 100% on some imports) from the EU in order to pressure Europe to change the agreement with the Caribbean nations in favour of the Cotonou Agreement.[33]<br />Farmers in the Caribbean have complained of their falling profits and rising costs as the Lomé Convention weakens. Some farmers have faced increased pressure to turn towards the cultivation of illegal drugs, which has a higher profit margin and fills the sizable demand for these illegal drugs in North America and Europe.[34][35]<br />[edit] European Union effects on regionalism<br />The European Union has also taken issue with US based taxation extended to US companies via the Caribbean countries. The EU instituted a broad labeling of many nations as tax havens by the France-based OECD. The United States has not been in favor of shutting off the practice yet, mainly due to the higher costs that would be passed on to US companies via taxation. Caribbean countries have largely countered the allegations by the OECD by signing more bilateral information sharing deals with OECD members, thus reducing the dangerous aspects of secrecy, and they have strengthened their legislation against money laundering and on the conditions under which companies can be based in their nations. The Caribbean nations have also started to more closely cooperate in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and other instruments to add oversight of the offshore industry.<br />One of the most important associations that deal with regionalism amongst the nations of the Caribbean Basin has been the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Proposed by CARICOM in 1992, the ACS soon won the support of the other countries of the region. It was founded in July 1994. The ACS maintains regionalism within the Caribbean on issues which are unique to the Caribbean Basin. Through coalition building, like the ACS and CARICOM, regionalism has become an undeniable part of the politics and economics of the Caribbean. The successes of region-building initiatives are still debated by scholars, yet regionalism remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean.<br />[edit] Regional institutions<br />Here are some of the bodies that several islands share in collaboration:<br />Association of Caribbean States (ACS), Trinidad and Tobago<br />Caribbean Association of Industry and Commerce (CAIC), Trinidad and Tobago[36]<br />Caribbean Association of National Telecommunication Organizations (CANTO), Trinidad and Tobago[37]<br />Caribbean Community (CARICOM), Guyana<br />Caribbean Development Bank (CDB), Barbados<br />Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA), Barbados<br />Caribbean Educators Network,[38]<br />Caribbean Electric Utility Services Corporation (CARILEC), Saint Lucia[39]<br />Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC), Barbados and Jamaica<br />Caribbean Food Crop Society<br />Caribbean Football Union (CFU)<br />Caribbean Hotel Association (CHA), Puerto Rico[40]<br />Caribbean Initiative (Initiative of the IUCN)<br />Caribbean Programme for Economic Competitiveness (CPEC), Saint Lucia<br />Caribbean Regional Environmental Programme (CREP), Barbados[41]<br />Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM), Belize[42]<br />Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery (CRNM), Barbados and Dominican Republic[43]<br />Caribbean Telecommunications Union (CTU), Trinidad and Tobago[44]<br />Caribbean Tourism Organisation (CTO), Barbados<br />Inter-American Economic Council (IAEC), Washington, D.C.<br />Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Saint Lucia<br />Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry (LACNIC), Brazil and Uruguay<br />United Nations - Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Chile and Trinidad and Tobago<br />University of the West Indies, Jamaica, Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago.[45] In addition, the fourth campus, the Open Campus was formed in June 2008 as a result of an amalgamation of the Board for Non-Campus Countries and Distance Educationn, Schools of Continuing Studies, the UWI Distance Education Centres and Tertiary Level Units. The Open Campus has 42 physical sites in 16 Anglophone caribbean countries.<br />West Indies Cricket Board, Antigua and Barbuda[46]<br />[edit] Cuisine<br />Main article: Caribbean cuisine<br />[edit] Favorite or national dishes<br />See also: National_dish#Country-Dish/Food<br />[47]<br />Anguilla - Rice and Peas and Fish<br />Antigua and Barbuda - Fungee & Pepperpot<br />Bahamas - Crack Conch with Peas and Rice[48]<br />Barbados - Cou-Cou and Flying fish<br />British Virgin Islands - Fish and fungee<br />Cayman Islands - Turtle Stew<br />Colombian Caribbean - Rice with Coconut Milk, arroz con pollo, Sancocho, Arab cuisine due to large Arab immigration<br />Cuba - Platillo Moros y Cristianos, Ropa Vieja, Yuca, Maduros, Ajiaco<br />Dominica - Mountain chicken<br />Dominican Republic - arroz con pollo topped with stewed red kidney beans, pan fried or braised beef, and side dish of green salad or ensalada de coditos, shrimp, empanadas and/or tostones, or the ever popular Dominican dish known as Mangú which is mashed plantains. The ensemble is usually called bandera nacional, which means "national flag", a term equivalent to the Venezuelan pabellón criollo.<br />Grenada - Oil-Down<br />Guyana - pepperpot, coookup rice, Roti and curry, methem<br />Haiti - Griot (Fried pork) served with Du riz a pois or Diri ak Pwa (Rice and beans)<br />Jamaica - ackee and saltfish, callaloo<br />Montserrat - Goat Water<br />Puerto Rico - Arroz con gandules with roasted pork shoulder, arroz con pollo, Mofongo, and Many Fried Food, Commonly made In the Beaches and Coast like, Alcapurrias, bacalaito, piononos.<br />Saint Kitts and Nevis - Coconut dumplings, Spicy plantain, saltfish, breadfruit<br />Saint Lucia - Green Bananas & Dried and salted cod<br />Saint Vincent and the Grenadines - Roasted Breadfruit & Fried Jackfish<br />Trinidad and Tobago - Doubles, Roti and Curry, Crab and dumpling, Pelau<br />United States Virgin Islands - Stewed goat, oxtail or beef, seafood, callaloo, fungee<br />[edit] See also<br />Caribbean portalPuerto Rico portalTrinidad and Tobago portal<br />Main article: List of Caribbean-related topics<br />African diaspora<br />Anchor coinage<br />British Afro-Caribbean community<br />Caribbean Countries<br />Caribbean Spanish<br />Caribbean English<br />History of the Caribbean<br />Indo-Caribbean<br />Music of the Caribbean<br />Piracy in the Caribbean<br />Politics of the Caribbean<br />Tourism in Caribbean<br />Geography:<br />Islands of the Caribbean<br />Caribbean Sea<br />Americas (terminology)<br />List of Indigenous Names of Eastern Caribbean Islands<br />Middle America (Americas)<br />Mountain peaks of the Caribbean<br />Organisations:<br />West Indies Federation<br />CONCACAF<br />Council on Hemispheric Affairs<br />[edit] References<br />^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html<br />^ McWhorter, John H. (2005). Defining Creole. Oxford University Press US. p. 379. ISBN 0195166701. http://books.google.com/books?id=zdxJJVY54nYC&pg=PT387. <br />^ Pronounced /ˌkærɨˈbiːən/ or /kəˈrɪbiən/. Both pronunciations are equally valid; indeed, they see equal use even within areas of the Caribbean itself. Cf. Royal Caribbean, which stresses the second syllable. In this case, as a proper noun, those who would normally pronounce it a different way may use the pronunciation associated with the noun when referring to it. More generic nouns such as the Caribbean Community are generally referred to using the speaker's preferred pronunciation.Spanish: Caribe; Dutch Caraïben (help·info); French: Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles<br />^ Asann, Ridvan (2007). A Brief History of the Caribbean (Revised ed.). New York: Facts on File, Inc.. p. 3. ISBN 0816038112. <br />^ Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49), United Nations Statistics Division<br />^ North America Atlas National Geographic<br />^ "North America" Atlas of Canada<br />^ "North America". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia; "... associated with the continent is Greenland, the largest island in the world, and such offshore groups as the Arctic Archipelago, the Bahamas, the Greater and Lesser Antilles, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and the Aleutian Islands."<br />^ "Carib". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2008-07-11. http://www.webcitation.org/5ZDatLUlv. Retrieved 2008-02-20. "inhabited the Lesser Antilles and parts of the neighbouring South American coast at the time of the Spanish conquest." <br />^ Background of the business forum of the Greater Caribbean of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS)<br />^ Uri ten Brink. "Puerto Rico Trench 2003: Cruise Summary Results". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/03trench/welcome.html. Retrieved 2008-02-21. <br />^ Spalding, M. and E. Green. "World Atlas of Coral Reefs". University of California Press and UNEP/WCMC, 2001<br />^ Littler, D. and M. Littler. "Caribbean Reef Plants". OffShore Graphics, Inc., 2000<br />^ "North American Extinctions v. World". Thegreatstory.org. http://www.thegreatstory.org/charts/NA-extinctions.html. Retrieved 2010-08-23. <br />^ "Caribbean Coral Reefs". http://www.coral-reef-info.com/caribbean-coral-reefs.html. <br />^ "Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification". Science. 2007-12-14. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/short/318/5857/1737. Retrieved 2010-10-29. <br />^ p. 486, A Population History of the Caribbean, Stanley L. Engerman, pp. 483–528 in A Population History of North America, edited by Michael R. Haines and Richard Hall Steckel, Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-521-49666-7.<br />^ Stacy Goodling, "Effects of European Diseases on the Inhabitants of the New World", Millersville University<br />^ The Sugar Revolutions and Slavery, U.S. Library of Congress<br />^ To Hell or Barbados: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ireland, O'Callaghan S, Brandon Press, 2001, ISBN 0-86322-287-0.<br />^ pp. 488–492, Engerman.<br />^ Figure 11.1, Engerman.<br />^ pp. 501–502, Engerman.<br />^ pp. 504, 511, Engerman.<br />^ Table A.2, Database documentation, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) Population Database, version 3, International Center for Tropical Agriculture et al., 2005. Accessed on line February 20, 2008.<br />^ Gowricharn, Ruben. Caribbean Transnationalism: Migraton, Pluralization, and Social Cohesion, Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006. pp. 5<br />^ Hillman, Richard S., and Thomas J. D'agostino, eds. Understanding the Contemporary Caribbean, London: Lynne Rienner, 2003. pp. 150<br />^ Hillman, Richard S., and Thomas J. D'agostino, eds. Understanding the Contemporary Caribbean, London: Lynne Rienner, 2003. pp. 165<br />^ a b Serbin, Andres. "Towards an Association of Caribbean States: Raising Some Awkward Questions", Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs (2004): pp. 1<br />^ Hillman, Richard S., and Thomas J. D'agostino, eds. Understanding the Contemporary Caribbean, London: Lynne Rienner, 2003. pp. 123<br />^ The U.S.-EU Banana Agreement See also: "Dominica: Poverty and Potential". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/caribbean/news/story/2008/05/080516_sanders190508.shtml. Retrieved 2008-12-06. <br />^ WTO rules against EU banana import practices[dead link]<br />^ "No truce in banana war". BBC News. 1999-03-08. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/293114.stm. Retrieved 2010-08-23. <br />^ "World: Americas St Vincent hit by banana war". BBC News. 1999-03-13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/296008.stm. Retrieved 2010-08-23. <br />^ "Concern for Caribbean farmers". Bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/caribbean/news/story/2005/01/050117_ukparliament-concern.shtml. Retrieved 2010-08-23. <br />^ "CAIC". CAIC. http://www.caic.org.tt. Retrieved 2010-08-23. <br />^ "CANTO Caribbean portal". Canto.org. http://www.canto.org. Retrieved 2008-12-06. <br />^ "Caribbean Educators Network". CEN. http://www.caribbeaneducatorsnetwork.com. Retrieved 2008-12-06. <br />^ "Carilec". Carilec.com. http://www.carilec.com. Retrieved 2008-12-06. <br />^ http://www.caribbeanhotels.org<br />^ "Caribbean Regional Environmental Programme". Crepnet.net. http://www.crepnet.net. Retrieved 2008-12-06. <br />^ "Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism". Caricom-fisheries.com. http://www.caricom-fisheries.com. Retrieved 2008-12-06. <br />^ "Official website of the RNM". Crnm.org. http://www.crnm.org. Retrieved 2008-12-06. <br />^ "c-t-u.org". c-t-u.org. http://www.c-t-u.org. Retrieved 2010-08-23. <br />^ "University of the West Indies". Uwi.edu. http://www.uwi.edu. Retrieved 2008-12-06. <br />^ "West Indies Cricket Board WICB Official Website". Windiescricket.com. http://www.windiescricket.com. Retrieved 2008-12-06. <br />^ Profile of Countries, Caribbean Community (CARICOM)<br />^ "National Dishes & Local Favorites from the Islands of the Caribbean<". Caribbeanamericanfoods.com. http://www.caribbeanamericanfoods.com/?page=island_dishes. Retrieved 2010-08-23. <br />"Diversity Amid Globalization" 4th edition. Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff.<br />[edit] Further reading<br />Develtere, Patrick. 1994. "Co-operation and development: With special reference to the experience of the Commonwealth Caribbean" ACCO, ISBN 90-334-3181-5<br />Gowricharn, Ruben. Caribbean Transnationalism: Migraton, Pluralization, and Social Cohesion. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006.<br />Henke, Holger, and Fred Reno, eds. Modern Political Culture in the Caribbean. Kingston: University of West Indies Press, 2003.<br />Heuman, Gad. The Caribbean: Brief Histories. London: A Hodder Arnold Publication, 2006<br />Hillman, Richard S., and Thomas J. D'agostino, eds. Understanding the Contemporary Caribbean. London: Lynne Rienner, 2003.<br />de Kadt, Emanuel, (editor). Patterns of foreign influence in the Caribbean, Oxford University Press, 1972<br />Knight, Franklin W.. The Modern Caribbean. na: The University of North Carolina Press, 1989.<br />Kurlansky, Mark. 1992. A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean Destiny. Addison-Wesley Publishing. ISBN 0-201-52396-5<br />Langley, Lester D. The United States and the Caribbean in the Twentieth Century. London: University of Georgia Press, 1989.<br />Maingot, Anthony P. The United States and the Caribbean: Challenges of an Asymmetrical Relationship. Westview P, 1994.<br />Ramnarine, Tina K., "Beautiful Cosmos: Performance and Belonging in the Caribbean Diaspora". London, Pluto Press, 2007<br />Serbin, Andres. "Towards an Association of Caribbean States: Raising Some Awkward Questions." Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs (2004): 1-19. (This scholar has many articles referencing the politics of the Caribbean)<br />[edit] External links<br />Find more about Caribbean on Wikipedia's sister projects:Definitions from WiktionaryImages and media from CommonsLearning resources from WikiversityNews stories from WikinewsQuotations from WikiquoteSource texts from WikisourceTextbooks from Wikibooks<br />Caribbean at the Open Directory Project<br />Wikitravel - The Caribbean<br />Digital Library of the Caribbean<br />Federal Research Division of the U.S. Library of Congress: Caribbean Islands (1987)<br />Library of Congress definition of the West Indies<br />West Indies papers Miscellaneous personal and estate records, 1663–1929, University of Bristol Library Special Collections<br />LANIC Caribbean country pages<br />[show]v · d · eRegions of the worldAfricaNorthern · Sub-Sahara (Central · Southern · Western · Eastern)OceaniaAustralasia (Australia) · Melanesia · Micronesia · PolynesiaAmericasNorth (Northern • Middle • Central • Caribbean) · South (Southern • Northern • Western) · Anglo · LatinPolarArctic · AntarcticAsiaCentral · Eastern (Northeastern) · Northern · Southeastern · Southern · Western (Middle East)OceansWorld · Arctic · Atlantic · Indian · Pacific · SouthernEuropeCentral · Eastern · Northern · Southeastern · Southern · WesternSeasList of seasRelated Continents of the world · List of seas · Physical Earth<br />Coordinates: 14°31′32″N 75°49′06″W / 14.52556°N 75.81833°W / 14.52556; 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additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.<br />Contact us<br />Regenten<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />Jump to: navigation, search <br />For other uses, see Regent (disambiguation).<br />Group portrait Regenten Oudemannenhuis at Haarlem by Frans Hals, 1664<br />In the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the regenten (the Dutch plural for regent) were the rulers of the Dutch Republic, the leaders of the Dutch cities or the heads of organisations (e.g. "regent of an orphanage"). Though not formally a hereditary "class", they were de facto "patricians", comparable to that ancient Roman class. Since the late Middle Ages Dutch cities had been run by the richer merchant families, who gradually formed a closed group. At first the lower-class citizens in the guilds and schutterijen could unite to form a certain counterbalance to the regenten, but in the course of the 15th century the administration of the cities and towns became oligarchical in character. From the latter part of the 17th century the regent families were able to reserve government offices to themselves via quasi-formal contractual arrangements. In practice they could only be dislodged by political upheavals, like the Orangist revolution of 1747 and the Patriot revolt of 1785.<br />Contents[hide]1 Origins 1.1 Rise of the regenten1.2 Increasing power2 Developments under the republic3 References4 Sources<br />[edit] Origins<br />The regenten as the cities' ruling class originated in the 13th century, arising over the course of time under the influence of several factors. Commoners managed to obtain emancipation from dependent status as serfs by making skillful use of the power struggle between the sovereign and the nobility; the result was that their towns became a new power in medieval feudal society which could ultimately be dominated by neither the sovereign nor the nobility. The nobility's and rulers' incomes were often not enough to pay their mercenaries or their own army. They therefore needed financial assistance from the up-and-coming merchant class in the growing towns. This class could thus induce the sovereigns to grant municipal charters and city rights, establishing autonomy in the regulating of the city's internal affairs HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regenten" l "cite_note-0" [1].<br />[edit] Rise of the regenten<br />This newly-acquired autonomy brought into being a new group of "managers" next to the sovereign's deputy, the schout, to run the city. These city councillors were often recruited from the wealthiest citizens. Medieval city-dwellers were of the opinion that the vroedschap, from which the magistrates were chosen, had to consist of de weisten, treffelijksten en rijksten van de stadsbevolking (the smartest, most prominent and richest of the city's population). Men of wealth were deemed to be the people most able to guarantee the prosperity of the city. To keep the peace was in their personal interest, and because they were already rich, one could hope that they would not plunder the city coffers.<br />[edit] Increasing power<br />In the first half of the 15th century, the Burgundian dukes tightened their grip on the cities in the county of Holland (of which they had just obtained control). Philip the Good promoted the situation in which the regenten could exert a greater control over the city and her inhabitants, by diminishing the influence of the guilds. The vroedschappen were given the power to co-opt members, instead of using a more open electoral process. Members of a vroedschap were usually appointed for life, or during good behavior[ HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Please_clarify" o "Wikipedia:Please clarify" clarification needed], whenever a vacancy arose.[2] Similar developments took place in the other provinces.<br />The vroedschap was the body that nominated candidates for burgemeesters and schepenen in annual or biannual elections, by drawing up double lists from which the ducal stadtholder made a selection. These nominees were usually members of the vroedschap, though this was not a formal requirement for office. Members of the vroedschap were usually also the representatives of the cities that voted in the states of the provinces (of which there were 18 in Holland; the other cities were not represented).[3]<br />These arrangements remained basically in place after the Dutch Revolt. In 1581 the Northern provinces renounced their ruler, Philip II, by the Act of Abjuration; after failed experiments with other foreign sovereigns, from 1588 on sovereignty was assumed by the provincial states and the states-general. From then on, the urban regenten were the de facto and de jure rulers of the republic HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regenten" l "cite_note-3" [4].<br />[edit] Developments under the republic<br />Formally, little changed in the constitutional arrangements of the republic, compared to those of the preceding Habsburg Netherlands. For instance, though there was no more scope for the stadtholders to represent a deposed king, the new republic found a new role for them, though they now received their commissions from the sovereign provincial states. Equally, the same 18 cities made up the states that held the vote before. What changed after the revolt was the political makeup of these institutions. In most cities the old regenten were purged, and replaced with adherents to the new political order. In general, Catholic regenten were replaced with supporters of the "New Religion" (as were the Catholic members of the ridderschappen, the groups of nobles that represented the countryside in the States).[5]<br />The new groups of regenten turned out to be representatives of a new economic elite that soon managed to bring about a rapid economic rise of the Netherlands, as described in Economic History of the Netherlands (1500 - 1815). In these early days access to political office was still relatively open. The new power holders belonged to the newly-rich classes, but they did not represent them, nor was membership in these classes a prerequisite for office. If one speaks of a "regent class" the word "class" is therefore used in a loose sense.[3]<br />The practice of co-option tended to perpetuate the same people in office in normal times. However, political upheavals could cause a wholesale replacement of the regent-elites, as had happened in the revolt years 1572-1578. Such upheavals were:<br />the purge of the Remonstrant regents after the coup d'état of stadtholder Maurice of Nassau in 1618[6]<br />the replacement of the Orangist regents after the death of stadtholder William II, issuing into the First Stadtholderless Period[7]<br />the substitution of Orangist regents for the followers of Johan de Witt in the Rampjaar 1672[8]<br />the replacement of Orangist regents by their opponents after the death of stadtholder William III, issuing in the Second Stadtholderless Period[9]<br />the restoration of the Stadtholderate in 1747, which brought the Orangists to power again [10]<br />the Patriot revolt of 1785 and<br />the suppression of that revolt in 1787 by Prussian intervention[11]<br />the overthrow of the Stadtholderate in 1795, which brought the Patriot regents, ousted in 1787, to power again[12].<br />To consolidate his own position, Stadtholder William III encouraged the regenten who were in power during his regime, to make mutual arrangements, in which they promised to reserve government positions for scions of allied families, the so-called contracten van correspondentie ("contracts of correspondence").[13] Such arrangements were also used by their opponents when those reverted to power. Such arrangements helped to close the oligarchy even more in the 18th century, which explained the increasing intensity of the partisanship between the Orangist and Republican (under various names) factions during that era.<br />During that century the regenten (of both factions) became more and more removed from the merchant classes, from which their forebears had come. They instead became representatives of the rentier class that came into being because of the enormous growth of the Dutch public debt as a consequence of the turn-of-the-century conflicts with France. This economic interest militated against forceful political reforms, and reforms in public finance, that would have been necessary to successfully withstand the political and economic crises that confronted the republic after 1780.<br />This perceived lack of capacity for reform helped to bring about the attempted revolution of 1785 and the successful revolution of 1795 that eventually helped replace the regent-oligarchy with a short-lived democracy in the first years of the Batavian Republic.<br />[edit] References<br />^ Israel, pp. 14-20<br />^ Israel, pp. 23-26<br />^ a b Price, pp. 78-79<br />^ Israel, p. 341<br />^ Israel, pp. 341-344<br />^ Israel, pp. 450-460; Price p. 78<br />^ Israel, pp. 603-609<br />^ Israel, pp. 796-807<br />^ Israel, pp. 959-968<br />^ Israel, pp. 1067-1079<br />^ Israel, pp. 1098-1115<br />^ Israel, pp. 1119-1122<br />^ Israel, p. 837<br />[edit] Sources<br />Israel, J.I. (1995), The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness and Fall, 1477-1806, Oxford University Press,ISBN 0-19-873072-1 hardback, ISBN 0-19-820734-4 paperback<br />Price, J.L. (1998), The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century, New York: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-21732-3 clothbound, ISBN 0-312-21733-1 paperback<br />Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regenten"<br />Categories: Dutch words and phrases | People of the Dutch Golden Age | Dutch Republic | History of the Netherlands<br />Hidden categories: All pages needing cleanup | Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2010<br />Personal tools<br />Log in / create account<br />Namespaces<br />Article<br />Discussion<br />Variants<br />Views<br />Read<br />Edit<br />View history<br />Actions<br />Search<br />Top of Form<br />Bottom of Form<br />Navigation<br />Main page<br />Contents<br />Featured content<br />Current events<br />Random article<br />Donate to Wikipedia<br />Interaction<br />Help<br />About Wikipedia<br />Community portal<br />Recent changes<br />Contact Wikipedia<br />Toolbox<br />What links here<br />Related changes<br />Upload file<br />Special pages<br />Permanent link<br />Cite this page<br />Print/export<br />Create a book<br />Download as PDF<br />Printable version<br />Languages<br />Français<br />Nederlands<br />Nedersaksisch<br />This page was last modified on 28 September 2010 at 09:08.<br />Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details.Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.<br />Contact us<br />The oligarchy (from Greek ὀλιγαρχία, oligarkhía HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oligarchy" l "cite_note-0" [1]) is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people. These people could be distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, corporate, or military control. The word oligarchy is from the Greek words "ὀλίγος" (olígos), "a few"[2] and the verb "ἄρχω" (archo), "to rule, to govern, to command".[3] Such states are often controlled by a few prominent families who pass their influence from one generation to the next.<br />Throughout history, some oligarchies have been tyrannical, relying on public servitude to exist, although others have been relatively benign. Aristotle pioneered the use of the term as a synonym for rule by the rich, for which the exact term is plutocracy, but oligarchy is not always a rule by wealth, as oligarchs can simply be a privileged group, and do not have to be connected by bloodlines as in a monarchy. Some city-states from ancient Greece were oligarchies.<br />Dutch miracle<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />Jump to: navigation, search <br />It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into History of the Netherlands. (Discuss)<br />The Dutch Miracle refers to the Netherlands's miraculous transition in the 1590s from a possession of the Holy Roman Empire to the foremost maritime and economic power in the world.<br />[edit] References<br />This Dutch history-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.v · d · e<br />Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_miracle"<br />Categories: History of the Netherlands | Dutch history stubs<br />Eighty Years' War<br />From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia<br />Jump to: navigation, search <br />This article's tone or style may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. Specific concerns may be found on the talk page. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (July 2010)<br />This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles and using this article for a summary of the key points of the subject. (July 2010)<br />Eighty Years' WarRelief of Leiden after the siege, 1574.Date1568-1648LocationThe Low Countries(Worldwide Colonial Warfare)ResultPeace of MünsterIndependence of the Dutch RepublicBelligerents United Provinces EnglandGerman ProtestantsHuguenots FranceSpanish Empire[hide]v · d · e Dutch RevoltOosterweel – Rheindalen – Heiligerlee – Groningen – Jemmingen – Jodoigne – Brielle – Goes – Haarlem – Flushing – Borsele – Haarlemmermeer – Zuiderzee – Alkmaar – Leiden – Reimerswaal – Mookerheyde – Zierikzee – Gembloux – Rijmenam – 1st Deventer – Maastricht – 1st Breda – Antwerp – Empel – Boksum – Zutphen – 1st Bergen op Zoom – Gravelines – Spain – 2nd Breda – 2nd Deventer – 2nd Groenlo – Turnhout – 3rd Groenlo – Nieuwpoort – Ostend – Sluys – 4th Groenlo – Gibraltar – Playa-Honda – 2nd Gibraltar – Jülich – 2nd Bergen op Zoom – 3rd Breda – Bahia – Puerto Rico – 5th Groenlo – Bay of Matanzas – 's-Hertogenbosch – Albrolhos – Bruges – Slaak – Maastricht – Saint Martin – Leuven – Schenkenschans – Lizard Point – 4th Breda – Venlo – Kallo – Geldern – English Channel – The Downs – Providencia – 1st Hulst – Cape St. Vincent – 2nd Saint Martin – 2nd Hulst – La Naval de Manila – Puerto de Cavite<br />The Eighty Years' War, or Dutch War of Independence, (1568–1648)[1] began as a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.<br />After the initial stages Philip II deployed his armies and regained control over most of the rebelling provinces. However, under the leadership of the exiled William of Orange the northern provinces continued their resistance and managed to oust the Spanish armies, and established the republic of the Seven United Netherlands.<br />The subsequent war between the Spanish empire and the Republic continued, although the heartland of the Republic was no longer threatened. The war ended in 1648 with the Peace of Münster when the Dutch Republic was recognised as an independent country.<br />Contents[hide]1 Causes of the war2 Prelude3 The Dutch Revolt 3.1 Insurrection, Repression and Invasion (1567–1572)3.2 Rebellion (1572–1576)3.3 From Pacification of Ghent to Union of Utrecht (1576–1579)3.4 Secession and Reconquest (1579–1588)3.5 The Dutch Republic resurges (1588–1609)4 Twelve Years' Truce5 Resumption of the war 5.1 Dutch intervention in the early stages of the Thirty Years' War (1619–1621)5.2 The Republic under siege (1621–1629)5.3 The Republic sallies forth (1629–1635)5.4 Franco-Dutch Alliance (1635–1640)5.5 Endgame (1640–1648)6 The Peace of Münster7 Aftermath 7.1 New border between North and South7.2 Political situation8 See also9 References10 Sources11 External links<br />[edit] Causes of the war<br />This section does not cite any references or sources.Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010)<br />In the decades leading to the war, the Dutch had become increasingly discontent with the Habsburg rule for several reasons.<br />A major cause of Dutch discontent was the heavy level of taxation the population was required to pay, while support and guidance from the government was hampered by the size of the empire. At that time the Seventeen Provinces were known in the Habsburg empire as De landen van herwaarts over, and in French Les pays de par deça ("those lands around there"). In practice this meant that the Dutch provinces were being continually criticised for acting without permission from the throne, while the latter was not practical since any request for permission sent to the throne would take at least four weeks for a response to return. This unrest was further amplified by the presence of Spanish troops brought in to oversee the order in these provinces.<br />While Spain maintained a policy of strict religious uniformity within the Roman Catholic Church, enforced by the Inquisition, a number of Protestant denominations gained ground in the Seventeen Provinces. The Lutheran movement of Martin Luther, the Anabaptist movement of the Dutch reformer Menno Simons, and the Reformed teachings of John Calvin all gained followers by the middle of the 16th century. This led to the Beeldenstorm, or "Iconoclastic Fury", in 1566, in which hundreds of churches were stripped of statuary and other religious decoration.<br />[edit] Prelude<br />Main article: Causes of the Dutch revolt<br />Emperor Charles V began the gradual abdication of his several crowns in October 1555. His son Philip II took over as overlord of the conglomerate of duchies, counties and other feudal fiefs known as the Habsburg Netherlands.[2] At the time this was a personal union of seventeen provinces with little in common beyond their overlord and a constitutional framework assembled during the preceding reigns of Burgundian and Habsburg rulers, dividing power between city governments and local nobility, provincial States and royal stadtholders, the States-General of the Netherlands, and the central government possibly represented by a Regent, assisted by three councils:the Council of State, Privy Council and Council of Finances. The balance of power was heavily weighted toward the local and regional governments.[3]<br />Philip did not assume the reins of government in person but appointed a governor-general Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, and from 1559 on, a Regent (his half-sister Margaret of Parma) to lead the central government. These Regents governed in close cooperation with Netherlandish nobles, like William, Prince of Orange, Philip de Montmorency, Count of Hoorn, and Lamoral, Count of Egmont. Philip introduced a number of Spanish councillors in the Council of State, foremost Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, a French-born cardinal who gained a large influence in the Council, much to the chagrin of the Dutch council members.<br />When Philip left for Spain in 1559 the political strains were increased by religious policies. Like Charles V, Philip was a fervent enemy of the Protestant movements of Martin Luther, John Calvin, and the Anabaptists. Charles had outlawed heresy in special placards that made it a capital offense, to be prosecuted by a Netherlandish version of the Inquisition, leading to more than 1,300 people executed as heretics between 1523 and 1566.[4] The policy of repression of heresy was highly unpopular, not just with adherents of Protestantism, but also with the Catholic population and the local governments, who considered it an intrusion on their prerogatives. Towards the end of Charles' reign enforcement had become quite lax. Philip, however, insisted on rigorous enforcement and this caused a lot of popular unrest.[5] To support and strengthen the attempts at Counter-Reformation Philip launched a wholesale organisational reform of the Catholic Church in the Netherlands in 1559, which resulted in the inclusion of fourteen dioceses instead of the old three. The new hierarchy was to be headed by Granvelle as archbishop of the new archdiocese of Mechelen. The reform was especially unpopular with the old church hierarchy as the new dioceses were to be financed by transferring a number of rich abbeys.[6] Granvelle became focus of the opposition against the new governmental structures; and the Dutch nobles under the leadership of Orange engineered his recall in 1564.<br />After the recall of Granvelle, Orange persuaded Margaret and the Council to ask for a moderation of the placards against heresy. Philip delayed his response, and in the meantime the opposition against his religious policies gained more widespread support. Philip finally rejected the request for moderation in his Letters from the Segovia Woods of October, 1565. In response, a group of members of the lesser nobility, among whom Louis of Nassau, a younger brother of Orange, and the brothers John and Philip of St. Aldegonde, prepared a petition for the abolition of the Inquisition for Philip. This Compromise of Nobles was supported by about 400 nobles, both Catholics and Protestants, and was presented to Margaret on April 5, 1566. Impressed by the massive support for the compromise, Margaret suspended the placards awaiting Philips final ruling.[7]<br />[edit] The Dutch Revolt<br />Main article: Dutch Revolt<br />[edit] Insurrection, Repression and Invasion (1567–1572)<br />Iconoclastic Fury of 1566 by Dirk van Delen<br />The suspension of the placards emboldened the Protestants. Calvinist protest against the richess of the church led to the iconoclastic fury (Dutch: Beeldenstorm) across the Netherlands. Margaret, and authorities at lower levels, feared insurrection and made further concessions to the Calvinists, such as designating certain churches for Calvinist worship. Some provincial governors, foremost Philip of Noircarmes of Hainaut, who suppressed the revolt of the Calvinists led by Guido de Bres in Valenciennes, and Orange as stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland, took decisive action to quell the disturbances. In March 1567 at the Battle of Oosterweel Calvinists under John of St. Aldegonde were defeated by a royalist army and all rebels summarily executed, while Orange prevented the citizens of nearby Antwerp to come to the rebels' aid.<br />In April 1567, Margaret reported to Philip that order had been restored.[8] However, by the time this news reached Philip in Madrid the Duke of Alba had already been dispatched with an army to restore order.[9] Rather than working with Margaret, Alba took over command and Margaret resigned in protest. Alba established the Council of Troubles (soon to be nicknamed Blood Council) on September 5, 1567, which conducted a campaign of repression of suspected heretics and people deemed guilty of the already extinguished insurrection. Many high-ranking officials were arrested on various pretexts, among whom the Counts of Egmont and Horne who were executed for treason on June 5, 1568, while attesting to their Catholic orthodoxy on the scaffold. Of the 9,000 accused, about 1,000 were executed, and many fled into exile, including William of Orange.[10]<br />Orange's exile in Dillenburg became the center for plans to invade the Netherlands. Louis of Nassau crossed into Groningen from East Friesland and defeated a small royalist force at Heiligerlee on May 23, 1568. Shortly thereafter, a Sea Beggars squadron defeated a royalist fleet in a naval battle on the Ems. However, a Huguenot army invading Artois was pushed back into France and annihilated by the forces of king Charles IX of France in June. Orange marched into Brabant, but with money running out he could not maintain his mercenary army and had to retreat.[11]<br />Philip was suffering from the high cost of his war against the Ottoman Empire, and ordered Alba to fund his armies from taxes levied in the Netherlands.[12] Alba went against the States General by imposing sales taxes by decree on July 31, 1571. Alba commanded local governments to collect the unpopular taxes, which alienated even loyal lower governments from the central government.[13]<br />[edit] Rebellion (1572–1576)<br />With the potential threat of invasions from France, Alba concentrated his force in the Southern Netherlands, in some cases removing troops from garrisons in the North.[14]<br />Capture of Brill in 1572 by Jan Luyken<br />This left the port of Brill almost undefended. Sea Beggars expelled from England captured the city on April 1, 1572. An attempt by Count Boussu, to recapture the city, failed.[15] The news of the capture of Brill led the cities of Flushing and Veere to go over to the Rebels on May 3.[16] Orange quickly responded to this new development, by sending a number of emissaries to Holland and Zeeland with commissions to take over local government on his behalf as "stadtholder".[17] Diederik Sonoy persuaded the cities of Enkhuizen, Hoorn, Medemblik, Edam, Haarlem, and Alkmaar to defect to Orange. The cities of Oudewater, Gouda, Gorinchem, and Dordrecht yielded to Lumey. Leiden declared itself for Orange in a spontaneous revolt. The States General started to convene in the rebel city of Dordrecht, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-17" [18] and by July 18, only the important cities of Amsterdam, and Schoonhoven openly supported the Crown. Rotterdam went to the rebels soon after the first meetings in Dordrecht. Delft remained neutral for the time being.[19] Count Willem IV van den Bergh, Orange's brother-in-law, captured the city of Zutphen, followed by other cities in Gelderland and neighboring Overijssel. In Friesland rebels had seized several cities. The royal stadtholder, Caspar de Robles sacked Dokkum in reprisal, killing many citizens [20] Louis of Nassau captured Mons by surprise on May 24. Orange marched to Mons for support, but was forced to withdraw through Mechelen, where he left a garrison. Alba had troops sack Mechelen, after which many cities hastened to pledge renewed loyalty to Alba.[21]<br />After dealing with Orange's threat in the South, Alba sent his son Fadrique to the two rebellious provinces Gelderland and Holland. Fadrique started his campaign by sacking the fortress city of Zutphen in Gelderland. Hundreds of citizens perished and many rebellious cities in Gelderland, Overijssel and Friesland yielded.[22] On his way to Amsterdam, Fadrique came acress Naarden which surrendered on November 22, 1572; and to set another example, Fadrique herded all citizens (including the Catholic priest) into their church, which was subsequently set on fire. All 3,000 citizens perished. This time however, this strengthened rebellious cities in their resistance, as they believed that surrender would not help them.[23] In Haarlem the citizens, aware of the fate of Naarden, prevented capitulation and put up a resistance.[23] The city was under siege from December until July 13, 1573, when it had to surrender because of hunger.[24] While a severe blow to the Rebel cause, the loss of Haarlem, had given the rebels time to improve their defenses. The Alkmaar resulted in a rebel victory after the sluice gates were opened and the area surrounding the city was flooded, making a further siege impossible.[25] In the Battle on the Zuiderzee on October 11, 1573, a Sea-Beggar squadron defeated the royalist fleet, rendering the Zuider Zee under rebel control. A blockage against the royalist city of Amsterdam was established. The Battle of Borsele and the Battle of Reimerswaal established naval superiority for the rebels in Zeeland, and led to the fall of Middelburg in 1574, which had been besieged by the rebels since 1572.[26]<br />In November 1573, Fadrique started the siege of the city Leiden. The first stage of the siege ended in March 1574, when the Spanish troops had to deal with a mercenary force led by Orange's brothers Louis and Henry of Nassau-Dillenburg who engaged the Spanish troops in the Mookerheyde, which resulted in a clear Spanish victory.[27] The second stage of the siege of Leiden started in May 1574. The polders surrounding Leiden were flooded and a sea beggar fleet manage to lift the siege on October 2, 1574.[28] Gilles de Berlaymont, lord of Hierges, the last royal stadtholder of Holland, captured and sacked Schoonhoven, and Oudewater in August 1575.[29] By this time, Alba had been replaced as regent by Requesens. In the Summer of 1575 Requesens ordered Cristobal de Mondragon to attack the Zeeland city of Zierikzee, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-Tracy.2C_p._99-28" [29] which surrendered on July 2, 1576; however, the Spanish troops mutinied and left Zierikzee. Philip had not been able to pay his troops for two years, since he defaulted on all government debts in September 1575 and his creditors did not extend further credit.[30]<br />[edit] From Pacification of Ghent to Union of Utrecht (1576–1579)<br />Main articles: Pacification of Ghent and Union of Utrecht<br />The Spanish mutineers marched on Brussels, on the way sacking the city of Aalst. The loyal provinces had reluctantly backed the royal government against the Rebellion so far, but now a loyal city had been sacked. After the death of Requesens the States of Brabant raised their own troops to protect Brussels. Philipe de Croÿ, Duke of Aerschot, stadtholder of Flanders took over government and allowed the States-General to start peace negotiations with the States of Holland and Zeeland. All agreed that the Spanish troops should be withdrawn. There was also agreement on the suspension of the placards against heresy and freedom of conscience. The Pacification of Ghent was signed after the Spanish mutineers went on a murderous rampage in the city of Antwerp on November 4.[31] The entire Netherlands now appeared to be in rebellion against Philip, though all still professed loyalty. The next regent, Don Juan only arrived in the Netherlands on November 3, too late to influence events. The States-General induced Don Juan's agreement to the Pacification of Ghent in the Perpetual Edict on February 12, 1577. The Spanish troops were withdrawn. Don Juan broke with the States-General in July, and fled to the safety of the citadel of Namur.[32]<br />Philip's financial difficulties were straightened out by the end of 1577.[33] This enabled him to send a new Spanish army from Italy, under the command of Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma. These troops arrived in January 1578,and were soon venturing into the territory of the States-General. Parma routed the States-General's troops in the Battle of Gembloux on January 31, 1578, allowing royalist forces to advance to Leuven. New troops raised by the States General with support of Elizabeth of England defeated the Spanish armies at the Rijmenam.[34] The States-General were not able to exploit their advantage. Parma became the new governor general after the death of Don Juan and laid siege to Maastricht in 1579. Parma's troops entered the city on June 29. Neither Parma nor his deputies were able to prevent a massacre of the garrison and Maastricht civilians.[35]<br />The Dutch Maiden in the Garden HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-35" [36] of Holland by Philip Galle<br />Holland had started the construction of a ring defense of trace-italienne type fortresses to stop Spanish armies roaming around in their lands.[37] Among the new fortresses were Geertruidenberg, Zevenbergschen Hoek (both across the Hollands Diep in Brabant, as the north bank of that estuary was sparsely populated), Gorinchem, Loevestein castle and Woudrichem (at important confluences of rivers), Muiden and Naarden (on the eastern approaches of Amsterdam).[38]<br />The remaining royalist cities in Holland were won over to the rebel cause. Haarlem, Weesp and Muiden swore allegiance to Orange as stadtholder for the States-General on January 22, 1577.[39] Amsterdam went over to the rebels after negotiations, and under pressure from the continuing sea beggar blockade.[40] Alliances between Holland, Utrecht and Gelderland were created to increase border defense.[41] This left many cities in Holland overgarrisoned, and these companies of mercenaries were given in the service of the States-General allowing the establishment of garrisons in the Southern provinces (e.g. in Mechelen, Antwerp, Brussels and Maastricht), and fighting Hierges from Utrecht and the Germans of Nicholas von Polweiler from around Roermond[42] The interest of the States of Holland became evermore focussed on the interest of the Northern provinces, and in spite of warnings of Orange about advances of Parma in Brabant, Holland formalised the defensive Union of Utrecht with its eastern and northern neighbors, on January 23, 1579.[43]<br />[edit] Secession and Reconquest (1579–1588)<br />Ironically, the conservative Walloon provinces had beaten the radical northerners to the punch by signing their own defensive Union of Arras on January 6, 1579. This treaty (to which initially only Hainault, Artois and Lille–Douai–Walloon Flanders acceded) reconfirmed the Pacification and the Perpetual Edict, and offered Spain the neutrality of these provinces if it would accept and guarantee these stipulations. Spain was also to refrain from basing its troops in the provinces as long as they were not threatened by invasion. Once Parma accepted these conditions the grievances of the conservative Catholics against Spain were satisfied and they could make a separate peace in the form of the Treaty of Arras in May, 1579, in which they renewed their allegiance to Philip under these conditions.[44]<br />Meanwhile, Orange and the States-General in Antwerp were less than enthusiastic about the Union of Utrecht. They would far prefer a broader based union, still based on the Pacification and the "religious peace", which both the unions of Utrecht and Arras implicitly rejected. However, rapid developments in divergent directions in both north and south made the attempts at maintaining unity moot. In the north the adherents of the Union of Utrecht managed to consolidate their position in the provinces of Friesland and Gelderland by May, though not without a struggle with the conservatives. However, Overijssel remained divided and in Groningen the city and the stadtholder for the States-General, Count Rennenberg, kept their distance. By the time of the Treaty of Arras it was clear that the split had hardened, and Orange therefore finally conceded defeat and signed the Union of Utrecht on May 3, 1579, while encouraging the Flemish and Brabant cities in Protestant hands to also join the Union.[45]<br />At this time, on the initiative of Emperor Rudolph II a final attempt was made to attain a general peace between Philip and the States-General in the German city of Cologne. As both sides insisted on mutually exclusive demands these peace talks only served to make the irreconcilability of both parties obvious; there appeared to be no more room for the people who favored the middle ground, like Count Rennenberg. Rennenberg, a Catholic, now made up his mind to go over to Spain. In March, 1580 he called for the provinces in his remit to rise against the "tyranny" of Holland and the Protestants. However, this only served to unleash an anti-Catholic backlash in Friesland and Overijssel. The States of Overijssel were finally convinced to adhere to the Union of Utrecht. Nevertheless, Rennenberg's "treason" posed a severe strategic threat for the Union, especially after Parma sent him reinforcements in June. He managed to capture most of Groningen, Drenthe and Overijssel in the next months.[46]<br />The territory under nominal States-General control was steadily shrinking in other parts also. Parma made steady progress. After taking Maastricht in June, 1579, he seized Kortrijk in February, 1580, after a four-month siege. The States-General replied by recapturing Mechelen in April after which the victorious English mercenaries sacked the town in what has become known as the "English Fury."[47] Orange by now was convinced that the only way to avert total defeat was to regain support of the moderates, alienated by Calvinist radicalism; reassure the still-loyal Catholics in the South; and retain the trust of the German Lutheran princes and the king of France. To attain these objectives he now persuaded the States-General to offer sovereignty over the Netherlands to the younger brother of king Henri of France, François, Duke of Anjou, who in 1578 had already intervened on behalf of the States-General. Anjou was an orthodox Catholic, but also a Politique, who in 1576 had brought about the Edict of Beaulieu, which for a while ensured religious peace in France. As such he was acceptable to at least the moderates in both camps. He also would bring the military and financial support of his brother. Brabant and Flanders (but not Holland and Zeeland) supported this scheme and the States-General concluded the Treaty of Plessis-les-Tours in September, 1580 with Anjou. The latter arrived in Antwerp in January, 1581, where he took an oath to in effect govern as a "constitutional monarch", and was acclaimed by the States-General as Protector of the Netherlands HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-47" [48]<br />The secession of the States-General and the area under their nominal control from the Spanish Crown was formalized by the Act of Abjuration of July 26, 1581. The main effect of this Act was to force a number of "fence-sitting" magistrates in the rebellious provinces to finally declare their true allegiance. Many old-guard regents now resigned and were replaced with people whose loyalty to the anti-Spanish cause was not in doubt. The Act also intensified the propaganda war between both sides, as it took the form of a manifest, setting out the principles of the Revolt, just as Orange's Apologie in answer to Philip's ban of June, 1580, outlawing him, had done. Both documents are redolent of resistance theories that were also disseminated by the Huguenot Monarchomachs.[49] As such they alienated yet another group of moderates HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-49" [50]<br />Unfortunately, Orange's attempt to paper over the disunity within the States-General by bringing in Anjou did not succeed. Holland and Zeeland acknowledged him perfunctorily, but mainly ignored him, and of the other members of the Union of Utrecht Overijssel, Gelderland and Utrecht never even recognized him. In Flanders his authority never amounted to much either, which meant that only Brabant fully supported him. Under Anjou's nominal direction the split between the north and south was further emphasized. He governed with a Council of State that, though nominally unitary, was in practice divided in two distinct bodies, each responsible for a different theater of war. Anjou himself concentrated his French troops in the south, leaving Holland and its allies to fence for themselves against Rennenberg (which suited them fine). He proved signally unable to stanch Parma's inexorable advance, however.[51]<br />Ironically, Parma had long been hampered by the provision in the Treaty of Arras which prohibited stationing of Spanish mercenaries (the troops of the best quality) in the provinces that belonged to the Southern union. However, after his war with the Turks had finally ended, Philip's finances had signally improved and he had been able to steadily increase the number of troops available to Parma. By October, 1582, Parma had an army of 61,000 troops available, mostly of high quality. By that time the Walloon provinces also relented their opposition against taking in Spanish troops. These improvements were soon translated into military successes. In June, 1581 Parma had already captured Orange's own town of Breda, thereby driving a wedge into the territory of the States-General in Brabant. In 1582 he made further advances into Gelderland and Overijssel HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-Israel_1995.2C_p._212-50" [51] There the war had been going to and fro between the forces of the Union of Utrecht and the royalists. Rennenberg had died in the Summer of 1581, but was ably replaced by Francisco Verdugo, who pushed south to Lochem in 1582 after first having seen off the English mercenaries of Sir John Norris (of Rijmenam fame) opposing him in Friesland. Capturing Lochem might topple Zutphen and Deventer also. He was forced to lift his siege of Lochem, but on his way back north captured the fortress city of Steenwijk, the key to the north-east of the Netherlands, which always had eluded Rennenberg HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-51" [52]<br />Orange was the victim of an assassination attempt by Juan de Jáuregui on March 18, 1582. He survived, but suffered severe injuries which put him out of the running for an appreciable time. Meanwhile, Anjou had become weary of the restraints placed on his authority by the civilians of the States-General and he attempted to seize power in Flanders and Brabant by way of a military coup. He seized Dunkirk and several other Flemish cities, but in Antwerp the citizens (remembering 1576) came to arms and massacred the French troops in the streets, an event known as the French Fury of January 17, 1583. The popularity of both Anjou and Orange (who was seen as his main promotor) now sank to new lows, especially in Antwerp. Nevertheless Orange tried to arrange a reconciliation, but both Anjou and the people of Brabant had had enough and Anjou left for France in June, 1583[53]<br />Morale in the cities still held by the States-General in the South sagged. Dunkirk and Nieuwpoort fell without a shot to Parma, leaving only Oostende as a major rebel enclave along the coast. In despair, Orange now left Brabant for good. He again established his headquarters in the Dutch city of Delft in July 1583, followed by the States-General in August (the latter eventually settled in nearby The Hague). He was back where he started from in 1576. His prestige with the States of Holland and Zeeland had appreciably declined since those halcyon days, however. The States had since greatly increased their self-confidence as a budding government.[54]<br />Meanwhile, Parma's Army of Flanders made inexorable progress. It captured Ypres in April, 1584, Bruges in May, and Ghent in September. In this desperate situation Orange started to entertain thoughts of finally accepting the vacant crown of the Count of Holland, which some of his ardent supporters, notably Paulus Buys, had first pressed upon him in 1581. However, since that time enthusiasm had waned, and Amsterdam (led by the regent Cornelis Hooft), Gouda and Middelburg now opposed the plan. In any case, the plan became moot when Orange was assassinated by Balthasar Gérard on July 10, 1584.[55]<br />The assassination for a while put the States of Holland in disarray, which left the initiative to the much diminished States of Flanders and Brabant in the States-General. The latter were by now getting desperate as they controlled only slivers of their provinces (Parma had by now put Antwerp under siege). They believed that their only succour could come from France. On their behest the States-General therefore started a debate on the merit of once more offering sovereignty to king Henri III of France in September, and over Hooft's and Amsterdam's objections a Dutch embassy was sent to France in February, 1585. But the situation in France had deteriorated, the religious strife between Huguenots and Catholics flaring up again, and Henri did not feel strong enough to defy Philip, so he declined the honor.[56]<br />Hellburners at Antwerp by Famiani Strada<br />Meanwhile, the "Calvinist republic" of Antwerp was being brought to heel by Parma. He had cut its supply-line from the north by placing a pontoon bridge across the Scheldt river downstream from the city. The usual starvation tactic now began to take hold on the city of 80,000. Morale declined, also because one of the last Brabant holdouts, Brussels, surrendered in March, 1585. After a Dutch amphibious assault (during which an attempt was made to blow up the ship-bridge with the use of "Hellburners") failed in April, the city finally surrendered in August. Parma (who was well aware of the counter-productivity of Alba's terror tactics) treated the inhabitants leniently, but many Protestants nevertheless migrated to the northern provinces, swelling the stream of often wealthy merchants and skilled laborers with a Protestant background that sought refuge there in this period. A side effect of this wholesale migration was that the economic strength of the reconquered provinces steadily declined, while that of especially Holland and Zeeland mightily increased.[57]<br />The States-General in their extremity now turned to the English monarch Elizabeth I with an offer of sovereignty. Elizabeth had been approached as early as 1573 by the States of Holland with a similar offer for the province, but then she haughtily declined, as she generally disapproved of rebellion (and Dutchmen). Now, however, the English government reconsidered in view of the gains Parma was making, which also had the unwanted effect of strengthening Catholic anti-government sentiment in England. Elizabeth (though declining to take up the offer of sovereignty) therefore decided to extend an English protectorate over the Netherlands, be it under strict conditions to protect her interests. She offered to send an expeditionary force of 6,350 foot and 1,000 horse, the cost to be shared by the States-General, provided her nominee, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, would be put in both military and political charge of the country as governor-general. Furthermore, he should govern through a reconstituted Council of State, on which the English government would have two voting members (one of which was the Clerk of the Privy Council, Sir Thomas Wilkes), and she was to be given the fortresses of Flushing and Brill as surety for the loans she extended. The States-General agreed to this in the Treaty of Nonsuch of August 20, 1585. This was the first instance in which the rebel state was diplomatically recognized by a foreign government (the treaty with Anjou having been "private").[58]<br />Leicester's intervention in the Netherlands proved to be a mixed blessing. He was to be a rallying point for the forces in the Netherlands that were opposed to the hegemony of the States of Holland. As a protector of the Puritans in England, he was seen as a natural ally by the "strict" faction of Calvinists in the Netherlands, who had opposed Orange's policy of "religious peace" and now were arrayed against the "lax" Dutch regents who favoured an Erastian Church order, a bone of contention for many years to come. Those Dutch regents, ably led by the Land's Advocate of Holland, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, opposed Leicester from the start because they rightly identified him as the focus of the opposition in the Netherlands to the power they had acquired during the course of the Revolt. Beside the hard-line Calvinists, that opposition consisted of the Dutch nobility, whose power had declined in favour of that of the despised merchant class that the regents represented, and the factions in the other provinces, such as Utrecht and Friesland, that heartily resented Holland's supremacy.[59]<br />The first conflict arose during the negotiations with Leicester in January, 1586 over the exact contents of his commission as governor-general. The Treaty of Nonsuch provided that stadtholders for the individual provinces would henceforth be appointed by the Council of State, so as to give England a say in the matter. Nevertheless, in Friesland and Groningen William Louis, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg (the son of Orange's brother Jan), and in Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel Adolf van Nieuwenaar had been appointed by the States-General in early 1585, before the treaty. In a show of bad faith the States of Holland and Zeeland had then appointed the second legitimate son of Orange, Maurice of Nassau,[60] stadtholder in their provinces just before Leicester arrived. To add insult to injury, the States insisted that all stadtholders derived their authority from the sovereign States of the provinces that appointed them, so Leicester could claim no say in the matter (an argument that would play an important role in future constitutional conflicts). Confronted with this fait accompli he had no choice but to acquiesce.[61]<br />Leicester also clashed with Holland over matters of policy like the representation of the States of Brabant and Flanders, who by now no longer controlled any significant areas in their provinces, in the States-General. From 1586 on they were barred from taking part in the deliberations over Leicester's objection, though he managed to retain their seats in the Council of State for them. Once the States-General were thus deprived of the membership of the last Southern provinces, one may in effect start using the name Dutch Republic for the new state. Holland also opposed Leicester's embargo on "trade with the enemy." Superficially, this made sense from a strategic point of view, and the embargo proved quite effective after Leicester put it in force in April, 1586, causing much hardship in the Spanish-controlled territories in the next Winter. However, the embargo also hit the Dutch merchants very hard, as much of the grain trade on the Baltic was now diverted to England. The Dutch regents therefore preferred a system of control with licenses that had the added benefit of bringing in much-needed revenue. For the moment Leicester prevailed on this point, however HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-61" [62]<br />The political strains between Leicester and Holland intensified when the Calvinist hard-liners, in Utrecht, led by Gerard Prouninck, seized power in that province in August, 1586. This provided Leicester with an anti-Holland power base from which he could make difficulties for the Dutch regents in other provinces, especially Friesland, also. When Leicester temporarily returned to England in December, 1586, Holland immediately set to work to recover the lost ground. New regulations were put in force that required every officer in the pay of Holland to accept his commission from the stadtholder, Maurice, who also had to approve all troop movements. Leicester's trade embargo was emasculated. Meanwhile, much mutual irritation had arisen between the Dutch populace and the English troops garrisoned in many towns. In January, 1587 the English garrisons at Deventer and Zutphen defected to the Spanish, followed by those in Zwolle, Arnhem and Ostend. This contributed to anti-English feeling under the populace, which helped undermine the pro-English Utrecht faction, that had been agitating for offering sovereignty to Elizabeth once again. When Leicester returned to the Netherlands he found his friends weakened so much that he concluded that he would have to seize power by force to get the situation under control. After preparations during the Summer, Leicester occupied Gouda, Schoonhoven and a few other cities in September, 1587. An attempt to arrest Maurice and Oldenbarnevelt in The Hague failed, however, as did an attempted insurrection of hardline Calvinists in Leiden. When a personal attempt by Leicester to get Amsterdam in his camp also failed, he gave up and returned to England in December, 1587. Thus ended the last attempt to keep the Netherlands a "mixed monarchy", under foreign overlordship. The northern provinces now entered a period of more than two centuries of republican government.[63]<br />[edit] The Dutch Republic resurges (1588–1609)<br />The Dutch Republic was not proclaimed with great fanfare. In fact, after the departure of Leicester the States of the several provinces and the States-General conducted business as usual. To understand why, one has to look at the polemic that took place during 1587 about the question who held sovereignty. The polemic was started by the English member of the Council of State, Sir Thomas Wilkes, who published a learned Remonstrance in March, 1587, in which he attacked the States of Holland because they undermined the authority of Leicester to whom, in Wilkes view, the People of the Netherlands had transferred sovereignty in the absence of the "legitimate prince" (presumably Philip). The States of Holland reacted with an equally learned treatise, drawn up by the pensionary of the city of Gouda, François Vranck[64] on their behalf, in which it was explained that popular sovereignty in Holland (and by extension in other provinces) in the view of the States resided in the vroedschappen and nobility, and that it was administered by (not transferred to) the States, and that this had been the case from time immemorial. In other words, in this view the republic already existed so it did not need to be brought into being.[65] Vranck, of course, made up his historical argument of whole cloth, but his conclusions reflected the view of the States at that time and would form the basis of the ideology of the States-Party faction in Dutch politics, in their defense against the "monarchical" views of their hard-line Calvinist and Orangist enemies in future decades.[66]<br />The latter (and many contemporary foreign observers and later historians) often argued that the confederal government machinery of the Netherlands, in which the delegates to the States and States-General constantly had to refer back to their principals in the cities, "could not work" without the unifying influence of an "eminent head" (like a Regent or Governor-General, or later a stadtholder). However, the first years of the Dutch Republic proved different (as in hindsight the experience with the States-General since 1576, ably managed by Orange, had proved). Oldenbarnevelt proved to be Orange's equal in virtuosity of parliamentary management. The government he informally led proved to be quite effective, at least as long as the war lasted.[67] In the three years after 1588 the position of the Republic improved appreciably, despite setbacks like the betrayal of Geertruidenberg to Parma by its English garrison in 1588.[68] The change was due to both external and internal factors, that were interrelated.<br />Main article: Financial history of the Dutch Republic<br />Internally, probably thanks to the influx of Protestant refugees from the South, which temporarily became a flood after the fall of Antwerp in 1585, the long-term economic boom was ignited that in its first phase would last until the second decade of the next century. The southern migrants brought the entrepreneurial qualities, capital, labor skills and know-how that were needed to start an industrial and trade revolution. The economic resources that this boom generated were easily mobilized by the budding "fiscal-military state" in the Netherlands, that had its origin, ironically, in the Habsburg attempts at centralization earlier in the century. Though the Revolt was in the main motivated by resistance against this Spanish "fiscal-military state" on the absolutist model, in the course of this resistance the Dutch constructed their own model that, though explicitly structured in a decentralized fashion (with decision-making at the lowest, instead of the highest level) was at least as efficient at resource mobilization for war as the Spanish one. This started in the desperate days of the early Revolt in which the Dutch regents had to resort to harsh taxation and forced loans to finance their war efforts. However, in the long run these very policies helped reinforce the fiscal and economic system, as the taxation system that was developed formed an efficient and sturdy base for the debt-service of the state, thereby reinforcing the trust of lenders in the credit-worthiness of that state. Innovations, such as the making of a secondary market for forced loans by town governments helped merchants to regain liquidity, and helped start the financial system that made the Netherlands the first modern economy. Though in the early 1590s this fiscal-military state was only in its early stages and not as formidable as it would become in the next century, it still already made the struggle between Spain and the Dutch Republic less unequal than it had been in the early years of the Revolt.[69]<br />Externally, the preparations that Philip was making for an invasion of England were all too evident. This growing threat prompted Elizabeth to cease her support for the opponents of Holland in the Netherlands, like Prouncinck and the Utrecht States, and the strong opposition Friesian stadtholder Louis William (an ally of Oldenbarnevelt) experienced in Friesland. Without Elizabeth's interference Oldenbarnevelt proceeded unhindered to break this opposition.[70] Elizabeth appreciated that she needed Dutch naval cooperation to defeat the threatened invasion and that opposing Oldenbarnevelt's policies, or supporting his enemies, was unlikely to get it. The position of Holland was also improved when Adolf of Nieuwenaar died in a gunpowder explosion in October 1589, enabling Oldenbarnevelt to engineer his succession as stadtholder of Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel by Maurice, with whom he worked hand in glove.[71] Finally, Oldenbarnevelt managed to wrest power away from the Council of State, with its English members (though the Council would have an English representation until the English loans were repaid by the end of the reign of James I). Instead, military decisions were more and more made by the States-General (with its preponderant influence of the Holland delegation), thereby usurping important executive functions from the Council.[72]<br />The role of the budding Dutch navy in the defeat of the Spanish Armada in August, 1588, has often been under-exposed. It was crucial, however. After the fall of Antwerp the Sea-Beggar veterans under admiral Justinus van Nassau (the illegitimate elder brother of Maurice) had been blockading Antwerp and the Flemish coast with their nimble flyboats. These mainly operated in the shallow waters off Zeeland and Flanders that larger warships with a deeper draught, like the Spanish and English galleons, could not safely enter. The Dutch therefore enjoyed unchallenged naval superiority in these waters, even though their navy was inferior in naval armament. An essential element of the plan of invasion, as it was eventually implemented, was the transportation of a large part of Parma's Army of Flanders as the main invasion force in unarmed barges across the English Channel. These barges would be protected by the large ships of the Armada. However, to get to the Armada, they would have to cross the zone dominated by the Dutch navy, where the Armada could not go. This problem seems to have been overlooked by the Spanish planners, but it was insurmountable. Because of this obstacle, England never was in any real danger. However, as it turned out, the English navy defeated the Armada before the embarkation of Parma's army could be implemented, turning the role of the Dutch moot. The Army of Flanders escaped the drowning death Justinus and his men had in mind for them, ready to fight another day HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-72" [73]<br />Henry IV of France's succession to the French throne in 1589 occasioned a new civil war in France, in which Philip soon intervened on the Catholic side. He ordered Parma to use the Army of Flanders for this intervention and this put Parma in the unenviable position of having to fight a two-front war. There was at first little to fear from the Dutch, and he had taken the added precaution of heavily fortifying a number of the cities in Brabant and the north-eastern Netherlands he had recently acquired, so he could withdraw his main army to the French border with some confidence. However, this offered the Dutch a respite from his relentless pressure that they soon put to good use. Under the two stadtholders, Maurice and William Louis, the Dutch army was in a short time thoroughly reformed from an ill-disciplined, ill-paid rabble of mercenary companies from all over Protestant Europe, to a well-disciplined, well-paid professional army, with many soldiers, skilled in the use of modern fire-arms, like arquebuses, and soon the more modern muskets. The use of these fire-arms required tactical innovations like the counter-march of files of musketeers to enable rapid volley fire by ranks. Such complicated manoevres had to be instilled by constant drilling. As part of their army reform the stadtholders therefore made extensive use of military manuals, often inspired by classical examples of Roman infantry tactics, such as the ones edited by Justus Lipsius in De Militia Romana of 1595. Jacob de Gheyn II later published an elaborately illustrated example of such a manual under the auspices of Maurice, but there were others. These reforms were in the 17th century emulated by other European armies, like the Swedish army of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. But the Dutch army developed them first.[74]<br />Musket instruction by Jacob de Gheyn II<br />Besides these organisational and tactical reforms, the two stadtholders also developed a new approach to siege warfare. They appreciated the peculiar difficulties of the terrain for this type of warfare in most of the Netherlands, which necessitated much labor for the digging of investments. Previously, many soldiers disdained the manual work required and armies usually press-ganged hapless peasants. Maurice, however, required his soldiers to do the digging, which caused an appreciable improvement in the quality of the work. Maurice also assembled an impressive train of siege artillery, much larger than armies of the time usually had available, which enabled him to systematically pulverize enemy fortresses. He was to put this to good use, when the Republic went on the offensive in 1591. Already in 1590 Breda was recaptured with a ruse. But the next year Maurice used his much enlarged army[75] with newly developed transportation methods using rivercraft, to sweep the IJssel-river valley, capturing Zutphen and Deventer; then invade the Ommelanden in Groningen, capturing all Spanish forts; and ending the campaign with the conquest of Hulst in Flanders and Nijmegen in Gelderland. In one fell swoop this transformed the eastern part of the Netherlands, which had hitherto been in Parma's hands. The next year Maurice joined his cousin William Louis in the siege of Steenwijk, pounding that strongly defended fortress with 50 artillery pieces, that fired 29,000 shot. The city surrendered after 44 days. During the same campaign year the formidable fortress of Coevorden was also reduced; it surrendered after a relentless bombardment of six weeks. Drenthe was now brought under control of the States-General.[76]<br />Despite the fact that Spanish control of the northeastern Netherland now hung by a thread, Holland insisted that first Geertruidenberg would be captured, which happened after an epic text-book siege, which even the great ladies of The Hague treated as a tourist attraction, in June 1593. Only the next year the stadtholders concentrated their attention on the northeast again, where meanwhile the particularist forces in Friesland, led by Carel Roorda, were making trouble by trying to extend their hegemony over the other north-eastern provinces. This was temporarily resolved by a solution imposed by Holland, putting Friesland in its place, which the Frisians understandably resented. Holland also attempted to avoid the expense of a lengthy siege of the strongly defended and strongly pro-Spanish city of Groningen by offering that city an attractive deal that would maintain its status in its eternal conflict with the Ommelanden. This diplomatic initiative failed however, and Groningen was subjected to a two-month siege. After its capitulation the city was treated leniently, though Catholic worship was henceforth prohibited and the large body of Catholic clergy that had sought refuge in the city since 1591 forced to flee to the Southern Netherlands. The province of Groningen, City and Ommelanden, was now admitted to the Union of Utrecht, as the seventh voting province under a compromise imposed by Holland, that provided for an equal vote for both the city and the Ommelanden in the new States of Groningen. In view of the animosity between the two parties, this spelled eternal deadlock, so a casting vote was given to the new stadtholder, William Louis, who was appointed by the States-General, in this instance.[77] The fall of Groningen also rendered Drenthe secure and this area was constituted as a separate province (as annexation by either Friesland or Groningen was unacceptable to the other party) with its own States and stadtholder (again William Louis), though Holland blocked its getting a vote in the States-General.[78]<br />The fall of Groningen also changed the balance of forces in the German county of East Friesland, where the pro-Spanish and Lutheran Count Edzard II was opposed by the Calvinists in the city of Emden. The States-General now laid a garrison in Emden, forcing the Count to recognize them diplomatically in the Treaty of Delfzijl of 1595. This also gave the Republic a strategic interest in the Ems River valley, which was reinforced during the stadtholders' large offensive of 1597. Maurice first seized the fortress of Rheinberg, a strategic Rhine crossing, and subsequently Groenlo, Oldenzaal, and Enschede, before crossing into Germany and capturing Lingen and the county of the same name. This reinforced Dutch hegemony in the Ems valley. Capture of these cities secured for a while the dominance of the Dutch over eastern Overijssel and Gelderland, which had hitherto been firmly in Spanish hands.[79]<br />Meanwhile, however, the civil war in France was drawing to a close. The Dutch viewed this with some trepidation, because though Henry IV was the winner, the end of hostilities after the Peace of Vervins of May, 1598 would free the Army of Flanders again for operations in the Netherlands. Soon after, Philip died, and his Will provided a new surprise. It turned out that he had willed the Netherlands to his daughter Isabella and her husband Archduke Albert, who would henceforth reign as co-sovereigns. This sovereignty was largely nominal as the Army of Flanders was to remain in the Netherlands, largely paid for by the new king of Spain, Philip III. Nevertheless, ceding the Netherlands made it theoretically easier to pursue a compromise peace, as both the Archdukes, and the chief minister of the new king, the duke of Lerma were less inflexible toward the Republic than Philip II had been. Soon secret negotiations were started which, however, proved abortive because Spain insisted on two points that were nonnegotiable to the Dutch: recognition of the sovereignty of the Archdukes (though they were ready to accept Maurice as their stadtholder in the Dutch provinces) and freedom of worship for Catholics in the north. The Republic was too insecure internally (the loyalty of the recently conquered areas being in doubt) to accede on the latter point, while the first point would have invalidated the entire Revolt. The war therefore continued.[80]<br />However, peace with France and the secret peace negotiations had temporarily slackened Spain's resolve to pay its troops adequately and this had occasioned the usual widespread mutinies. The Army of Flanders now temporarily in disarray, Oldenbarnevelt and the civilians in the States-General spied a strategic opportunity to deal the Archdukes a heavy blow. They forced a deep strike into Flanders on a reluctant Maurice in the direction of the port of Dunkirk that had grown into a hotbed of privateers that did much damage to Dutch shipping. Maurice now flung his model army into Flanders after a large amphibious operation from Flushing and started his advance along the coast. This incursion brought an immediate end to the "industrial action" of the Spanish troops, enabling Albert to launch a strike into Maurice's flank. Somewhat hindered by all seven members of the States-General, who tried to micro-manage the campaign as deputies-in-the-field, Maurice was now cornered by Albert near the port of Nieuwpoort and forced to give battle on July 2, 1600. This was a test by fire of the Dutch army and the new tactics developed by the stadtholders against the still-formidable Spanish infantry and Maurice was none too sure about its outcome. However, the new tactics of volley-fire and artillery-supported infantry fighting got the better of the Spanish pikemen and Maurice personally routed the Spaniards in a cavalry charge.[81] It was a close-run thing, however, and strategically worthless, as Maurice retreated post-haste to the safety of Zeeland. To add insult to injury, a privateer fleet managed to break the blockade of Dunkirk and wreaked havoc on the Dutch herring fleet soon, destroying 10% of the fleet of Dutch herring busses in August.[82]<br />The next four years showed an apparent stalemate. The Archdukes decided that before taking on the Republic it was important to subdue the last Protestant enclave on the Flemish coast, the port of Ostend. The siege took three years and eighty days. Meanwhile the stadtholders mopped up some more Spanish fortresses, like Grave in Brabant and Sluys and Aardenburg in what was to become States Flanders. Though these victories deprived the Archdukes of much of the propaganda value of their own victory at Ostend, the loss of the city was a severe blow to the Republic, and it brought about another Protestant exodus to the North.[83]<br />The supreme command of the Army of Flanders had now been transferred to Ambrosio Spinola who proved to be a worthy opponent of Maurice. In a brilliant campaign in 1605 he first outwitted Maurice by feigning an attack on Sluys, but when Maurice came down to block that, leaving Maurice far in his rear while he made a surprise attack on the eastern Netherlands by way of Münsterland in Germany. He soon appeared before Oldenzaal (only recently captured by Maurice) and this preponderantly Catholic city opened its gates to him without firing a shot. Next he captured Lingen. With both towns in Spanish hands the Dutch had to evacuate Twenthe and retire to the IJssel river. Spinola returned the next year and caused a panic in the Republic when he invaded the Zutphen quarter of Gelderland, showing that the interior of the Republic was still vulnerable to Spanish attack. However, Spinola was satisfied with the psychological effect of his incursion and did not press the attack. Thoroughly disturbed by all of this, Maurice decided on a rare Fall campaign in an attempt to close the apparent gap in the Republic's eastern defenses. He retook Lochem, but his siege of Oldenzaal failed in November, 1606. This was the last major campaign on both sides before the Truce that was concluded in 1609. The strategic result of the Spanish gains of 1605–6 was that the Twenthe and Zutphen quarters were to remain a kind of No man's land right down to 1633, during which they were forced to pay tribute to the Spanish forces that often roamed there at will.[84]<br />Both sides now embarked on an intensification of the fortress-building spree that had begun in the mid-1590s, enveloping the Republic in a double belt of fortresses on its outer borders (an outer Spanish and an inner Dutch belt). This belt ran from Emden in the northeast via Bourtange, Coevorden, Zwolle, the line of the IJssel, with Deventer and Zutphen; to Arnhem and Nijmegen, and then west, along the Meuse to Grave, Heusden and Geertruidenberg; and finally south along the line through Bergen op Zoom to Lillo, north of Antwerp, and west again to the coast at Cadzand via Sluys.[85] The Dutch fortresses, mostly outside the provinces of the Union of Utrecht proper, were garrisoned with mercenary troops that, though paid for the account of individual provinces, were under federal command since 1594. The Dutch Staatse leger (States Army) had therefore become a truly federal army, consisting mostly of Scottish, English, German and Swiss mercenaries, but commanded by a Dutch officer corps. This standing army almost trebled in size to 50,000 between 1588 and 1607, a remarkable achievement if one takes into account that the population of Spain and its empire of about 15 million, while the opposing forces within the Low Countries were now at about equal strength.[86][87]<br />[edit] Twelve Years' Truce<br />Main articles: Twelve Years' Truce and Synod of Dort<br />The cost of fortress-building and the upkeep of the large standing armies put both Spain and the Republic under severe fiscal strain. Also because of the slump in trade that was caused by the efficient trade embargo imposed by Spain on the Dutch since 1598 the Dutch regents estimated that they could not safely increase the already heavy burden of taxation. In September 1606 Oldenbarnevelt therefore urged the States of Holland to seek an accommodation with Spain. This met with a surprisingly favorable reception from Spain, as Philip III and the Duke of Lerma had already resolved to concede sovereignty, if that proved inevitable in order to halt the war. What prompted them to this concession was the inroads that the Dutch East India Company (or VOC), that had been chartered by the States-General in 1602, had been making in the Portuguese empire's sphere of influence in the East Indies. After all, since 1580 there had been a union of the crowns of Spain and Portugal. The conquest of a number of Portuguese possessions in Ambon, Ternate and Tidore in 1605 by the VOC caused such consternation that a Spanish presence was quickly established to counterbalance Dutch gains. Philip wanted this stopped, and Oldenbarnevelt seemed initially amenable to suggestions that the VOC be suppressed and another project to charter a similar Dutch company for the Americas be aborted. The Archdukes, on instructions from Madrid, therefore secretly declared in March, 1607, that they were willing to negotiate a peace with the States-General, as representatives of free lands over which they made no claim. A ceasefire in the Netherlands was signed in April, 1607.[88]<br />However, the negotiations were almost aborted immediately when it was discovered that the Dutch had made no concessions in writing in the armistice-agreement, and it therefore appeared that Spain had conceded a major point without obtaining anything in return, which was seen as a major humiliation for the Crown. About the same time the news was received of a major defeat a Dutch fleet under admiral Jacob van Heemskerk had dealt the Spanish navy in the Battle of Gibraltar of April 25, 1607. The Spanish indignation grew even more, when it transpired that Oldenbarnevelt's verbal undertakings to suppress the VOC proved worthless, as he simply could not deliver on such a promise in view of the political situation in the Republic. This apparent deception put paid to the prospects of a permanent peace, so the only feasible outcome of the negotiations might be a truce of limited duration.[89]<br />Oldenbarnevelt's peace initiatives met with stringent opposition from Maurice, Amsterdam, and Zeeland for different reasons (Zeeland, for instance, was making good money in the "trade with the enemy" across the blockaded Scheldt, and stood to lose from a truce during which trade relations would be normalized). The opposition engaged in a lively pamphlet war to influence public opinion, but Oldenbarnevelt managed to persuade the Holland regents. He pointed out that a truce would lessen the fiscal pressures; help revive Dutch commerce with the Iberian Peninsula, which had by default fallen almost exclusively into English hands, after the peace James I of England concluded in 1604 with Spain; and free the hands of the Dutch elsewhere in Europe (as in the Sound where Denmark at the time was hindering the Dutch Baltic trade[90]) to defend their commercial interests by force if necessary. He argued also that the loss of trade with the Indies would be outweighed by the positive effects on European trade of a lifting of the embargoes.[91]<br />Spain now offered a truce with a duration of twelve years, provided the Republic would grant freedom of worship for Catholics. Again, Oldenbarnevelt had to refuse this concession as the political situation in the Republic made that impossible. He was, however, able to offer a short truce (until 1613) in the Indies, and the suppression of the proposed Dutch West India Company for the time being. Philip now grudgingly accepted these meagre results and the Truce was signed at Antwerp on April 9, 1609, marking the official recognition by Spain of the Republic as a diplomatic entity "as if" it were a sovereign state. The Dutch Revolt had officially ended.[92]<br />The immediate result for the Republic was that it was now also officially recognized by other European states as a sovereign nation. In 1609 France and England received Dutch resident ambassadors, and soon after diplomatic relations were opened with the Republic of Venice, the Sultan of Morocco, and the Ottoman Porte. Diplomatic recognition also enabled the Republic to start building a network of consulates across Europe. But the Republic now also dared be unfriendly in its relations with other European powers, as when it forced James I to back down in a conflict over English unfinished cloth in 1614 with an economic boycott.[93]<br />The Truce also had negative effects. Dutch long-distance trade to the Indies and the Americas suffered, because the Spanish and Portuguese colonialists were given a respite to improve their defenses overseas. The official embargo on trade with the Americas had ended, but the colonists now imposed their own "unofficial" one, limiting Dutch trade with Caracas and the Amazon region. Temporary setbacks in the Indies caused the price of VOC shares on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange to fall from a high of 200 in 1608 to 132 after the Truce started. The Zeeland transit traffic to the Southern Netherlands declined sharply. On the other hand, the lifting of the Dutch blockade of Antwerp and the Flemish coast helped revive the trade in Flemish textile products, just as the Flemish textile industry experienced a revival itself. This worked to the detriment of the recently booming Dutch textile industry. Wages of predominantly former Flemish textile workers in cities like Leiden plummeted as a result.[94]<br />The political unrest this economic downturn caused, helped aggravate the political crisis that the Oldenbarnevelt regime faced during the latter part of the Truce. This crisis followed from dissension about the religious policy of the Holland regents, but became conflated with the monarchical aspirations of the stadtholders, especially Maurice. Everybody in Dutch Calvinist circles of whatever hue agreed that the "True Religion" should be supported by the State. Local authorities therefore paid for the upkeep of the churches of the Dutch Reformed Church, the only officially recognized religion since the States of Holland had prohibited other kinds of worship in 1573, and for the Livings of its preachers and schoolmasters. This meant that the church was a "Public Church." But what was its relationship with the state as such a publicly supported denomination? Viewpoints diverged. Many regents expected some deference of the church to their interests, and at least a say in the appointment of dominees, though they probably would not go as far as to demand the powers of oversight, usually associated with an established church, such as the Lutheran churches in Germany and Scandinavia, and the Church of England. They usually steered clear of interference in doctrinal matters, though not as a matter of principle. Others insisted on full autonomy of the church in doctrinal matters and church government, whereas the hard-line "strict" Calvinists often seemed to aspire to some form of theocracy, in which the church would direct official policy in matters in which it took an interest. As long as matters did not come to a head these divergent views did not cause trouble, as in practice the middle road of church autonomy was followed.<br />However, in 1606 a theological quarrel developed between two Leiden professors, Jacobus Arminius and Franciscus Gomarus. The abstruse arguments need not detain us here (not many contemporaries outside the universities seem to have fully understood them at the time HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-94" [95]) but the upshot of the argument was that outsiders started to take sides, and that this led to often physical abuse by, and of, the contestants. The partisans of Arminius therefore addressed the Five articles of Remonstrance to the States of Holland, in which they exposited their viewpoints on Calvinist doctrine, and asked the States to take a standpoint. To help the States decide a disputation between two six-man teams of Arminians and Gomarists was held before the States in July 1610, in which the Gomarists presented a "Counter-Remonstrance", in which they gave their arguments against the Remonstrants' doctrinal position, at the same time asking the States to back off, and leave the matter to a National Synod. Unfortunately, the States did not take this sensible suggestion (possibly because they suspected that such a Synod would result in the condemnation of the Remonstrants as heretics on a majority vote, a result they wanted to avoid).[96]<br />While the States of Holland were dithering about a decision, unrest about the quarrel began to spread around the Republic, disturbing the public peace and causing political problems in that the regents began to take sides, often in favor of the Remonstrants, whereas the common people, incited by the dominees, often opted for the Counter-Remonstrant viewpoint. The eminent Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius, after a visit to England in an abortive effort to dissuade James I from intervening in the quarrel, came up with what he viewed as a solution. In his view, a public church must of necessity be a "big tent" that would accommodate as many believers as possible. He believed that this was the case in the Church of England that allowed all kinds of doctrinal variations under its wing, from crypto-Catholics to Puritans. The Dutch partisans (like the Puritans), however, envisaged a church of "pure" believers (themselves), in which there would be no place for "unbelievers", like their opponents. To achieve Grotius' lofty ideal it would be necessary to tone down the doctrinal differences, affording toleration of different viewpoints, except in relation to the most basic tenets of the Christian faith (like belief in the Trinity) that everybody would accept (he therefore drew the line at Socinianism). Disagreements about less basic tenets, like the ones that divided Remonstrants and Counter-Remonstrants, should be left to an individual's conscience in accordance with the freedom of conscience enshrined in the Union of Utrecht. Grotius knew full well that neither party was ready to concede this and he therefore proposed to legislate his proposal in the form of a States of Holland resolution that would, up to a point, curtail freedom of expression (i.e. the freedom to hurl anathemas at ones opponents) in such a way as to restore public order. The resolution would define matters that would be open to debate, and matters that would not be. Preachers who would defy the States in this matter could then be disciplined by the authorities, if need be by depriving them of their Livings.[97]<br />Oldenbarnevelt supported Grotius in this policy (though it could be seen as an assault on the autonomy of the Public Church) and together they managed to drive the placard through in 1614 against opposition from many sides. Initially, and superficially, the policy seemed to work, but eventually it ended in the ruin of the Oldenbarnevelt regime. This was due to the following factors. First, Oldenbarnevelt failed in maintaining unity on his policy in the States of Holland (Amsterdam opposed him), and thereby weakened the hegemonic position of Holland in the Republic as a whole. Secondly, though the States put their thumb in the scales in favor of the Remonstrants with this policy (as those, being a minority, were in danger of being driven out of the public church), the Counter-Remonstrants maintained their strength among dominees and schoolmasters, and so indirectly among the common people. Finally, the social unrest as a consequence of deteriorating economic circumstances for the staunchly "strict" Calvinist ex-Flemish laborers (who opted en masse for the Counter-Remonstrants) destabilized the State in 1617–18.[98]<br />Mob violence in many Holland and Utrecht cities against Remonstrant regents ensued. The federal garrisons and civic militias refused to intervene to protect the regents (a pattern we also observe at the end of the First and Second Stadtholderless Periods, when likewise States-Party regimes were overturned). The Remonstrant regents now felt so threatened that they resorted to the desperate measure of the so-called "Sharp Resolution" of the States of Holland of August 4, 1617, which authorized city governments to raise mercenary troops, called waardgelders, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-98" [99] outside the federal army or civic militias, to maintain public order. This drew an immediate protest from Maurice and from the other provinces on constitutional grounds. They asserted that the Union of Utrecht prohibited the raising of troops by individual cities without consent from the States-General. Even more threatening to the federal supremacy had been the provision in the Sharp Resolution that asserted that units in the federal army paid for the account of Holland owed their primary allegiance to that province. This was a restatement of Holland's old constitutional position that the provinces were supremely sovereign, and the Union no more than a confederation of sovereign provinces. Maurice,and the other provinces (except Utrecht), now claimed that the States-General possessed an overriding sovereignty in matters of common defense and foreign policy[100]<br />Disarming the waardgelders in Utrecht by Joost Cornelisz. Droochsloot<br />Many expected a military coup after the cities of Leiden and Utrecht actually raised corps of waardgelders and used them to purge the civic militias of Counter-Remonstrant sympathizers. Maurice proceeded cautiously, however, preferring to undermine the political support of the Oldenbarnevelt regime in Holland. A revolutionary situation developed in a number of cities in Holland where Remonstrant town councils were overturned by popular intervention. To counter this, the Remonstrant regents proposed in January, 1618 to withhold part of Holland's contribution to the Generality budget and use the money to raise more waardgelder companies. Maurice now mobilized the support of the five provinces opposing Holland and Utrecht for a States-General resolution disbanding the waardgelders. This was voted through on July 9, 1618, with five votes to two, Holland and Utrecht opposing. Oldenbarnevelt and Grotius, in desperation, now overplayed their hand: appealing to the requirement for unanimity in the Union treaty, they sent a delegation to the federal troops in Utrecht (that were supposed to disarm the waardgelders in that city) with instructions that their first allegiance was to the province that paid them, and that they were to ignore instructions by the stadtholder in case of conflict. This intervention was construed by their opponents as treason. Prince Maurice HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-100" [101] now brought up additional federal troops to Utrecht and started to disarm the waardgelders there on July 31, 1618. There was no resistance. The political opposition to his actions imploded as Oldenbarnevelt's Utrecht ally, Gilles van Ledenberg, advocaat of the Utrecht States, fled to Holland HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-101" [102]<br />Perceiving that resistance was useless, Oldenbarnevelt and his Remonstrant allies now capitulated. Leiden disbanded its waardgelders voluntarily in August, and Oldenbarnevelt and Grotius acquiesced in the convening of a National Synod to arbitrate the Arminian controversy. On August 28, 1618, however, the States-General passed a secret resolution to authorize Maurice to arrest Oldenbarnevelt, Grotius, Ledenberg and Rombout Hogerbeets. This was justified with an appeal to the asserted residual sovereignty of the States-General that overrode that of the States of Holland. After the arrest these leaders of the Oldenbarnevelt regime were indicted for high treason and brought before an ad hoc tribunal HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-102" [103] consisting mostly of opponents of the accused. The trial took a long time. Meanwhile, Maurice proceeded to purge the Holland ridderschap HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-103" [104] and the vroedschappen of a number of cities that had been governed by Remonstrant regents up to then. He replaced the old regents with adherents of the Counter-Remonstrant faction, often nouveau riche merchants that had little experience in government affairs. These purges constituted a political revolution and ensured that his Orangist regime would be securely in charge of the Republic for the next 32 years. Henceforth the stadtholder, not the Advocate of Holland, would direct the affairs of the Republic, mainly through his parliamentary managers in the Holland ridderschap. The Holland leadership was emasculated by making sure that the position of Grand Pensionary[105] would henceforth be filled by a succession of mediocre, incompetent and pliable Orangists, at least up to the appointment of Johan de Witt in 1653[106]<br />Meanwhile the National Synod was convened in the city of Dordrecht in November, 1618. The deliberations of this august body HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-106" [107] progressed slowly. Only in the Spring of 1619 did it get around to condemning the Remonstrants for heresy, and casting them out of the Public Church. A more lasting accomplishment of the Synod was that it commissioned an "authorized" translation of the Bible in Dutch, a language that the translators had to make up from Dutch, Brabantish and Flemish elements; the translations therefore contributed mightily to the unification of the Dutch language.[108]<br />The trial of Oldenbarnevelt cum suis ended soon afterwards. In view of the composition of the tribunal the result was a foregone conclusion, even though the defendants put up a spirited defense. After all, they were the most eminent jurists in the Republic. The defense primarily rejected the competence of the court and furthermore claimed that treason against the Generality was not possible, because the federal state did not exist apart from the sovereign provinces. The court rejected the latter argument, claiming that in actuality sovereignty was divided between the Generality and the provinces. In its view, the Sharp Resolution contravened the Union of Utrecht and could therefore be construed as high treason. However, (as an illustration of the muddled procedures), when Oldenbarnevelt was convicted on May 12, 1619, it was not of this high-treason, but of a contrived charge of conniving with Spain. This Oldenbarnevelt kept denying till his last breath, when he was beheaded the next day. He refused to ask for mercy, to Maurice's annoyance, HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-108" [109] and he received none, despite the fact that Maurice's stepmother Louise de Coligny, and the French ambassador, pleaded for Oldenbarnevelt's life. Ledenberg equally received a death sentence, but committed suicide. Hogerbeets and Grotius were sentenced to life-imprisonment HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-109" [110]<br />Thus ended the life of Oldenbarnevelt<br />“...a man of great activity, business, memory and wisdom – yes, extra-ordinary in every respect[111]”<br />in the words of the notation about the execution in the register of the resolutions of the States of Holland on May 13, 1619.<br />[edit] Resumption of the war<br />[edit] Dutch intervention in the early stages of the Thirty Years' War (1619–1621)<br />Main article: Thirty Years' War<br />It is impossible to know whether the course of history would have been different without the overthrow of the Oldenbarnevelt regime and the judicial murder of the old statesman. However, it is true that Oldenbarnevelt's diplomatic acumen and his restraint were sorely missed in the following months and years when the new Dutch regime became embroiled in a dangerous military adventure in the Holy Roman Empire. Oldenbarnevelt had no ambition to have the Republic become the leading power of Protestant Europe, and he had shown admirable restraint when in 1614 the Republic had felt constrained to intervene militarily in the Jülich-Cleves crisis opposite Spain. Though there had been a danger of armed conflict between the Spanish and Dutch forces involved in the crisis, both sides took care to avoid each other, respecting each others spheres of influence.[112]<br />The new regime in The Hague felt differently, however. While civil war was avoided in the Republic, a civil war did start in the Bohemian Kingdom with the Second defenestration of Prague on May 23, 1618. The Bohemian insurgents were now pitted against their king, Ferdinand, who would soon succeed his uncle Matthias (the former States-General governor-general of the Netherlands) as Holy Roman Emperor. They cast about for support in this struggle and on the Protestant side only the Republic was able and willing to provide it. This took the form of support for Frederick V, Elector Palatine, a nephew of Prince Maurice[113] and a son-in-law of James I, when Frederick accepted the Crown of Bohemia the insurgents offered him (he was crowned on November 4, 1619). His father-in-law had sought to restrain him from doing this, warning that he could not count on English aid, but Maurice encouraged him in every way, providing a large subsidy and promising Dutch armed assistance. The Dutch had therefore a large role in precipitating the Thirty Years' War.[114]<br />Maurice's motivation was the desire to manoeuvre the Republic in a better position in case the war with Spain would resume after the expiration of the Truce in 1621. It was not a foregone conclusion that the Truce would not be renewed, but it had become less likely, as both in Spain and in the Republic more hard-line factions had come to power.[115] Though civil war had been avoided in the Republic, national unity had been bought with much bitterness on the losing Remonstrant side, and Maurice for the moment had to garrison several former Remonstrant-dominated cities to guard against insurrection. This encouraged the Spanish government, perceiving internal weakness in the Republic, to choose a bolder policy in the Bohemian question than they otherwise might have done. The Bohemian war therefore soon degenerated into a proxy war between Spain and the Republic. Even after the Battle of White Mountain of November, 1620, which ended disastrously for the Protestant army (one-eighth of which was in the Dutch pay), the Dutch continued to support Frederick militarily, both in Bohemia and in the Palatinate. Maurice also provided diplomatic support, pressing both the Protestant German princes and James I to come to Frederick's aid. When James sent 4,000 English troops in September 1620, those were armed and transported by the Dutch, and their advance covered by a Dutch cavalry column.[116]<br />Detail from a pamphlet about the Winter King<br />In the end the Dutch intervention was in vain. After just a few months, Frederick and his wife Elizabeth fled into exile at The Hague, where they became known as the Winter King and Queen for their brief reign. Maurice pressed Frederick to at least defend the Palatinate against the Spanish troops under Spinola and Tilly, but it was in vain. The first round in the war went to Spain and the Imperialist forces in Germany. James held this against Maurice for his incitement of the losing side with promises that he could not keep.[117]<br />All of this did not imply that the war between Spain and the Republic would have to resume even then. There was continual contact between Maurice and the government in Brussels during 1620–1 about a possible renewal of the Truce. Albert was in favor of it, especially after Maurice falsely gave him the impression that a peace would be possible on the basis of a token recognition by the Republic of the sovereignty of the king of Spain. When Albert sent the chancellor of Brabant, Petrus Peckius, to The Hague to negotiate with the States-General on this basis, he fell into this trap and innocently started talking about this recognition, instantly alienating his hosts. Because nothing was as certain to unite the northern provinces as the suggestion that they should abandon their hard-fought sovereignty. If this incident had not come up, the negotiations might well have been successful as a number of the provinces were amenable to simply renewing the Truce on the old terms. Now the formal negotiations were broken off, however, and Maurice was authorized to conduct further negotiations in secret. His attempts to get a better deal met with counter-demands from the new Spanish government for more substantive Dutch concessions, however. The Spaniards demanded Dutch evacuation of the West and East Indies; lifting of the restrictions on Antwerp's trade by way of the Scheldt; and toleration of the public practice of the Catholic religion in the Republic. These demands were unacceptable to Maurice and the Truce expired in April, 1621.[118]<br />The war did not immediately resume, however. Maurice continued sending secret offers to Isabella after Albert had died in July, 1621[119] through the intermediary of the Flemish painter and diplomat Peter Paul Rubens. Though the contents of these offers (which amounted to a version of the concessions demanded by Spain) were not known in the Republic, the fact of the secret negotiations became known, and disquieted the proponents of restarting the war, like the investors in the Dutch West India Company, that after a long delay was now finally about to be founded with as a main objective bringing the war to the Spanish Americas. Opposition against the peace feelers therefore mounted, and nothing came of them.[120]<br />[edit] The Republic under siege (1621–1629)<br />Another reason the war did not immediately resume was that king Philip III died shortly before the Truce ended. He was succeeded by his 16-year old son Philip IV, and the new government under the Count-duke of Olivares had to get settled first and decide on a strategy. The view in the Spanish government was that the Truce had been ruinous to Spain in an economic sense. In this view the Truce had enabled the Dutch to gain very unequal advantages in the trade with the Iberian Peninsula and the Mediterranean, thanks to their mercantile prowess. On the other hand, the continued blockade of Antwerp had contributed to that city's steep decline in importance (hence the demand for the lifting of the closing of the Scheldt). The shift in the terms of trade between Spain and the Republic had resulted in a permanent trade deficit for Spain, that naturally translated itself into a drain of Spanish silver to the Republic, which was seen as a "bad thing" in those times. The Truce had also given a further impetus to the Dutch penetration of the East Indies, and in 1615 a naval expedition under Joris van Spilbergen had raided the West-Coast of Spanish South-America. Spain felt threatened by these incursions and wanted to put a stop to them. Finally, the economic advantages had given the Republic the financial wherewithal to build a large navy during the Truce, and enlarge its standing army to a size where it could rival the Spanish military might. This increased military power appeared to be directed principally to thwart Spain's policy objectives, as witnessed by the Dutch interventions in Germany in 1614 and 1619, and the Dutch alliance with the enemies of Spain in the Mediterranean, like Venice and the Sultan of Morocco. The three conditions Spain had set for a continuation of the Truce had been intended to remedy these disadvantages of the Truce (the demand for freedom of worship for Catholics being made as a matter of principle, but also because it was hoped to mobilize the still sizable minority of Catholics in the Republic and so destabilize it politically).[121]<br />Siege of Breda by Jacques Callot<br />Despite the unfortunate impression the opening speech of chancellor Peckius had made at the negotiations about the renewal of the Truce, the objective of Spain and the regime in Brussels was not a war of reconquest of the Republic. Instead the options considered in Madrid were either a limited exercise of the force of weapons, to capture a few of the strategic points the republic had recently acquired (like Cleves), combined with measures of economic warfare, or reliance on economic warfare alone. In the event Spain opted for the first alternative. Immediately after the expiration of the Truce in April, 1621, all Dutch ships were ordered out of Spanish ports and the stringent trade embargoes of before 1609 were renewed. After an interval to rebuild the strength of the Army of Flanders, Spinola opened a number of land offensives, in which he captured the fortress of Jülich (garrisoned by the Dutch since 1614) in 1622, and Steenbergen in Brabant, before laying siege to the important fortress city of Bergen-op-Zoom. This proved a costly fiasco as Spinola's besieging army of 18,000 melted away through disease and desertion. He therefore had to lift the siege after a few months. The strategic import of this humiliating experience was that the Spanish government now concluded that besieging the strong Dutch fortresses was a waste of time and money and decided to henceforth solely depend on the economic-warfare weapon. The subsequent success of Spinola's Siege of Breda (1624) did not change this decision. Henceforth Spain adopted a defensive stance militarily in the Netherlands.[122]<br />However, the economic warfare was intensified in a way that amounted to a veritable siege of the Republic as a whole. In the first place, the naval war intensified. The Spanish navy harassed Dutch shipping that had to sail through the Strait of Gibraltar to Italy and the Levant, thereby forcing the Dutch to sail in convoys with naval escorts. The cost of this was born by the merchants in the form of a special tax, used to finance the Dutch navy, but this increased the shipping rates the Dutch had to charge,and their maritime insurance premiums also were higher, thus making Dutch shipping less competitive. Spain also increased the presence of its navy in Dutch home waters, in the form of the armada of Flanders, and the great number of privateers, the Dunkirkers, both based in the Southern Netherlands. Though these Spanish naval forces were not strong enough to contest Dutch naval supremacy, Spain waged a very successful Guerre de Course, especially against the Dutch herring fisheries, despite attempts by the Dutch to blockade the Flemish coast.[123]<br />Main article: Economic History of the Netherlands (1500 - 1815)<br />The herring trade, an important pillar of the Dutch economy, was hurt even more by the other Spanish forms of economic warfare, the embargo on salt for preserving herring, and the blockade of the inland waterways to the Dutch hinterland, which were an important transportation route for Dutch transit trade. The Dutch were used to procuring their salt from Portugal and the Caribbean islands. Alternative salt supplies were available from France, but the French salt had a high magnesium content, which made it less suitable for herring preservation. When the supplies in the Spanish sphere of influence were cut off, the Dutch economy was therefore dealt a heavy blow. The salt embargo was just a part of the more general embargo on Dutch shipping and trade that Spain instituted after 1621. The bite of this embargo grew only gradually, because the Dutch at first tried to evade it by putting their trade in neutral bottoms, like the ships of the Hanseatic League and England. Also, Spanish merchants tried to evade it, as the embargo also did great harm to Spanish economic interests, even to the extent that for a time a famine threatened in Spanish Naples when the Dutch-carried grain trade was cut off.[124] Realizing that the local authorities often sabotaged the embargo, the Spanish crown built up an elaborate enforcement apparatus, the Almirantazgo de los paises septentrionales (Admiralty of the northern countries) in 1624 to make it more effective. Part of the new system was a network of inspectors in neutral ports who inspected neutral shipping for goods with a Dutch connection and supplied certificates that protected neutral shippers against confiscation in Spanish ports. The English and Hanseatics were only too happy to comply, and so contributed to the effectiveness of the embargo.[125]<br />The embargo grew to an effective direct and indirect impediment for Dutch trade, as not only the direct trade between the Amsterdam Entrepôt and the lands of the Spanish empire was affected, but also the parts of Dutch trade that indirectly depended on it: Baltic grain and naval stores destined for Spain were now provided by others, depressing the Dutch trade with the Baltic area; the carrying trade between Spain and Italy now shifted to English shipping etc. The embargo was a double-edged sword, however, as some Spanish and Portuguese export activities likewise collapsed as a consequence of the embargo (such as the Valencian and Portuguese salt exports)[126]<br />Thanks to the belt of Spanish fortresses around the Republic, often near the great European rivers that flow into the sea in this area, and to the fact that Spanish forces conquered the Palatinate and other areas in western Germany that abutted these trade routes, during the first stage of the Thirty Years' War, Spain was also able to physically close off these inland waterways after 1625 for Dutch river traffic. The Dutch were thus also deprived of their important transit trade with the neutral Prince-Bishopric of Liège (then not a part of the Southern Netherlands) and the German hinterland in these years. Dutch butter and cheese prices collapsed as a result of this blockade (and rose steeply in the affected import areas), as did wine and herring prices (the Dutch monopolized the French wine trade at the time), but the steep price rises in the Spanish Netherlands, sometimes accompanied by food shortages, led to an eventual relaxation of this embargo. It was eventually abandoned, because it deprived the Brussels authorities from important revenues from custom duties.[127]<br />The economic-warfare measures of Spain were effective in the sense that they depressed economic activity in the Netherlands, thereby also depressing Dutch fiscal resources to finance the war effort with, but also by structurally altering European trade relations, at least until the end of the war, after which they reverted in favor of the Dutch. Neutrals benefited, but both the Dutch and the Spanish areas suffered economically, though not uniformly, as some industrial areas benefited from the artificial restriction of trade, which had a protectionist effect. The "new draperies" textile industry in Holland permanently lost terrain to its competitors in Flanders and England, though this was compensated for by a shift to more expensive high-quality woollens.[128] Nevertheless, the economic pressure and the slump of trade and industry it caused was not sufficient to bring the Republic to its knees. There were a number of reasons for this. The chartered companies, both VOC and WIC, provided employment on a large enough scale to compensate for the slump in other forms of trade and their trade brought great revenues. Supplying the armies, both in the Netherlands and in Germany, proved a boon for the agricultural areas in the Dutch inland provinces.[129]<br />The fiscal situation of the Dutch government also improved after the death of Maurice in 1625. He had been too successful in gathering all reins of government in his own hands after his coup in 1618. It is true that he completely dominated Dutch politics and diplomacy in the first years afterwards, even monopolizing the abortive peace talks before the expiration of the Truce. Likewise the political Counter-Remonstrants were temporarily in total control, but the downside of all this was that his government was overextended, with too few people doing the heavy lifting on the local level, which was essential to make the government machine run smoothly in the highly decentralized Dutch polity. Holland's conventional role as leader of the political process was temporarily vacated, as Holland as a power center was eliminated. Maurice had to do everything by himself with his small band of aristocratic managers in the States-General. This situation deteriorated even more, when he had to spend long periods in the field as commander-in-chief, during which he was unable to personally direct affairs in The Hague. His health soon deteriorated, also detracting from his efficacy as a political and military leader. The regime, depending on Maurice's personal qualities as a virtual dictator, therefore came under unbearable strain.[130]<br />Not surprisingly, in the period up to his death the strategic and military position of the Republic deteriorated. It had to increase the standing army to 48,000 men in 1622, just to hold the defensive ring of fortresses, while Spain increased the Army of Flanders to 60,000 men at the same time. This put a great strain on the Republic's finances at a time when tax rates were already dangerously high. Yet at the same time the Republic had no other option than to sustain the imploding German Protestant forces financially. For that reason the Dutch paid for the army of Count Ernst von Mansfeld that was cowering against the Dutch border in East Friesland after its defeats against the Spanish and Imperial forces; it was hoped that in this way a complete encirclement of the Republic could be avoided. For a while the Republic pinned its hope on Christian the Younger of Brunswick. However, his Dutch-financed army was crushed at Stadtlohn, near the Dutch border by the forces of the Catholic League under Tilly in August, 1623. This setback necessitated a reinforcement of the Dutch IJssel line. Spinola, however, failed to take advantage of the new situation, still hurting from his echec before Bergen-op-Zoom, and lulled into complacency by Maurice's unceasing peace-feelers. He was back in 1624, however, besieging Breda, and Dutch morale slumped, despite the diplomatic success of the Treaty of Compiègne with Louis XIII of France, in which the latter agreed to support the Dutch military effort with an annual subsidy of a million guilders (7% of the Dutch war budget).[131]<br />Maurice died, aged 58, in April, 1625, and was succeeded as Prince of Orange and captain-general of the Union by his half-brother Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange. It took several months, however, to obtain his appointment as stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland, as it took time to agree on the terms of his commission. This deprived the regime of leadership in a crucial time. During this time the moderate Calvinist regents staged a comeback in Holland at the expense of the radical Counter-Remonstrants. This was an important development, as Frederick Henry, unlike his brother, could not lean exclusively on the latter faction, but instead took a position "above the parties", playing off the two factions against one another. A side effect of this was that more normal political relations returned to the Republic, with Holland returning to its central political position. Also, the persecution of the Remonstrants now abated with the Prince's connivance, and with this renewed climate of tolerance, political stability in the Republic also improved.[132]<br />This improvement in internal affairs helped the Republic overcome the difficult years of the sharpest economic-warfare phase, described above. During the lull in the military pressure by Spain after the fall of Breda in 1625 the Republic was able to steadily increase its standing army, thanks to its improved financial situation. This enabled the new stadtholder of Friesland and Groningen, Ernst Casimir, to recapture Oldenzaal, forcing the Spanish troops to evacuate Overijssel. Diplomatically, the situation improved once England entered the war in 1625 as an ally. Frederick Henry cleared the Spaniards from eastern Gelderland in 1627 after recapturing Grol. The Dutch victory in the Battle in the Bay of Matanzas in 1628, in which a Spanish treasure fleet was captured by Piet Pieterszoon Hein, contributed even more to the improving fiscal situation, at the same time depriving Spain of much needed money. However, the greatest contribution to the relative improvement of the Dutch position in 1628 was made by the fact that Spain overextended itself again, when it participated in the War of the Mantuan Succession. This caused such a depletion of Spanish troops and financial resources in the theatre of war in the Netherlands, that the Republic for the time being achieved a stategic superiority: the Army of Flanders declined to 55,000 men while the States Army reached 58,000 in 1627.[133]<br />[edit] The Republic sallies forth (1629–1635)<br />Meanwhile, the Imperialist forces had surged in Germany after the initial setback from the intervention of Christian IV of Denmark in the war in 1625. Both the Danes and Mansfelt were defeated in 1626 and the Catholic League occupied the northern German lands that had hitherto acted as a buffer zone for the Republic. For a while an invasion of the eastern part of the Republic seemed imminent in 1628. However, the relative might of Spain, the main player up to now in the German civil war, was ebbing fast. By April, 1629 the States Army counted 77,000 soldiers, half as much again as the Army of Flanders at that point in time. This allowed Frederick Henry to raise a mobile army of 28,000 (the other troops were used in the fixed garrisons of the Republic) and invest HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_%27s-Hertogenbosch" o "Siege of 's-Hertogenbosch" 's-Hertogenbosch. During the siege of this strategic fortress city the Imperialist and Spanish allies launched a diversionary attack from Germany at the IJssel line. After crossing this river, they invaded the Dutch heartland, getting as far as the city of Amersfoort, which promptly surrendered. The States-General, however, mobilized civic militias and scrounched garrison troops from fortresses all around the country, assembling an army that at the height of the emergency numbered no less than 128,000 troops. This enabled Frederick Henry to maintain his siege of 's-Hertogenbosch. When Dutch troops surprised the Spanish fortress of Wesel, which acted as the principal Spanish supply base, this forced the invaders to retreat to the IJssel. 's-Hertogenbosch surrendered in September, 1629 to Frederick Henry.[134]<br />Frederick Henry and Ernst Casimir at the siege of 'sHertogenbosch by Pauwels van Hillegaert<br />The loss of Wesel and 's-Hertogenbosch (a city that had been fortified according to the most modern standards, often incorporating Dutch innovations in fortification), in short succession, caused a sensation in Europe. It demonstrated that the Dutch, for the moment, enjoyed strategic superiority. 's-Hertogenbosch was the lynchpin of the ring of Spanish fortifications in Brabant; its loss left a gaping hole in the Spanish front. Thoroughly shaken, Philip IV now overruled Olivares and offered an unconditional truce. The States-General refused to consider this offer, until the Imperialist forces had left Dutch territory. Only after this had been accomplished they remitted the Spanish offer to the States of the provinces for consideration. The popular debate that followed split the provinces. Friesland, Groningen and Zeeland, predictably, rejected the proposal. Frederick Henry appears to have favored it personally, but he was hampered by the political divisions in the province of Holland where radical Counter-Remonstrants and moderates were unable to agree. The Counter-Remonstrants urged in guarded terms a final eradication of "Remonstrant" tendencies in the Republic (thus establishing internal "unity") before a truce could even be considered. The radical Calvinist preachers urged a "liberation" of more of the Spanish Netherlands. Shareholders in the WIC dreaded the prospect of a truce in the Americas, which would thwart the plans of that company to stage an invasion of Portuguese Brazil. The peace party and the war party in the States of Holland therefore perfectly balanced each other and deadlock ensued. Nothing was decided during 1629 and 1630.[135]<br />To break the deadlock in the States of Holland, Frederick Henry planned a sensational offensive in 1631. He intended to invade Flanders, and make a deep thrust toward Dunkirk, like his brother had done in 1600. His expedition was even larger. He embarked 30,000 men and 80 field guns on 3,000 rivercaft for his amphibious descent on IJzendijke. From there he penetrated to the Bruges-Ghent canal that the Brussels government had dug to circumvent the Dutch blockade of the coastal waters. Unfortunately, at this stage a sizeable Spanish force appeared in his rear and this caused a row with panicky deputies-in-the-field that, as usual, were micro-managing the campaign for the States-General. The civilians prevailed, and a very angry Frederick Henry had to order an ignominious retreat of the Dutch invading force.[136]<br />Finally, in 1632, Frederick Henry was allowed to deliver his death blow. The initial move in his offensive was to have a reluctant States-General publish (over the objections of the radical Calvinists) a proclamation promising that the free exercise of the Catholic religion would be guaranteed in places that the Dutch army would conquer that year. The inhabitants of the Southern Netherlands were invited to "throw off the yoke of the Spaniards." This piece of propaganda would prove to be very effective. Frederick Henry now invaded the Meuse valley with 30,000 troops. He took Venlo, Roermond and Sittard in short order. As promised, the Catholic churches and clergy were left unmolested. Then, on June 8, he laid siege to Maastricht. A desperate effort of Spanish and Imperialist forces to relieve the city failed and on August 20, 1632, Frederick Henry sprang his mines, breaching the walls of the city. It capitulated three days later. Here also, the Catholic religion was allowed to remain.[137]<br />The infanta Isabella was now forced to convene the southern States-General for the first time since her inauguration in 1598. They met in September (as it turned out for the last time under Spanish rule). Most southern provinces advocated immediate peace talks with the Republic so as to preserve the integrity of the South and the free exercise of the Catholic religion. A "southern" States-General delegation met the "northern" States-General, represented by its deputies-in-the-field in Maastricht. The "southern" delegates offered to negotiate on the strength of the authorization given in 1629 by Philip IV. However, Philip and Olivares secretly cancelled this authorization, as they considered the initiative of the southern States-General an "usurpation" of royal power. They never intended to honor any agreement that might ensue.[138]<br />On the Dutch side, there was the usual disunity. Frederick Henry hoped to achieve a quick result, but Friesland, Groningen and Zeeland opposed the talks outright, while divided Holland dithered. Eventually, those four provinces authorized talks with only the southern provinces, leaving Spain out. Evidently, such an approach would make the resulting agreement worthless, as only Spain possessed any troops. The peace party in the Republic finally brought about meaningful negotiations in December, 1632, when valuable time had already been lost, enabling Spain to send reinforcements. Both sides presented demands that were unreconcilable at first, but after much palaver the southern demands were reduced to the evacuation of Portuguese Brazil (which had been invaded by the WIC in 1630) by the Dutch. In return, they offered Breda and an indemnity for the WIC for giving up Brazil. The Dutch (over the opposition of the war party that considered the demands too lenient) reduced its demands to Breda, Geldern, and the Meierij area around 's-Hertogenbosch, in addition to tariff-concessions in the South. Furthermore, as they realized that Spain would never concede Brazil, they proposed to limit the peace to Europe, continuing the war overseas.[139]<br />By June, 1633 the talks were on the verge of collapse. A shift in Dutch politics now ensued, which would prove fateful for the Republic. Frederick Henry, sensing that the talks were going nowhere, proposed to put an ultimatum to the other side to accept the Dutch demands. However, he now lost the support of the "peace party" in Holland, led by Amsterdam. These regents wanted to offer further concessions to gain peace. The peace party gained the upper hand in Holland, for the first time since 1618 standing up to the stadtholder and the Counter-Remonstrants. Frederick Henry, however, managed to gain the support of the majority of the other provinces and those voted on December 9, 1633 (overruling Holland and Overijssel) to break off the talks.[140]<br />[edit] Franco-Dutch Alliance (1635–1640)<br />While the peace negotiations had been dragging on, events elsewhere in Europe of course had not stood still. While Spain was busy fighting the Mantuan war, the Swedes had intervened in the Thirty Years' War in Germany under Gustavus Adolphus in 1630, supported by French and Dutch subsidies. The Swedes used the new Dutch infantry tactics (enhanced with improved cavalry tactics) with much more success against the Imperialist forces than the German Protestants had done and so gained a number of important successes, turning the tide in the war.[141] However, once Spain had her hands free again after the end of the war in Italy in 1631, she was able to bring her forces in the northern theater of war up to strength again. The Cardinal-Infante brought a strong army up, by way of the Spanish Road, and at the Battle of Nördlingen (1634) this army, combined with Imperialist forces, using the traditional Spanish tercio tactics, decisively defeated the Swedes. He then marched immediately on Brussels, where he succeeded the old Infanta Isabella who had died in December, 1633. Spain's strength in the Southern Netherlands was now appreciably enhanced.<br />The Dutch, now no longer with the prospect of peace with Spain, and faced with a resurgent Spanish force, decided to take the French overtures for an offensive alliance against Spain more seriously. This change in strategic policy was accompanied by a political sea-change within the Republic. The peace party around Amsterdam objected to the clause in the proposed treaty with France that bound the Republic's hands by prohibiting the conclusion of a separate peace with Spain. This would shackle the Republic to French policies and so constrain its independence. The resistance to the French alliance by the moderate regents caused a rupture in the relations with the stadtholder. Henceforth Frederick Henry would be much more closely aligned with the radical Counter-Remonstrants who supported the alliance. This political shift promoted the concentration of power and influence in the Republic in the hands of a small group of the stadtholder's favorites. These were the members of the several secrete besognes (secret committees) to which the States-General more and more entrusted the conduct of diplomatic and military affairs. Unfortunately, this shift to secret policy-making by a few trusted courtiers also opened the way for foreign diplomats to influence policy-making with bribes. Some members of the inner circle performed prodigies of corruption. For instance, Cornelis Musch, the griffier (clerk) of the States-General received 20,000 livres for his services in pushing the French treaty through from Cardinal Richelieu, while the pliable Grand Pensionary Jacob Cats (who had succeeded Adriaan Pauw, the leader of the opposition against the alliance), received 6,000 livres[142]<br />The Treaty of Alliance that was signed in Paris in February, 1635, committed the Republic to invade the Spanish Netherlands simultaneously with France in 1635. The treaty previewed a partitioning of that country between the two invaders. If the inhabitants would rise against Spain, the Southern Netherlands would be afforded independence on the model of the Cantons of Switzerland, however with the Flemish seacoast, Namur and Thionville annexed by France, and Breda, Geldern and Hulst going to the Republic. If the inhabitants resisted, the country would be partitioned outright, with the Francophone provinces and western Flanders going to France, and the remainder to the Republic. The latter partitioning opened the prospect that Antwerp would be re-united with the Republic, and the Scheldt reopened for trade on that city, something Amsterdam was very much opposed to. The treaty also provided that the Catholic religion would be preserved in its entirety in the provinces to be apportioned to the Republic. This provision was understandable from the French point of view, as the French government had recently suppressed the Huguenots in their strongpoint of La Rochelle (with support of the Republic), and generally was reducing Protestant privileges. It enraged the radical Calvinists in the Republic, however. The treaty was not popular in the Republic for those reasons HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-142" [143]<br />Siege of the Schenkenschans by Gerrit van Santen<br />Dividing up the Spanish Netherlands proved more difficult than foreseen, however. Olivares had drawn up a strategy for this two-front war, that proved very effective. Spain went on the defensive against the French forces that invaded in May, 1635 and successfully held them at bay. The Cardinal-Infante brought his full offensive forces to bear on the Dutch, however, in hopes of knocking them out of the war in an early stage, after which France would soon come to terms herself, it was hoped. The Army of Flanders now again numbered 70,000 men, at least at parity with the Dutch forces. Once the force of the double invasion by France and the Republic had been broken, these troops emerged from their fortresses and attacked the recently conquered Dutch areas in a pincer movement. In July, 1635 Spanish troops from Geldern captured the strategically essential fortress of the Schenkenschans. This was situated on an island in the Rhine near Cleves and dominated the "back door" into the Dutch heartland along the north bank of the river Rhine. Cleves itself was soon captured by a combined Imperialist-Spanish force and Spanish forces overran the Meierij HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-143" [144]<br />The Republic could not let the capture of the Schenkenschans stand. Frederick Henry therefore concentrated a huge force to besiege the fortress even during the winter months of 1635. Spain held tenaciously on to the fortress and its strategic corridor through Cleves. She hoped that the pressure on this strategic point, and the threat of unhindered invasion of Gelderland and Utrecht, would force the Republic to give in. The planned Spanish invasion never materialized, however, as the stadtholder forced the surrender of the Spanish garrison in Schenkenschans in April, 1636. This was a severe blow for Spain.[145]<br />The next year, thanks to the fact that the Cardinal-Infante shifted the focus of his campaign to the French border in that year, Frederick Henry managed to recapture Breda with a relatively small force, at the successful fourth Siege of Breda, (21 July – 11 October 1637). This operation, which engaged his forces for a full season, was to be his last success for a long time, as the peace party in the Republic, over his objections, managed to cut war expenditure and shrink the size of the Dutch army. These economies were pushed through despite the fact that the economic situation in the Republic had improved appreciably in the 1630s, following the economic slump of the 1620s caused by the Spanish embargoes. The Spanish river blockade had ended in 1629. The end of the Polish–Swedish War (1626–1629) ended the disruption of Dutch Baltic trade. The outbreak of the Franco-Spanish War (1635) closed the alternate trade route through France for Flemish exports, forcing the South to pay the heavy Dutch wartime tariffs. Increased German demand for foodstuffs and military supplies HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-145" [146] as a consequence of military developments in that country, contributed to the economic boom in the Republic, as did successes of the VOC in the Indies and the WIC in the Americas (where the WIC had gained a foothold in Portuguese Brazil after its 1630 invasion, and now conducted a thriving sugar trade). The boom generated much income and savings, but there were few investment possibilities in trade, due to the persisting Spanish trade embargoes. As a consequence, the Republic experienced a number of speculative bubbles in housing, land (the lakes in North Holland were drained during this period) and, notoriously, tulips. Despite this economic upswing, which translated into increased fiscal revenues, the Dutch regents showed little enthusiasm for maintaining the high level of military expenditures of the middle 1630s. The échec of the Battle of Kallo of June, 1638 did little to get more support for Frederick Henry's campaigns in the next few years. These proved unsuccessful; his colleague-in-arms Hendrik Casimir, the Frisian stadtholder HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War" l "cite_note-146" [147] died in battle during the unsuccessful siege of Hulst in 1640[148]<br />However, the Republic gained great victories at other locations. The war with France had closed the Spanish Road for Spain, making it difficult to bring up reinforcements from Italy. Olivares therefore decided to send 20,000 troops by sea from Spain in a large armada. This fleet was destroyed by the Dutch navy under Maarten Tromp and Witte Corneliszoon de With in the Battle of the Downs of October 31, 1639. This left little doubt that the Republic now possessed the strongest navy in the world, also because the Royal Navy was forced to stand by impotently while the battle raged in English territorial waters.[149]<br />[edit] Endgame (1640–1648)<br />Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen by Jan de Baen<br />The war overseas was going well for the Republic also. It was mainly fought by the proxies, the VOC and WIC, that had been given quasi-sovereign rights to wage war and conclude treaties on behalf of the Republic. After the invasion of Portuguese Brazil by a WIC amphibious force in 1630, the extent of New Holland, as the colony was called, grew gradually, especially under its governor-general Johan Maurits of Nassau-Siegen, in the period 1637–1644. It stretched from the Amazon river to Fort Maurits on the São Francisco River. Soon a large number of sugar plantations flourished in this area, enabling the company to dominate the European sugar trade. The colony was the base for conquests of Portuguese possessions in Africa also (due to the peculiarities of the trade winds that make it convenient to sail to Africa from Brazil in the Southern Hemisphere). Beginning in 1637 with the conquest of Portuguese Elmina Castle, the WIC gained control of the Gulf of Guinea area on the African coast, and with it of the hub of the slave trade to the Americas. In 1641, a WIC expedition sent from Brazil under command of Cornelis Jol conquered Portuguese Angola. The Spanish island of Curaçao (with important salt production) was conquered in 1634, followed by a number of other Caribbean islands.[150]<br />The WIC empire in Brazil started to unravel, however, when the Portuguese colonists in its territory started a spontaneous insurrection in 1645. By that time the official war with Portugal was over, as Portugal itself had risen against the Spanish crown in December, 1640. The Republic soon concluded a ten-year truce with Portugal, but this was limited to Europe. The overseas war was not affected by it. By the end of 1645 the WIC had effectively lost control of north-east Brazil. There would be temporary reversals after 1648, when the Republic sent a naval expedition, but by then the Eighty Years' War was over.[151]<br />In the Far East the VOC captured three of the six main Portuguese strongholds in Portuguese Ceylon in the period 1638–41, in alliance with the king of Kandy. In 1641 Portuguese Malacca was conquered. Again, the main conquests of Portuguese territory would follow after the end of the war.[152]<br />The results of the VOC in the war against the Spanish possessions in the Far East were less impressive. The battles of Playa Honda in the Philippines in 1610, 1617 and 1624 resulted in defeats for the Dutch. An expedition in 1647 under Maarten Gerritsz. de Vries equally ended in a number of defeats in the Battle of Puerto de Cavite and the Battles of La Naval de Manila. However, these expeditions were primarily intended to harass Spanish commerce with China and capture the annual Manila galleon, not (as is often assumed) to invade and conquer the Philippines.[153]<br />The revolts in Portugal and Catalonia, both in 1640, weakened Spain's position appreciably. Henceforth there would be increasing attempts by Spain to commence peace negotiations. These were initially rebuffed by the stadtholder, who did not wish to endanger the alliance with France. Cornelis Musch, as griffier of the States-General, intercepted all correspondence the Brussels government attempted to send to the States on the subject (and was lavishly compensated for these efforts by the French).[154] Frederick Henry also had an internal political motive to deflect the peace feelers, though. The regime, as it had been founded by Maurice after his coup in 1618, depended on the emasculation of Holland as a power center. As long as Holland was divided the stadtholder reigned supreme. Frederick Henry also depended for his supremacy on a divided Holland. At first (up to 1633) he therefore supported the weaker moderates against the Counter-Remonstants in the States of Holland. When the moderates gained the upper hand after 1633, he shifted his stance to support of the Counter-Remonstrants and the war party. This policy of "divide and conquer" enabled him to achieve a monarchical position in all but name in the Republic. He even strengthened it, when after the death of Hendrik Casimir, he deprived the latter's son William Frederick, Prince of Nassau-Dietz of the stadtholderates of Groningen and Drenthe in an unseemly intrigue. William Frederick only received the stadtholderate of Friesland and Frederick Henry after 1640 was stadtholder in the other six provinces.[155]<br />But this position was only secure as long as Holland remained divided. And after 1640 the opposition to the war more and more united Holland. The reason, as often in the Republic's history was money: the Holland regents were less and less inclined, in view of the diminished threat from Spain, to finance the huge military establishment the stadtholder had built up after 1629. Especially as this large army brought disappointing results anyway: in 1641 only Gennep was captured. The next year Amsterdam succeeded in getting a cutback of the army from over 70,00 to 60,000 accepted over the stadtholder's objections.[156]<br />The Holland regents continued their attempts at whittling down the stadtholder's influence by breaking up the system of secrete besognes in the States-General. This helped wrest influence from the stadtholder's favorites, who dominated these committees. It was an important development in the context of the general peace negotiations which the main participants in the Thirty Years' War (France, Sweden, Spain, the Emperor and the Republic) started in 1641 in Münster and Osnabrück. The drafting of the instructions for the Dutch delegation occasioned spirited debate and Holland made sure that she was not barred from their formulation. The Dutch demands that were eventually agreed upon were:<br />cession by Spain of the entire Meierij district;<br />recognition of Dutch conquests in the Indies (both East and West);<br />permanent closure of the Scheldt to Antwerp commerce;<br />tariff concessions in the Flemish ports; and<br />lifting of the Spanish trade embargoes.[157]<br />While the peace negotiations were progressing at a snail's pace, Frederick Henry managed a last few military successes: in 1644 he captured Sas van Gent and Hulst in what was to become States Flanders. In 1646, however, Holland, sick of the feet-dragging in the peace negotiations, refused to approve the annual war budget, unless progress was made in the negotiations. Frederick Henry now gave in and began to promote the peace progress, instead of frustrating it. Still, there was so much opposition from other quarters (the partisans of France in the States-General, Zeeland, Frederick Henry's son William) that the peace could not be concluded before Frederick Henry's death on March 14, 1647.[158]<br />[edit] The Peace of Münster<br />Main article: Peace of Münster<br />The negotiations between Spain and the Republic formally started in January, 1646 as part of the more general peace negotiations between the warring parties in the Thirty Years' War. The States-General sent eight delegates from several of the provinces as none trusted the others to represent them adequately. They were Willem van Ripperda (Overijssel), Frans van Donia (Friesland), Adriaen Clant tot Stedum (Groningen), Adriaen Pauw and Jan van Mathenesse (Holland), Barthold van Gent (Gelderland), Johan de Knuyt (Zeeland), and Godert van Reede (Utrecht). The Spanish delegation was led by Gaspar de Bracamonte, 3rd Count of Peñaranda. The negotiations were held in what is now the Haus der Niederlande in Münster.<br />The Dutch and Spanish delegations soon reached an agreement, that was based on the text of the Twelve Years' Truce. It therefore confirmed Spain's recognition of Dutch independence. The Dutch demands (closure of the Scheldt, cession of the Meierij, formal cession of Dutch conquests in the Indies and Americas, and lifting of the Spanish embargoes) were generally met. However, the general negotiations between the main parties dragged on, because France kept formulating new demands. Eventually it was decided therefore to split off the peace between the Republic and Spain from the general peace negotiations. This enabled the two parties to conclude what technically was a separate peace (to the annoyance of France that maintained that this contravened the alliance treaty of 1635 with the Republic).<br />Swearing of the Peace of Münster by Gerard ter Borch<br />The text (in 79 articles) of the Treaty was fixed on January 30, 1648. It was then sent to the principals (king Philip IV of Spain and the States-General) for ratification. Five provinces voted (against the advice of stadtholder William) to ratify on April 4 (Zeeland and Utrecht being opposed). Utrecht finally yielded to pressure by the other provinces but Zeeland held out and refused to sign. It was eventually decided to ratify the peace without Zeeland's consent. The delegates to the peace conference affirmed the peace on oath on May 15, 1648 (though the delegate of Zeeland refused to attend, and the delegate of Utrecht suffered a possibly diplomatic illness).[159]<br />In the broader context of the treaties between France and the Holy Roman Empire, and Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire of October 14 and 24, 1648, which comprise the Peace of Westphalia, but which were not signed by the Republic, the Republic now also gained formal "independence" from the Holy Roman Empire, just like the Swiss Cantons. In both cases this was just a formalization of a situation that had already existed for a long time.<br />France and Spain did not conclude a treaty and so remained at war till the peace of the Pyrenees of 1659.<br />The peace was celebrated in the Republic with sumptuous festivities. It was solemny promulgated on the 80th anniversary of the execution of the Counts of Egmont and Horne on June 5, 1648.<br />[edit] Aftermath<br />[edit] New border between North and South<br />Map of the Netherlands c. 1593 by Cornelis de Jode<br />The Dutch Republic made some territorial gains in the Spanish Netherlands but did not succeed in regaining the entire territory lost before 1590. The end result of the war therefore was a permanent split of the Habsburg Netherlands into two parts that roughly corresponded with present-day Netherlands and Belgium-Luxembourg. Overseas, the Dutch Republic gained (through the intermediary of its two chartered companies, the United East India Company and the Dutch West India Company) important colonial possessions, largely at the expense of Portugal. The peace settlement was part of the comprehensive 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which formally separated the Dutch Republic from the Holy Roman Empire. In the course of the conflict, and as a consequence of its fiscal-military innovations, the Dutch Republic emerged as a Great Power, whereas the Spanish Empire lost its European hegemonic status.<br />[edit] Political situation<br />History of the NetherlandsThis article is part of a series Early HistoryGermanic tribesRoman EraMigration PeriodMedievalFrankish Realm/The FranksMiddle FranciaHoly Roman EmpireBurgundian NetherlandsSeventeen ProvincesRepublicEighty Years' WarUnited ProvincesThe Golden AgeThe Batavian revolutionMonarchyBatavian RepublicKingdom of HollandFirst French EmpireUnited Kingdom of the NetherlandsModern HistoryNetherlands in World War IINetherlandsTopicsMilitary HistoryDutch LanguageDutch literatureNaval influenceInventions and discoveriesLuctor et EmergoDutch heraldryNetherlands Portalv · d · e<br />Soon after the conclusion of the peace the political system of the Republic entered a crisis. The same forces that had sustained the Oldenbarnevelt regime in Holland, and that had been so thoroughly shattered after Maurice's 1618 coup, had finally coalesced again around what was to become known as the States-Party faction. This faction had slowly been gaining prominence during the 1640s until they had forced Frederick Henry to support the peace. And now they wanted their peace dividend. The new stadtholder, William II, on the other hand, far less adept as a politician than his father, hoped to continue the predominance of the stadtholderate and the Orangist faction (mostly the aristocracy and the Counter-Remonstrant regents) as in the years before 1640. Above all, he wanted to maintain the large wartime military establishment, even though the peace made that superfluous. The two points of view were irreconcilable. When the States-Party regents started to cut down the size of the standing army to a peace-time complement of about 30,000, a struggle for power in the Republic ensued. In 1650 the stadtholder finally followed the path of his uncle Maurice and seized power in a coup d'état. However, a few months later he lay dead of smallpox. The power-vacuum that followed was quickly filled by the States-Party regents, who founded their new republican regime that has become known as the First Stadtholderless Period.[160]<br />Thanks to the lifting of the Spanish embargoes, and to the fact that costs to Dutch merchants and shippers appreciably declined after the peace, because the expensive convoys were no longer necessary and the rates of maritime insurance declined, Dutch trade on the Iberian Peninsula and the Mediterranean exploded in the decade after the peace, as did trade in general, because trade patterns in all European areas were so tightly interlocked via the hub of the Amsterdam Entrepôt. Dutch trade in this period reached its pinnacle; it came to completely dominate that of competing powers, like England, that had only a few years previously profited greatly from the handicap the Spanish embargoes posed to the Dutch. Now the greater efficiency of Dutch shipping had a chance to be fully translated into shipping prices, and the competitors were left in the dust. The structure of European trade therefore changed fundamentally in a way that was advantageous to Dutch trade, agriculture and industry. One could truly speak of Dutch primacy in world trade. This not only caused a significant boom for the Dutch economy, but also much resentment in neighboring countries, like first the Commonwealth of England and later France. Soon, the Republic was embroiled in military conflicts with these countries, which culminated in their joint attack on the Republic in 1672. They almost succeeded in destroying the Republic in that year, but the Republic rose from its ashes and by the turn of the century, she was one of the two European power centers, together with the France of Louis XIV of France.[161]<br />Spain had been a great power when the war started, and emerged from the war still a great power. It is true, however, that the success of the Dutch Republic in its struggle to get away from the Spanish Crown had damaged its Reputación, a concept that according to Olivares' biographer J.H Elliot[162] strongly motivated that statesman. The theory that "imperial overstretch" in the pursuit of Reputación eventually brought about the downfall of Spain as a great power probably does not hold water,[163] but it seems plausible that the proof of the fact that Spain could be beaten encouraged other countries (like Portugal in 1640) to also challenge the might of the Crown. Immediately after the peace the Spanish Army of Flanders was still a force to be reckoned with, as France experienced in the continuing war with Spain. Only after the English Commonwealth had joined France in war with Spain did Spain have to give in. Only after the 1659 peace ending that war was the Army of Flanders rapidly drawn down. Thereafter Spain had to depend on the Republic to help it defend the Southern Netherlands against French encroachment, as in the War of Devolution and later conflicts. It is perhaps remarkable that Spain and the Republic were such staunch allies after having fought so tenaciously and for so long.<br />Portugal was no party in the peace and the war overseas between the Republic and that country resumed fiercely after the expiration of the ten-year truce of 1640. In Brazil and Africa the Portuguese managed to reconquer most of the territory lost to the WIC in the early 1640s after a long struggle. However, this occasioned a short war in Europe in the years 1657–60, during which the VOC completed its conquests in Ceylon and the coastal areas of the Indian subcontinent. Portugal was forced to indemnify the WIC for its losses in Brazil.[164]<br />[edit] See also<br />Dutch–Portuguese War<br />Battles of the Eighty Years' War<br />European wars of religion<br />Synod of Dordrecht<br />Union of Delft<br />Arauco War – a costly and contemporary war of the Spanish Empire in the Americas<br />[edit] References<br />^ The Dutch States-General, for dramatic effect, decided to promulgate the ratification of the Peace of Münster (which was actually ratified by them on May 15, 1648) on the 80th anniversary of the execution of the Counts of Egmont and Horne, June 5, 1648. See Maanen, H. van (2002), Encyclopedie van misvattingen, Boom, p. 68. ISBN 9053528342.<br />^ Technically they formed the Burgundian Circle that under the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 was to be transferred as a unit in hereditary succession in the House of Habsburg.<br />^ Cf. Koenigsberger, pp. 184–192<br />^ Tracy, p. 66<br />^ Tracy, p. 68<br />^ Tracy, pp. 68–69<br />^ Tracy, pp. 69–70<br />^ Tracy, pp. 71–72<br />^ Tracy, p. 72<br />^ Tracy, pp. 77–78<br />^ Tracy, pp. 78–79<br />^ Parker, pp. 118–120; Parker discusses the financial difficulties the Spanish Crown almost continually encountered, when it often had to fight several wars at the same time as the war in the Netherlands, which forced it to declare bankruptcy several times; see Parker, ch. 6, Financial Resources<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 167–168<br />^ Tracy, p. 80<br />^ Tracy, pp. 80–81<br />^ Tracy, p. 82<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 175<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 174–175<br />^ Tracy, p. 83<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 177<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 178; Tracy, p. 86<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 178<br />^ a b Tracy, p. 92<br />^ Tracy, pp. 92–93<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 180<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 181<br />^ Tracy, p. 95<br />^ Tracy, p. 97<br />^ a b Tracy, p. 99<br />^ Koenigsberger, p. 262; Parker, p.127; Parker mentions that Spain had to default on its loans in 1560 (after a war with France), 1575, 1596, 1607, 1627, 1647 and 1653, every time putting the war effort in jeopardy; the 1575 default led directly to the 1576 mutiny of foreign troops in the Army of Flanders, Parker, p. 127<br />^ Koenigsberger, pp. 260–272; Tracy, pp. 135–136<br />^ Tracy, pp. 137–138<br />^ The system of "contributions" Requesens adopted in 1574 outside the areas where regular taxes could be collected, helped to augment revenue from the Netherlands (though it did not help avert the mutiny of 1576). Parma later "improved" on this system of forced contributions by regularizing the arbitrary exactions of the Spanish troops in the form of brandschattingen, to a system of formalized extortions, in which communities paid "protection money" to the Spanish "superintendent of contributions" to avoid being sacked, Parker, pp. 120–122<br />^ Tracy, p. 141<br />^ Tracy, p. 142<br />^ In old Dutch the word for "garden" often means "fence."<br />^ Tracy, pp. 149–150<br />^ Tracy, p. 150<br />^ Tracy, p. 152<br />^ Tracy, p. 153-154<br />^ Tracy, p. 156<br />^ Tracy, p. 159; Israel (1995), pp. 191–192<br />^ The treaty is often called the "constitution" of the Dutch Republic. This is only partially true, however. This "constitution" in the main consisted of the constitutional framework that had organically grown in the Burgundian and Habsburg Netherlands in the previous decades, which structure was simply retained by the Republic. However, the articles of the treaty provided additional building blocks for the constitution by providing an explicit framework for the budding Confederation. It was signed in the city of Utrecht by the representatives of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, the Ommelanden around Groningen city, and the stadtholder of Gelderland, Orange's brother Jan, who presumed to sign for the divided States of Gelderland. Ironically, Jan van Nassau was reluctantly accepted by the anti-Orange and anti-Holland bloc in the Gelderland States, because they mistook him for a Lutheran moderate, and as such a bulwark against Calvinist encroachments; Israel (1995), p. 191<br />^ Koenigsberger, pp. 290–291<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 201–202<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 205–208<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 208<br />^ The role of the Archduke Matthias as nominal governor-general had now become superfluous, and he was bought off with a generous annuity in March;Israel (1995), pp. 208–209<br />^ Though Van Gelderen maintains that the Dutch versions actually antedate the monarchomach publications; Van Gelderen, pp. 269–276<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 209–211<br />^ a b Israel (1995), p. 212<br />^ Tracy, pp. 168–169<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 213<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 213–214<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 214–216<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 218–219<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 219<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 219–220<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 221–222<br />^ Orange's eldest son, Philip William, now the Prince of Orange, was in Spanish hands; the second son Justinus van Nassau, was illegitimate.<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 224<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 225-226<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 228–230<br />^ Entitled in translation:Short exposition of the right exercised from old times by the knighthood, nobles and towns of Holland and Westvriesland for the maintenance of the liberties, rights, privileges and laudable customs of the country; Van Gelderen, p. 204<br />^ Van Gelderen, p. 209; Koenigsberger, pp. 308–310<br />^ Van Gelderen, pp. 206–207<br />^ Koenigsberger, p. 313<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 234<br />^ Glete, pp. 145–155<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 235–237<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 237<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 238–240<br />^ Israel, J.I. and Parker, G. (1991) "Of Providence and Protestant Winds: the Spanish Armada of 1588 and the Dutch armada of 1688", in: The Anglo-Dutch moment. Essays on the Glorious Revolution and its world impact. Cambridge U.P., ISBN 0-521-39075-3, pp. 349–351<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 267–271; Glete, pp. 155–162<br />^ It grew from 20,000 in 1588 to 32,000 by 1595; Israel (1995), p. 242<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 241–245<br />^ In later years, Groningen, like the other provinces would itself appoint its stadtholder.<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 246–250<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 253<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 253–257<br />^ Thanks mainly to its easily memorable date, this battle is one of the few most Dutchmen are able to recite. Together with Turnhout this was one of the few pitched battles the States Army was able to win. However, remember who won the war: Jemmingen, Jodoigne and Gembloux never seemed to afford Spain a decisive advantage.<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 258–259<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 260<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 261-262<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 263 map<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 263–267; Glete, p. 155<br />^ Spain proper had a population of nearly 8 million.<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 399–401<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 402<br />^ The Republic formed an alliance with Sweden and the Hanseatic League to force Denmark to lower its tolls in 1613;Israel (1995), p. 406<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 403–404<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 404–405<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 405–406<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 409–410, 437<br />^ Maurice, for instance, admitted as much; Israel (1995), p. 433; however, he became an unlikely early sympathizer with the Counter-Remonstrant tendency, in view of his promiscuous life-style that often contravened their moral strictures; Israel (1995), p. 462<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 421–426<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 424–432<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 434–438<br />^ This was a Dutch bastardization of the German word "Warte Gelt", or "retainer", and at the time was a general Dutch designation for "mercenary."<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 438–443<br />^ He had succeeded his half-brother Philip William as Prince of Orange, after the latter's death in February, 1618<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 443–448<br />^ The Generality, other than the individual provinces, did not have a judicial branch. In cases where using the court system of, for instance, Holland was not possible the States-General therefore commissioned special courts. In itself, this was not unusual. It need not imply that the trial would be unfair.<br />^ College of Nobles; this was the co-opting college that represented the Holland nobles in the States, with one vote.<br />^ Oldenbarnevelt's title of Advocate was now abolished and replaced with this new title.<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 448–456, 458<br />^ Beside a number of Dutch theologians there were delegations of the sister-churches in England, Scotland and Switzerland; even James I took a personal interest.<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 456–459, 460–465<br />^ A few years later Oldenbarnevelt's sons conspired to kill Maurice in revenge and one of them was sentenced to death. This time Oldenbarnevelt's widow pleaded for mercy. When asked why she had not done this in the case of her husband, she replied that her son was guilty, but her husband had been innocent. [1]<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 458–459<br />^ Motley, J.L. (1874) The Life and Death of John of Barneveld: Advocate of Holland. Vol. 2, p. 392<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 407–408<br />^ Frederick was the son of Maurice's half-sister Countess Louise Juliana of Nassau<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 465–469<br />^ The Duke of Lerma had been replaced by his son in 1618<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 469–471<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 471<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 472–473<br />^ Under the terms of the Will of Philip II the pretended sovereignty over the Netherlands now reverted to Philip III.<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 473–474<br />^ Israel (1990), pp. 3–7<br />^ Israel (1990), pp. 8–10<br />^ Israel (1990), pp. 11–15<br />^ Israel (1990), pp. 21–22<br />^ Israel (1990), pp. 15–18<br />^ Israel, pp. 20–21<br />^ Israel (1990), pp. 23–24<br />^ Israel (1990), pp. 25–27<br />^ Israel (1990), pp. 32–33<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 480–481<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 479-480, 483–484<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 485–496<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 497–499<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 506–507<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 508–513<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 513<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 515–516<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 517<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 518–519<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 521–523<br />^ Glete, pp. 204, 208<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 523–527<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 527–528<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 528–529<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 529–530<br />^ The Republic functioned as the main arsenal for the Protestant forces during the Thirty Years' War; Puype, P.J., Hoeven, M. van der (1996) The Arsenal of the World: The Dutch Arms Trade in the Seventeenth Century, Batavian Lion International, ISBN 9067074136<br />^ Hendrik Casimir succeeded his father Ernst Casimir as stadtholder of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe in 1632.<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 530–536<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 537<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 934<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 935<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 936<br />^ Cf. Roessingh, M. (1968) "Nederlandse betrekkingen met de Philippijnen", in: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde, jrg. 124, no. 3, pp. 482–504<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 540<br />^ Israel (1995) pp. 538–539<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 541<br />^ Israel (1995), p. 542<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 544–546<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 596–597<br />^ Israel (1995), pp. 597–609<br />^ Israel (1989), pp. 197–292<br />^ Elliot, J.H. (1986) The Count-Duke of Olivares. The Statesman in an Age of Decline. Yale University, New Haven and London<br />^ Glete, pp. 96–100<br />^ Israel (1989), pp. 248–250<br />[edit] Sources<br />Gelderen, M. van (2002), The Political Thought of the Dutch Revolt 1555–1590, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-89163-9<br />Glete, J. (2002),War and the State in Early Modern Europe. Spain, the Dutch Republic and Sweden as Fiscal-Military States, 1500–1660, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-22645-7<br />Israel, Jonathan (1989), Dutch Primacy in World Trade, 1585–1740, Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-821139-2<br />Israel, Jonathan (1990), Empires and Entrepôts: The Dutch, the Spanish Monarchy, and the Jews, 1585–1713, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 1852850221<br />Israel, Jonathan (1995), The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall 1477–1806, Clarendon Press, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-873072-1<br />Koenigsberger, H.G. (2001), Monarchies, States Generals and Parliaments: The Netherlands in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 928-0-521-04437-0<br />Parker, G. (2004) The Army of Flanders and the Spanish Road 1567–1659. Second edition. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-54392-7 paperback<br />Tracy, J.D. (2008), The Founding of the Dutch Republic: War, Finance, and Politics in Holland 1572–1588, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-920911-8<br />[edit] External links<br />(Dutch) De Bello Belgico<br />(Dutch) Correspondence of William of Orange<br />Dutch Revolt on Rijksmuseum.nl<br />(Spanish) La Guerra de Flandes, desde la muerte del emperador Carlos V hasta la Tregua de los Doce Años<br />(Dutch) "Nederlandse Opstand" on www.onsverleden.net<br />Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years%27_War"<br />Categories: Eighty Years' War | History of the Netherlands | Seventeen Provinces | Wars involving Spain | Wars involving the United Provinces | Wars involving the Netherlands | Wars involving Portugal | Wars involving Austria | Wars involving France | Wars involving Great Britain | Global conflicts | 16th century in Europe | 17th century in Europe | Wars involving the Holy Roman Empire<br />Hidden categories: Wikipedia articles needing style editing from July 2010 | All articles needing style editing | Articles that may be too long from July 2010 | Articles needing additional references from July 2010 | All articles needing additional references | Articles containing Dutch language text<br />Personal tools<br />Log in / create account<br />Namespaces<br />Article<br />Discussion<br />Variants<br />Views<br />Read<br />Edit<br />View history<br />Actions<br />Search<br />Top of Form<br />Bottom of Form<br />Navigation<br />Main page<br />Contents<br />Featured content<br />Current events<br />Random article<br />Donate to Wikipedia<br />Interaction<br />Help<br />About Wikipedia<br />Community portal<br />Recent changes<br />Contact Wikipedia<br />Toolbox<br />What links here<br />Related changes<br />Upload file<br />Special pages<br />Permanent link<br />Cite this page<br />Print/export<br />Create a book<br />Download as PDF<br />Printable version<br />Languages<br />Afrikaans<br />বাংলা<br />Bân-lâm-gú<br />Brezhoneg<br />Български<br />Català<br />Česky<br />Dansk<br />Deutsch<br />Español<br />Euskara<br />Français<br />Frysk<br />Galego<br />한국어<br />Bahasa Indonesia<br />Íslenska<br />Italiano<br />עברית<br />ქართული<br />Limburgs<br />Magyar<br />Македонски<br />Bahasa Melayu<br />Nederlands<br />Nedersaksisch<br />日本語<br />‪Norsk (bokmål)‬<br />‪Norsk (nynorsk)‬<br />Polski<br />Português<br />Română<br />Русский<br />Simple English<br />Slovenčina<br />Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски<br />Basa Sunda<br />Suomi<br />Svenska<br />ไทย<br />Türkçe<br />Українська<br />West-Vlams<br />中文<br />This page was last modified on 4 February 2011 at 09:44.<br />Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. 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